Search for specific education indicators by country, theme or level of education and compare the results using interactive charts and tables.

Base Theme

Education at a Glance 2021 (EAG 2021): Highlights
EAG 2021, Chapter A: The output of educational institutions and the impact of learning
EAG 2021, Chapter B: Access to education, participation and progression
EAG 2021, Chapter C: Financial resources invested in education
EAG 2021, Chapter D: Teachers, learning environment and organisation of schools
Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC): Full selection of indicators
TALIS 2018: Highlight indicators
TALIS 2018 (Volume I): Teachers and School Leaders as Lifelong Learners
TALIS 2018 (Volume II): Teachers and School Leaders as Valued Professionals
TALIS 2018: Starting Strong Survey
PISA 2018: Highlight indicators
PISA 2018 Results (Volume II): Where All Students Can Succeed
PISA 2018 Results (Volume III): What School Life Means for Students' Lives
PISA 2018 Results (Volume IV): Are Students Smart About Money?
PISA 2018 Results (Volume V): Effective Policies, Successful Schools
PISA 2018 Results (Volume VI): Are Students Ready to Thrive in an Interconnected World?
Access & Participation
Organisation & Governance
Finance & Funding
Learning environment
Students' Well-Being
Teachers
Evaluation & Quality assurance
Equity
Gender
Digital divide
Special needs
Socio-economic status
Migrant background
Economic & Social outcomes
Internationalisation
Research & Innovation
School leadership
Trends shaping education
Attainment
Skills
Low performers
Computers, education & skills
Early childhood education & care
Vocational education & training (VET)
Tertiary education
Demographic, social & economic indicators
Internationalisation
  • The number of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education programmes worldwide has expanded massively over the last two decades. It rose from 2 million in 1998 to 5.3 million in 2017, growing at an average annual rate of about 5% among OECD countries and around 6% among non-OECD countries.
  • English-speaking countries are the most attractive to international students. Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States together receive almost 40% of all mobile students in OECD and partner countries. Other main destination areas include France, Germany, Japan and the Russian Federation.
  • Students from Asia form the largest group of international students enrolled in tertiary education programmes, representing 57% of all mobile students across the OECD in 2018. More than two-thirds of Chinese and Indian students are concentrated in only five countries: Australia, Canada, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States.
  • Students become more mobile as they reach more advanced levels of education. International students account for only about 3% of total enrolment in short-cycle tertiary programmes and around 4% of total enrolment in bachelor's programmes, but they represent 22% of enrolment in doctoral programmes.
  • In OECD countries, more than 20% of students in doctoral programme in 2018 were international and foreign students. This proportion declines to over 10% in master's or equivalent programmes, and under 5% in bachelor's or equivalent programme.
  • International doctoral students tend to study in countries investing substantial resources in R&D in tertiary educational institutions. For example, Luxembourg, the country with the highest level of expenditure on R&D per student in tertiary educational institutions (around USD 19 709 in 2018) has one of the largest share of international students in doctoral programmes among OECD countries (87% in 2019) .


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    OECD average

    Non-OECD Countries

    G20 average
    TALIS average
    Albania
    Algeria
    Argentina
    Buenos Aires (Argentina)
    Azerbaijan
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    Bosnia and Herzegovina
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    B-S-J-Z (China)
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    Tunisia
    United Arab Emirates
    Abu Dhabi (UAE)
    Ukraine
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    Viet Nam
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Some countries may have provided data refering to another year, to know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory text.