Search for specific education indicators by country, theme or level of education and compare the results using interactive charts and tables.

Base Theme

PISA 2022 Results (Volume I): The State of Learning and Equity in Education
PISA 2022 Results (Volume II): Learning During - and From - Disruption
PISA 2022 Results (Volume III): Creative Minds, Creative Schools
PISA 2018 Results (Volume IV): Are Students Smart About Money?
PISA 2018 Results (Volume VI): Are Students Ready to Thrive in an Interconnected World?
PISA 2018: Are Students Ready To Take On Environmental Challenges?
Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC)
Education at a Glance 2023 (EAG 2023): Highlights
EAG 2023, Chapter A: The output of educational institutions and the impact of learning
EAG 2023, Chapter B: Access to education, participation and progression
EAG 2023, Chapter C: Financial resources invested in education
EAG 2023, Chapter D: Teachers, learning environment and organisation of schools
TALIS 2018: Highlight indicators
TALIS 2018 (Volume I): Teachers and School Leaders as Lifelong Learners
TALIS 2018 (Volume II): Teachers and School Leaders as Valued Professionals
TALIS 2018 (results for primary and upper secondary)
TALIS 2018: Starting Strong Survey
Skills
Low performers
Computers, education & skills
Collaborative Problem Solving
Access & participation
Student mobility
Education attainment
Education system & governance
Financing education
Learning environment
Students' well-being
Equity
Gender
Digital divide
Special needs
Socio-economic status
Migrant background
Economic & social outcomes
Teachers & educators
Education leadership
Evaluation & quality assurance
Future of education and skills
Research & innovation
Early childhood education & care
Vocational education & training (VET)
Tertiary education
Impact of COVID-19 in education
Migrant background
  • On average across OECD countries, 12.9% of students in 2022 have an immigrant background, up from 9.5% in 2009. The percentage of students with an immigrant background varies widely across countries (from 60% in Macao (China) to 0.1% in Viet Nam) but also within countries, as immigrant children are often concentrated in schools and classrooms, amplifying the challenge of diversity for teachers and school leaders.
  • On average across countries with relatively large immigrant student populations, attending a school with a high concentration of immigrant students is not associated with poorer student performance, after accounting for the school's socio-economic intake.
  • The average difference in mathematics performance between immigrant and non-immigrant students with a similar socio-economic profile is 15 score points in favor of non-immigrant students. The average difference shrinks to almost 5 score points after taking into account the language spoken at home.
  • The average difference in science performance between immigrant and non-immigrant students with similar socio-economic status and familiarity with the test language narrowed by 6 score points between 2006 and 2015.
  • On average across OECD countries, and after taking their socio-economic status into account, immigrant students are almost more than twice as likely as their non-immigrant peers to complete tertiary education.
  • Immigrant students are more at risk of repeating a grade and being enrolled in a vocational programme than non-immigrant students in nearly all countries participating in PISA 2015.
  • Some 58% of first-generation immigrant students have at least one parent as educated as the average parent in the host country, but around 41% of second-generation and about 62% of first-generation immigrant students do not speak the language of the PISA test at home.
  • Immigrant adults with a foreign-language background have significantly lower proficiency in literacy, numeracy and problem solving in technology-rich environments than native-born adults, whose first or second language learned as a child was the same as that of the assessment, even after other factors are taken into account.
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    Select OECD Countries

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    OECD average

    Non-OECD Countries

    G20 average
    TALIS average
    TALIS avg. primary education
    TALIS avg. upper secondary education
    Albania
    Algeria
    Argentina
    Buenos Aires (Argentina)
    Azerbaijan
    Baku (Azerbaijan)
    Bosnia and Herzegovina
    Brazil
    Brunei Darussalam
    Bulgaria
    Cambodia
    China
    B-S-J-Z (China)
    Hong Kong (China)
    Macao (China)
    Shanghai (China)
    Chinese Taipei
    Croatia
    Dominican Republic
    Ecuador
    Egypt
    El Salvador
    Georgia
    Guatemala
    India
    Indonesia
    Jamaica
    Jordan
    Kazakhstan
    Kyrgyz Republic
    Kosovo
    Lebanon
    North Macedonia
    Malaysia
    Malta
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    Mongolia
    Montenegro
    Morocco
    Palestinian Authority
    Panama
    Paraguay
    Peru
    Philippines
    Qatar
    Romania
    Saudi Arabia
    Serbia
    Singapore
    South Africa
    Tajikistan
    Thailand
    Trinidad and Tobago
    Tunisia
    United Arab Emirates
    Abu Dhabi (UAE)
    Ukraine
    Uruguay
    Uzbekistan
    Viet Nam
    The data table will display up to four selected countries (unselect the OECD average to have one more).
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    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory text.