Search for specific education indicators by country, theme or level of education and compare the results using interactive charts and tables.

Base Theme

Education at a Glance 2021 (EAG 2021): Highlights
EAG 2021, Chapter A: The output of educational institutions and the impact of learning
EAG 2021, Chapter B: Access to education, participation and progression
EAG 2021, Chapter C: Financial resources invested in education
EAG 2021, Chapter D: Teachers, learning environment and organisation of schools
Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC): Full selection of indicators
TALIS 2018: Highlight indicators
TALIS 2018 (Volume I): Teachers and School Leaders as Lifelong Learners
TALIS 2018 (Volume II): Teachers and School Leaders as Valued Professionals
TALIS 2018: Starting Strong Survey
PISA 2018: Highlight indicators
PISA 2018 Results (Volume II): Where All Students Can Succeed
PISA 2018 Results (Volume III): What School Life Means for Students' Lives
PISA 2018 Results (Volume IV): Are Students Smart About Money?
PISA 2018 Results (Volume V): Effective Policies, Successful Schools
PISA 2018 Results (Volume VI): Are Students Ready to Thrive in an Interconnected World?
Access & Participation
Organisation & Governance
Finance & Funding
Learning environment
Students' Well-Being
Teachers
Evaluation & Quality assurance
Equity
Gender
Digital divide
Special needs
Socio-economic status
Migrant background
Economic & Social outcomes
Internationalisation
Research & Innovation
School leadership
Trends shaping education
Attainment
Skills
Low performers
Computers, education & skills
Early childhood education & care
Vocational education & training (VET)
Tertiary education
Demographic, social & economic indicators
Research & Innovation
  • International scientific collaboration is rising across OECD countries as global networks of researchers become increasingly important. Educators need to be aware of the advances skills their students will need to flourish in more knowledge-intensive and international labour markets.
  • There is 0.77 computer per student in school on average across OECD countries, 96% of which are connected to the Internet. In Australia, Austria, Canada, the Czech Republic, Iceland, Macao, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States, there is at least one computer available per student, and at least 95% of them are connected to the Internet. By contrast, in Albania, Algeria, Indonesia, Kosovo and Tunisia, there is less than one computer per every five students, and less than 70% of them are connected.
  • Innovative pedagogies are primordial for teacher professionalism. Innovation at the level of practice is a normal response to addressing the daily challenges of the constantly changing classroom. Thus, innovation becomes a problem-solving process rooted in teachers' professionalism.
  • Governments can actively promote and sustain a culture of systemic innovation that can be thought of as a knowledge-based systemic innovation ecosystem by focussing on the various enabling factors specific to their national or regional context.
  • On average, in 2016, OECD countries spent close to a third of their annual expenditure per tertiary student on R&D. Yet, when excluding R&D activities, expenditure per student on core educational services at the tertiary level is still, on average, 15% higher than at the primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels.
  • The first source of innovation is scientific knowledge, which needs to be combined effectively with technology and applications in order to stimulate industrial innovation. In education experimental science has made limited impact.
  • The second source of innovation is generated by the involvement of "users and doers". In education there are obvious benefits of teachers pooling their knowledge through networks, but incentives to do so remain underdeveloped.
  • Lower secondary school teachers ranked their professional development needs and cited teaching students with special needs first, followed by using ICT for teaching and using new technologies in the workplace.
  • Thirdly, relationships between decentralised units authorised to innovate and a whole co-ordinated system help determine the scope for rapid and effective innovation. Education systems are highly complex, but there are various obstacles to decentralised innovation, and so far the rules of this game tend to have been controlled from the centre.


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    OECD average

    Non-OECD Countries

    G20 average
    TALIS average
    Albania
    Algeria
    Argentina
    Buenos Aires (Argentina)
    Azerbaijan
    Belarus
    Bosnia and Herzegovina
    Brazil
    Brunei Darussalam
    Bulgaria
    China
    B-S-J-Z (China)
    Hong Kong (China)
    Macao (China)
    Shanghai (China)
    Chinese Taipei
    Croatia
    Dominican Republic
    Ecuador
    Egypt
    Georgia
    India
    Indonesia
    Jordan
    Kazakhstan
    Kyrgyz Republic
    Kosovo
    Lebanon
    North Macedonia
    Malaysia
    Malta
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    Montenegro
    Morocco
    Panama
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    Russian Federation
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    Serbia
    Singapore
    South Africa
    Tajikistan
    Thailand
    Trinidad and Tobago
    Tunisia
    United Arab Emirates
    Abu Dhabi (UAE)
    Ukraine
    Uruguay
    Viet Nam
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Some countries may have provided data refering to another year, to know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory text.