Search for specific education indicators by country, theme or level of education and compare the results using interactive charts and tables.

Base Theme

Education at a Glance 2021 (EAG 2021): Highlights
EAG 2021, Chapter A: The output of educational institutions and the impact of learning
EAG 2021, Chapter B: Access to education, participation and progression
EAG 2021, Chapter C: Financial resources invested in education
EAG 2021, Chapter D: Teachers, learning environment and organisation of schools
Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC): Full selection of indicators
TALIS 2018: Highlight indicators
TALIS 2018 (Volume I): Teachers and School Leaders as Lifelong Learners
TALIS 2018 (Volume II): Teachers and School Leaders as Valued Professionals
TALIS 2018: Starting Strong Survey
PISA 2018: Highlight indicators
PISA 2018 Results (Volume II): Where All Students Can Succeed
PISA 2018 Results (Volume III): What School Life Means for Students' Lives
PISA 2018 Results (Volume IV): Are Students Smart About Money?
PISA 2018 Results (Volume V): Effective Policies, Successful Schools
PISA 2018 Results (Volume VI): Are Students Ready to Thrive in an Interconnected World?
Access & Participation
Organisation & Governance
Finance & Funding
Learning environment
Students' Well-Being
Teachers
Evaluation & Quality assurance
Equity
Gender
Digital divide
Special needs
Socio-economic status
Migrant background
Economic & Social outcomes
Internationalisation
Research & Innovation
School leadership
Trends shaping education
Attainment
Skills
Low performers
Computers, education & skills
Early childhood education & care
Vocational education & training (VET)
Tertiary education
Demographic, social & economic indicators
Skills
  • Across OECD countries, 8% of students perform at the highest level of proficiency on the collaborative problem-solving scale. On the other side, 6% of students score below Level 1. Although student proficiency varies among countries: 21% of students in Singapore and between 15% and 16% of students in Australia, Canada and New Zealand perform at this level. In contrast, in two OECD countries, fewer than one in 100 students performs at Level 4; and in Tunisia, fewer than one in 1000 students performs at this level. Moreover, student performance in collaborative problem solving shows a high correlation with performance in science, in reading and in mathematics.
  • Some 44% of top performers in science, 39% of top performers in reading, 34% of top performers in mathematics and some 55% all-round performers are also top performers in collaborative problem solving. This proportion is particularly large in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Singapore, the United Kingdom and the United States. By contrast, in Brazil and Chile, fewer than on in three all-round performers score at the highest level in collaborative problem solving.
  • Knowledge and learning play a fundamental role in international integration as workers need them to apprehend, share, and assimilate new knowledge in order for countries to grow in evolving markets. Thus, countries need to invest in skills not only to help individuals enter the labour market and protect them against the risks of poor job quality but also to pursue international competitiveness and economic progress in an interconnected world.
  • However, more than 200 million adults across OECD countries have low literacy or numeracy skills and 60% of them lack both types of skills. In all participating countries, a sizeable proportion of adults has poor reading skills (18.5%) and poor numeracy skills (22.7%). The share of adults proficient at/below Level 1 in literacy ranges from 69.3% in Jakarta (Indonesia) to 4.9% in Japan and, in numeracy, from 61.9% in Chile to 8.1% in Japan.
  • The likelihood of being employed increases with each additional level of education and skills proficiency. For example, adults with tertiary qualifications and good ICT and problem-solving skills are more than five times as likely to be employed as those in the reference group. On average, 38% of adults with ICT and problem-solving skills of Group 0 or 1 and below upper secondary education are employed.
  • 47% of adults with below upper secondary education and numeracy proficiency of Level 1 or below (reference group) are employed. For adults at this level of education, improving their numeracy skills by just a few levels may nearly double their odds of being employed.


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    Non-OECD Countries

    G20 average
    TALIS average
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Some countries may have provided data refering to another year, to know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory text.