Search for specific education indicators by country, theme or level of education and compare the results using interactive charts and tables.

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Education at a Glance 2020 (EAG 2020): Highlights
EAG 2020, Chapter A: The output of educational institutions and the impact of learning
EAG 2020, Chapter B: Access to education, participation and progression
EAG 2020, Chapter C: Financial resources invested in education
EAG 2020, Chapter D: Teachers, learning environment and organisation of schools
TALIS 2018 (Volume I): Teachers and School Leaders as Lifelong Learners
TALIS 2018 (Volume II): Teachers and School Leaders as Valued Professionals
TALIS 2018: Starting Strong Survey
PISA 2018: Highlight indicators
PISA 2018 Results (Volume II): Where All Students Can Succeed
PISA 2018 Results (Volume III): What School Life Means for Students' Lives
PISA 2018 Results (Volume IV): Are Students Smart About Money?
PISA 2018 Results (Volume V): Effective Policies, Successful Schools
PISA 2018 Results (Volume VI): Are Students Ready to Thrive in an Interconnected World?
Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC): Full selection of indicators
Access & Participation
Organisation & Governance
Finance & Funding
Learning environment
Students' Well-Being
Teachers
Evaluation & Quality assurance
Equity
Gender
Digital divide
Special needs
Socio-economic status
Migrant background
Economic & Social outcomes
Internationalisation
Research & Innovation
School leadership
Trends shaping education
Attainment
Skills
Low performers
Computers, education & skills
Early childhood education & care
Tertiary education
Demographic, social & economic indicators
PISA 2018 Results (Volume V): Effective Policies, Successful Schools
How policies and practices are related to grouping and selecting students, resources invested in education, the governance of education systems, and how evaluations and assessments are associated with performance, equity in students' learning outcomes and student well-being? The fifth volume of PISA 2018 Results describes the policies and practices used in the education systems of the 79 countries/economies that participated in PISA 2018. Trends in school organisation are analysed to understand how schools and school systems have changed during the past decade, and whether and how these changes are related to changes in performance and equity in students' learning outcomes.

  • On average across OECD countries, 6% of students had not attended or had attended pre-primary education for less than one year. These students scored lower in reading at the age of 15 than students who had attended for between one and three years, before and after accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile.
  • A socio-economically disadvantaged 15-year-old student was about three times more likely than an advantaged student, on average across OECD countries, to have repeated a grade at least once, even if both students scored the same in the PISA reading test.
  • On average across OECD countries, students in schools that group students by ability in their classes for all subjects scored eight points lower in reading than students in schools that do not group students in this way, after accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile.
  • After accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile, students in public schools scored higher in reading than students in private schools, on average across OECD countries (by 14 score points) and in 19 education systems (ranging from 13 score points higher in Indonesia to 117 points higher in Serbia).
  • Some 28% of students were enrolled in schools whose principal reported that learning is hindered by a lack of teaching staff, and 33% were enrolled in schools whose principal reported that learning is hindered by a lack of assisting staff, on average across OECD countries.
  • Students attending schools whose principal reported fewer shortages of material resources scored higher in reading, on average across OECD countries and in 12 countries and economies, after accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile. At the system level, more shortages of educational materials were correlated with lower mean performance in reading, even after accounting for per capita GDP, across OECD countries, and across participating countries and economies in PISA 2018.


  • | PISA 2018 | PISA 2018 Results (Volume V): Effective Policies, Successful Schools | PISA 2018 Assessment and Analytical Framework | PISA Glossary | PISA Database | Education policies: Organisation and Governance |
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Some countries may have provided data refering to another year, to know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory text.