Search for specific education indicators by country, theme or level of education and compare the results using interactive charts and tables.

Base Theme

PISA 2022 Results (Volume I): The State of Learning and Equity in Education
PISA 2022 Results (Volume II): Learning During - and From - Disruption
PISA 2018 Results (Volume IV): Are Students Smart About Money?
PISA 2018 Results (Volume VI): Are Students Ready to Thrive in an Interconnected World?
PISA 2018: Are Students Ready To Take On Environmental Challenges?
Education at a Glance 2023 (EAG 2023): Highlights
EAG 2023, Chapter A: The output of educational institutions and the impact of learning
EAG 2023, Chapter B: Access to education, participation and progression
EAG 2023, Chapter C: Financial resources invested in education
EAG 2023, Chapter D: Teachers, learning environment and organisation of schools
TALIS 2018: Highlight indicators
TALIS 2018 (Volume I): Teachers and School Leaders as Lifelong Learners
TALIS 2018 (Volume II): Teachers and School Leaders as Valued Professionals
TALIS 2018 (results for primary and upper secondary)
TALIS 2018: Starting Strong Survey
Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC)
Skills
Low performers
Computers, education & skills
Collaborative Problem Solving
Access & participation
Student mobility
Education attainment
Education system & governance
Financing education
Learning environment
Students' well-being
Equity
Gender
Digital divide
Special needs
Socio-economic status
Migrant background
Economic & social outcomes
Teachers & educators
Education leadership
Evaluation & quality assurance
Future of education and skills
Research & innovation
Early childhood education & care
Vocational education & training (VET)
Tertiary education
Impact of COVID-19 in education
Education leadership
  • According to TALIS 2018 survey, on average, principals devote 28% of their time to administrative tasks and meetings; 21% of their time on leadership tasks and meetings; 16.3% of their time to curriculum and teaching-related tasks and meetings; 14% to interactions with students; 10% to interactions with parents or guardians; and 6% to interactions with local and regional community, businesses and industries.
  • For the curriculum, 22% of the responsibility lies with principals, 44% with teachers, 8% with school boards, and the remaining 27% shared between local, regional and national authorities.
  • Responsibility for student disciplinary policies mainly lies with school principals (39%), teachers (29%) and school boards (22%), with a minor role played by education authorities.
  • Responsibility for student assessment policies mainly lies with school principals (32%) and teachers (36%) with a minor role played by the other actors.
  • The average age of principals in the countries participating in TALIS 2018 is approximately 52 years of age. Given that principals are often recruited from the ranks of teachers, it is not surprising that the proportion of principals younger than 40 years of age is small.
  • In all TALIS countries but Japan, more than half of the lower secondary teachers are women, but the percentage of female principals is generally lower. On average, 70% of all teachers are female, compared to 47.3% of principals in lower secondary schools.
  • On average across OECD countries, actual salaries of school heads aged 25-64 vary from USD 71 784 at primary level, USD 76 572 at lower secondary level and USD 81 972 at upper secondary level.The actual salaries of school heads are higher than those of teachers, and the premium increases with levels of education. On average, school heads' actual salaries in 2021 were 52% higher than teachers' at primary level, 55% higher at lower secondary level and 56% higher at upper secondary level.
  • According to data from TALIS Starting Strong, leaders of ECEC centres tend to have high levels of education and high rates of participation in professional development activities. Leaders also reported overall high job satisfaction.
  • While most leaders are satisfied overall with their jobs, they report relatively low levels of satisfaction with their salaries, in particular in Israel, Iceland and Japan, at pre-primary level.
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    OECD average

    Non-OECD Countries

    G20 average
    TALIS average
    TALIS avg. primary education
    TALIS avg. upper secondary education
    Albania
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    B-S-J-Z (China)
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    Ukraine
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    Viet Nam
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory text.