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Netherlands
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Netherlands
Student performance (PISA 2022)
  • In mathematics, the main topic of PISA 2022, 15-year-olds in score 493 points compared to an average of 472 points in OECD countries.
  • On average, 15-year-olds score 459 points in reading compared to an average of 476 points in OECD countries.
  • In Netherlands, the average performance in science of 15-year-olds is 488 points, compared to an average of 485 points in OECD countries.
  • Average 2022 results were down compared to 2018 in mathematics, reading and science.
  • In the Netherlands, 73% of students attained at least Level 2 proficiency in mathematics, significantly more than on average across OECD countries (OECD average: 69%). At a minimum, these students can interpret and recognize, without direct instructions, how a simple situation can be represented mathematically
  • Some 15% of students in the Netherlands were top performers in mathematics, meaning that they attained Level 5 or 6 in the PISA mathematics test (OECD average: 9%). At these levels, students can model complex situations mathematically, and can select, compare and evaluate appropriate problem-solving strategies for dealing with them.
  • In the Netherlands socio-economically advantaged students (the top 25% in terms of socio-economic status) outperformed disadvantaged students (the bottom 25%) by 106 score points in mathematics. This is larger than the average difference between the two groups (93 score points) across OECD countries.
  • As in other PISA participating countries and economies, socio-economic status was a predictor of performance in mathematics, it accounted for 15% of the variation in mathematics performance in PISA 2022 in the Netherlands (compared to 15% on average across OECD countries).
  • Boys outperformed girls in mathematics by 11 score points; girls outperformed boys in reading by 26 score points in the Netherlands. Globally, in mathematics, boys outperformed girls in 40 countries and economies, girls outperformed boys in another 17 countries or economies. In reading, girls, on average, scored above boys in all but two countries and economies that participated in PISA 2022 (79 out of 81).
  • The share of immigrant students has remained stable in the Netherlands at around 14% in 2022 (11% in 2012).
  • Immigrant students in the Netherlands tend to have a more disadvantaged socio-economic profile than non-immigrant students; while 25% of all students are considered socio-economically disadvantaged, the corresponding share among students with an immigrant background is 49%.
  • In mathematics, the average difference in performance between immigrant and non-immigrant students was 58 score points in favour of non-immigrant students, a significant difference. After accounting for students' socio-economic profile, a significant difference of 27 score points in favour of non-immigrant students was observed.
  • In the Netherlands, 64% of students reported that their school building was closed for more than three months due to COVID-19. On average across OECD countries, 51% of students experienced similarly long school closures. In education systems where performance remained high and students' sense of belonging improved, fewer students experienced longer school closures.
  • In the Netherlands, 97% reported that they had attended pre-primary education for one year or more (OECD average: 94%).
  • Some 23% of students in the Netherlands reported that they had repeated a grade at least once (OECD average: 9%) after entering primary school. Grade repetition tends to be less prevalent in high performing systems.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Student performance in mathematics

    The mean score in mathematics performance is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (493 PISA Score, rank 10/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Boys' performance in mathematics is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (498 PISA Score, rank 10/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Girls' performance in mathematics is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (487 PISA Score, rank 10/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The score difference in mathematics between the 10% of students with the highest scores and the 10% of students with the lowest scores is one of the largest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (282 PISA Score, rank 2/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top performers in mathematics (proficiency Level 5 or 6) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (15.4 %, rank 8/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top-performing boys in mathematics (proficiency Level 5 or 6) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (17.5 %, rank 8/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top-performing girls in mathematics (proficiency Level 5 or 6) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (13.1 %, rank 8/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The change in maths performance between 2015 and 2018 shows one of the strongest decreases among PISA-participating countries and economies. (-27 PISA Score, rank 42/48 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Over the period of participation in PISA, the average decennial rate of change in mean mathematics performance of Netherlands was among the lowest. (-20 PISA Score, rank 33/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Student performance in reading

    Over the period of participation in PISA, the average decennial rate of change in mean reading performance of Netherlands was among the lowest. (-25 PISA Score, rank 26/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The score difference in reading between the 10% of students with the highest scores and the 10% of students with the lowest scores is one of the largest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (303 PISA Score, rank 3/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The change in reading performance between 2015 and 2018 shows one of the strongest decreases among PISA-participating countries and economies. (-26 PISA Score, rank 36/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Student performance in science

    Over the period of participation in PISA, the average decennial rate of change in mean science performance of Netherlands was among the lowest. (-23 PISA Score, rank 22/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The score difference in science between the 10% of students with the highest scores and the 10% of students with the lowest scores is one of the largest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (296 PISA Score, rank 1/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The change in science performance between 2015 and 2018 shows one of the strongest decreases among PISA-participating countries and economies. (-15 PISA Score, rank 32/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The percentage of students who have repeated a grade during primary, lower secondary or upper secondary school is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (23.3 %, rank 9/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    A large share of advantaged students in Netherlands have repeated a grade, compared to other countries and economies participating in PISA. (16.8 %, rank 5/76 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Netherlands registered one of the largest changes between 2018 and 2022 in the percentage of students who had repeated a grade at least once in primary, lower secondary or upper secondary school. (6 %, rank 1/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The difference in mathematics performance when there is a 10 percentage-points increase in the number of grade repeaters in the school is relatively small in Netherlands. (-187 PISA Score points, rank 44/50 , 2022) Download Indicator

    School climate

    Netherlands ranked among the countries with the smallest difference in mathematics performance between students arriving late for school at least once in the two weeks prior to the PISA test and those who didn't (before accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile). (-44 PISA Score points, rank 66/69 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of students who reported having missed school for more than three consecutive months because they were bored is smaller in Netherlandsthan in other OECD and partner countries/economies. (9.5 %, rank 65/69 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    Netherlands has one of the largest share of students in schools that group students by abillity for some subjects. (77.4 %, rank 2/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Student well-being

    In Netherlands, the percentage of students who did not eat because there was not enough money to buy food is particularly small compared to the other OECD or partner countries/economies. (2.8 %, rank 64/66 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Netherlands has one of the lowest index of mathematics anxiety. (-0.22 PISA Index, rank 75/76 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Performance and socio-economic status

    The difference in mathematics performance associated with a one-unit increase in the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) is one of the largest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (47 PISA Score, rank 9/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top performers in maths among disadvantaged students in Netherlands is among the highest compared to countries and economies participating in PISA. (5.7 %, rank 8/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top performers in maths among advantaged students in Netherlands is among the highest compared to countries and economies participating in PISA. (30.7 %, rank 8/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the variation between schools of the mathematics performance is among the largest, when compared to average total variation across OECD countries. (84.2 %, rank 1/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Netherlands has one of the largest differences in mathematics score associated with repeating a grade among OECD and partner countries/economies, after accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile. (-35 PISA Score points, rank 10/75 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The difference in science performance associated with a one-unit increase in the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) is one of the largest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (49 PISA Score, rank 7/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Performance and diversity

    The difference in mathematics performance between students enrolled in general or modular programmes and those in pre-vocational or vocational programmes is relatively small in Netherlands, after accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile. (-30 PISA Score points, rank 38/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    The share of students in schools whose principal reported that the use of cell phones is not allowed on the school premises is relatively low in Netherlands. (7.8 %, rank 78/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The share of teachers working full time in schools attended by 15-year-olds is one of the smallest among countries and economies participating in PISA 2018. (45.3 %, rank 79/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Between 2018 and 2022, Netherlands recorded a particularly small change in the percentage of teachers working full time in schools attended by 15-years-olds, compared to the other OECD and partner countries/economies. (-6.5 %, rank 26/27 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Between 2018 and 2022, Netherlands recorded a particularly significant change in the percentage of teachers working part time in schools attended by 15-years-olds, compared to the other OECD and partner countries/economies. (6.5 %, rank 2/27 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Teachers' practices

    Students in Netherlands perceived their teachers as being less supportive compared to other PISA-participating countries and economies. (-0.4 %, rank 74/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Governance

    The percentage of students attending government or public schools is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (55.3 %, rank 70/78 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students attending government-dependent private schools is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (42.3 %, rank 6/78 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Between 2018 and 2022, Netherlands recorded a particularly small change in the share of 15-year-old students attending government-dependent private schools, compared to the other OECD and partner countries/economies. (-20.9 %, rank 23/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    COVID-19 effects on education

    Compared to other OECD and partner countries/economies, students in Netherlands have a relatively weak perseverance. (-0.17 PISA Index, rank 42/50 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other OECD and partner countries/economies, students in Netherlands are not relatively curious, as measured by the PISA index of curiosity. (-0.33 PISA Index, rank 72/72 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Netherlands is one of the OECD and partner countries/economies with the highest level of stress resistance, as measured by the PISA index of student's stress resistance. (0.27 PISA Index, rank 1/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, students are characterized by their strong emotional control, when compared to other OECD and partner countries/economies, as measured by the PISA index of students' emotional control. (0.32 PISA Index, rank 1/61 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other OECD and partner countries/economies, students in Netherlands had a relatively bad experience with learning at home. (-0.16 PISA Index, rank 66/71 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The difference between advantaged and disadvantaged students in the confidence they have on their capacity to drive self-directed learning is one of the smallest among countries participating in PISA (0.11 PISA Index, rank 73/73 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The difference between boys and girls in the confidence they have on their capacity to drive self-directed learning is one of the largest among countries participating in PISA (0.08 PISA Index, rank 9/30 , 2022) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
    
    • Singapore scored significantly higher than all other countries/economies in mathematics (575 points) and, along with Hong Kong (China), Japan, Korea, Macao (China), and Chinese Taipei, outperformed all other countries and economies in mathematics. Another 17 countries also performed above the OECD average (472 points), ranging from Estonia (510 points) to New Zealand (479 points).
    • Boys outperformed girls in mathematics by nine score points and girls outperformed boys in reading by 24 score points on average across OECD countries. In science, the performance difference between boys and girls is not significant.
    • An average of 69% of students are at least basically proficient in mathematics in OECD countries. This means they are beginning to demonstrate the ability and initiative to use mathematics in simple real-life situations.
    • In 16 out of 81 countries/economies participating in PISA 2022, more than 10% of students attained Level 5 or 6 proficiency, meaning they are high-performing: they understand that a problem is quantitative in nature and can formulate complex mathematical models to solve it. By contrast, less than 5% of students are high-performing in 42 countries/economies.
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    • Singapore scored significantly higher than all other countries/economies in reading (543 points) and science (561 points). Behind Singapore, Ireland performed as well as Estonia, Japan, Korea and Chinese Taipei while another 14 education systems performed above the OECD average in reading (476 points), ranging from Macao (China) (510 points) to Italy (482 points).
    • About three out of four students have achieved basic proficiency in reading in OECD countries.
    • In reading, an OECD average of 7% of students attained the highest proficiency levels of 5 or 6. In 13 countries/economies, more than 10% of students are top performers in reading.
    • No change in the OECD average over consecutive PISA assessments up to 2018 has ever exceeded five points in reading: in PISA 2022, however, the OECD average dropped by about 10 score points in reading compared to PISA 2018.. The unprecedented drops reading point to the shock effect of COVID-19 on most countries.
    • Only four countries and economies improved their performance between PISA 2018 and 2022 in all three subjects: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, the Dominican Republic and Chinese Taipei.
    • Trend analysis of PISA results reveals a decades-long decline that began well before the pandemic. In reading, performances peaked in 2012 and 2009, respectively, before dipping while performance began a downward descent in mathematics before 2018 in Australia, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Iceland, Korea, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Slovak Republic and Switzerland.
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    • Mean performance in science remained stable.
    • In science, the highest-performing education systems are Singapore, Japan, Macao (China), Chinese Taipei, Korea, Estonia, Hong Kong (China) and Canada. Finland performed as well as Canada in science. In addition to these nine countries and economies, another 15 education systems also performed above the OECD average in science (485 points), ranging from Australia (507 points) to Belgium (491 points).
    • About three out of four students have achieved basic proficiency science in OECD countries.
    • In science, an OECD average of 7% of students attained the highest proficiency levels of 5 or 6. In 14 countries/economies, more than 10% of students are top performers in science.
    • Only four countries and economies improved their performance between PISA 2018 and 2022 in all three subjects: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, the Dominican Republic and Chinese Taipei.
    • Trend analysis of PISA results reveals a decades-long decline that began well before the pandemic. In science, performances peaked in 2012 and 2009, respectively, before dipping. while performance began a downward descent in mathematics before 2018 in Australia, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Iceland, Korea, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Slovak Republic and Switzerland.
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    • Socio-economically advantaged students scored 93 points more in mathematics than disadvantaged students on average across OECD countries. The performance gap attributed to students' socio-economic status is greater than 93 score points in 22 countries or economies and 50 points or fewer in 13 countries or economies.
    • Boys outperformed girls in mathematics by nine score points and girls outperformed boys in reading by 24 score points on average across OECD countries. In science, the performance difference between boys and girls is not significant.
    • Non-immigrant students scored 29 points more than immigrant students in mathematics on average across OECD countries but non-immigrant students scored only five points more than immigrant students once socio-economic status and language spoken at home had been accounted for.
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    • Between 2018 and 2022 trends in students' sense of belonging at school were mixed, with equal proportions of countries/economies showing stable, improving or deteriorating trends. Of the 47 education systems with improving or stable trends, only 20 maintained or attained a level of students' sense of belonging at school that was at or above the OECD average. 
    • Around 10% of students reported feeling unsafe on their way to or from school, or in places outside of the classroom, on average across OECD countries. Some 20% of students reported that they are bullied at least a few times a month.
    • Overall, students felt more confident about using digital technology for learning remotely during future school closures than they felt about taking responsibility for their own learning. For instance, on average across OECD countries, about three out of four students reported that they feel confident or very confident about using a learning-management system, a school learning platform or a video communication program, as well as about finding learning resources online on their own.
    • Students' experience with learning at home was more positive in systems that were better prepared for remote learning. However, when learning remotely, 40% of all students reported feeling lonely and 50% of all students reported feeling anxious about schoolwork and that they fell behind in their studies; and three in ten students reported that teachers were not available when needed, on average across OECD countries. 
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Netherlands

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Netherlands

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.