Search for specific education indicators by country, theme or level of education and compare the results using interactive charts and tables.

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PISA 2022 Results (Volume I): The State of Learning and Equity in Education
PISA 2022 Results (Volume II): Learning During - and From - Disruption
PISA 2022 Results (Volume III): Creative Minds, Creative Schools
PISA 2018 Results (Volume IV): Are Students Smart About Money?
PISA 2018 Results (Volume VI): Are Students Ready to Thrive in an Interconnected World?
PISA 2018: Are Students Ready To Take On Environmental Challenges?
Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC)
Education at a Glance 2023 (EAG 2023): Highlights
EAG 2023, Chapter A: The output of educational institutions and the impact of learning
EAG 2023, Chapter B: Access to education, participation and progression
EAG 2023, Chapter C: Financial resources invested in education
EAG 2023, Chapter D: Teachers, learning environment and organisation of schools
TALIS 2018: Highlight indicators
TALIS 2018 (Volume I): Teachers and School Leaders as Lifelong Learners
TALIS 2018 (Volume II): Teachers and School Leaders as Valued Professionals
TALIS 2018 (results for primary and upper secondary)
TALIS 2018: Starting Strong Survey
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Impact of COVID-19 in education
Early childhood education & care
A growing body of research recognises that early childhood (pre-primary) education and care improves children's cognitive abilities, helps to create a foundation for lifelong learning, makes learning outcomes more equitable, reduces poverty, and improves social mobility from generation to generation. Since inequities in education opportunities and outcomes tend to grow when school is not compulsory, earlier entrance into the education system may help to give all students a better chance to succeed and, therefore, reduce educational inequities. The following indicators provide a look at the development of early childhood education and care systems around the world.

  • Enrolment from age 0 in education and care programmes and services is increasing, on average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in ISCED 0 programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
  • At older ages some countries reach a near universal participation in education. On average across OECD, 76% of 3 year-old children and 88% of 4 year-olds are enrolled in ECEC.
  • Private institutions usually are more common for children under the age of 3 than for older ones. On average in 2018 across OECD countries, almost one third of the children in early childhood educational development services (ISCED 01) are enrolled in private institutions.
  • The ratio of children to teaching staff is an indicator of the resources devoted to ECEC. On average across OECD countries, there are 15 children for every teacher working in pre-primary education but wide variations are observed across countries. The ratio of children to teaching staff, excluding teachers' aides, ranges from fewer than 10 children per teacher in Finland, Germany, Iceland and New Zealand, to 20 or more in Brazil, Chile, Colombia and France. Some countries make extensive use of teachers' aides in pre-primary education, which is indicated by smaller ratios of children to contact staff than of children to teaching staff. For instance, Norway - which has almost 12 children per teaching staff member - has just below 5 children per contact staff once teachers' aides are included.
  • Two years of ECE is the minimum duration required to boost academic performance at age 15, according to data from the 2015 OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).
  • In all countries participating in the 2018 TALIS Starting Strong Survey, a large majority (around 70%) of staff report wide use of practices facilitating children's socio-emotional development or practices facilitating children's language development. Specific practices emphasising literacy and numeracy are used to a lesser extent.
  • According to the 2018 Starting strong Survey, lack of resources and having too many children in the classroom or playroom are major sources of work-related stress among ECEC staff.
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    OECD average

    Non-OECD Countries

    G20 average
    TALIS average
    TALIS avg. primary education
    TALIS avg. upper secondary education
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory text.