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Kosovo
Student performance (PISA 2022)
  • In mathematics, the main topic of PISA 2022, 15-year-olds in score 355 points compared to an average of 472 points in OECD countries.
  • On average, 15-year-olds score 342 points in reading compared to an average of 476 points in OECD countries.
  • In Kosovo, the average performance in science of 15-year-olds is 357 points, compared to an average of 485 points in OECD countries.
  • In Kosovo, 15% of students attained at least Level 2 proficiency in mathematics, significantly less than on average across OECD countries (OECD average: 69%). At a minimum, these students can interpret and recognize, without direct instructions, how a simple situation can be represented mathematically
  • Almost no students in Kosovo were top performers in mathematics, meaning that they attained Level 5 or 6 in the PISA mathematics test (OECD average: 9%). At these levels, students can model complex situations mathematically, and can select, compare and evaluate appropriate problem-solving strategies for dealing with them.
  • In Kosovo, 29% of students (the largest share) were in the 4th international quintile of the socio-economic scale, meaning that they were neither among the most disadvantaged, nor among the most advantaged students who took the PISA test in 2022. Their average score in mathematics was 356 score points.
  • In Kosovo socio-economically advantaged students (the top 25% in terms of socio-economic status) outperformed disadvantaged students (the bottom 25%) by 39 score points in mathematics. This is smaller than the average difference between the two groups (93 score points) across OECD countries.
  • Some 18% of disadvantaged students in Kosovo were able to score in the top quarter of mathematics performance (OECD average: 10%). These students can be considered academically resilient.
  • Boys and girls performed at similar levels on average in mathematics but girls outperformed boys in reading by 25 score points in Kosovo. Globally, in mathematics, boys outperformed girls in 40 countries and economies, girls outperformed boys in another 17 countries or economies. In reading, girls, on average, scored above boys in all but two countries and economies that participated in PISA 2022 (79 out of 81).
  • In Kosovo, 42% of students reported that their school building was closed for more than three months due to COVID-19. On average across OECD countries, 51% of students experienced similarly long school closures. In education systems where performance remained high and students' sense of belonging improved, fewer students experienced longer school closures.
  • In Kosovo, 70% reported that they had attended pre-primary education for one year or more (OECD average: 94%).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    The percentage of low performers in all subjects (mathematics, reading and science) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (72.9 %, rank 2/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low performers in at least one subject (among mathematics, reading and science) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (90.8 %, rank 4/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Student performance in mathematics

    The mean score in mathematics performance is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (355 PISA Score, rank 74/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Boys' performance in mathematics is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (355 PISA Score, rank 73/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Girls' performance in mathematics is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (355 PISA Score, rank 74/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The score difference in mathematics between the 10% of students with the highest scores and the 10% of students with the lowest scores is one of the smallest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (159 PISA Score, rank 76/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low performers in mathematics (below proficiency Level 2) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (85 %, rank 6/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top performers in mathematics (proficiency Level 5 or 6) is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0 %, rank 71/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low-performing boys in mathematics (below proficiency Level 2) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (84.2 %, rank 7/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low-performing girls in mathematics (below proficiency Level 2) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (85.8 %, rank 6/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Student performance in reading

    The mean score in reading performance is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (342 PISA Score, rank 76/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Boys' performance in reading is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (330 PISA Score, rank 74/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Girls' performance in reading is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (355 PISA Score, rank 77/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The score difference in reading between the 10% of students with the highest scores and the 10% of students with the lowest scores is one of the smallest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (173 PISA Score, rank 78/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low performers in reading (below proficiency Level 2) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (83.1 %, rank 3/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top performers in reading (proficiency Level 5 or 6) is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0 %, rank 72/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low-performing boys in reading (below proficiency Level 2) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (86.7 %, rank 5/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low-performing girls in reading (below proficiency Level 2) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (79.4 %, rank 3/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top-performing girls in reading (proficiency Level 5 or 6) is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0 %, rank 71/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Student performance in science

    The mean score in science performance is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (357 PISA Score, rank 77/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Boys' performance in science is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (354 PISA Score, rank 75/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Girls' performance in science is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (360 PISA Score, rank 78/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The score difference in science between the 10% of students with the highest scores and the 10% of students with the lowest scores is one of the smallest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (168 PISA Score, rank 77/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low performers in science (below proficiency Level 2) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (79.3 %, rank 3/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top performers in science (proficiency Level 5 or 6) is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0 %, rank 71/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low-performing boys in science (below proficiency Level 2) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (80.3 %, rank 4/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top-performing boys in science (proficiency Level 5 or 6) is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0 %, rank 71/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low-performing girls in science (below proficiency Level 2) is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (78.2 %, rank 3/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Creative thinking

    Kosovo shows a high composite index of participation in creative activities at school (average=0, standard deviation of the OECD average=1). (0.72 PISA Index, rank 7/72 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Kosovo shows a high composite index of participation in creative activities outside of school (average=0, standard deviation of the OECD average=1). (0.94 PISA Index, rank 7/72 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Educational outcomes

    in Kosovo, compared to the share of students who did not attended pre-primary school for at least one year, the share of students who did so having repeated a grade at least once in any education level is one of the largest among PISA-participating countries and economies, after accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile. (1.1 Ratio, rank 4/70 , 2022) Download Indicator

    School climate

    Compared to other OECD and partner countries/economies, Kosovo seems t have a higher level of school safety risks. (0.46 PISA Index, rank 2/69 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    The shortage of schools' educational material is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (1 PISA Index, rank 6/77 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Between 2018 and 2022, the change in the index of shortage of educational material in Kosovo was relatively more significant than in other OECD and partner countries/economies. (-0.15 PISA Index, rank 9/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Students' engagement, drive and self-beliefs

    The share of students who disagreed or strongly disagreed that 'your intelligence is something about you that you can't change very much' in Kosovo is among the smallest . (33.9 %, rank 74/75 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The time spent on homework per day in a typical school week in Kosovo is long compared to the other OECD and partner countries/economies. (2 Hours, rank 6/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Students' life satisfaction

    In Kosovo, the average level of student's life satisfaction is one of the highest among countries and economies participating in PISA. (7.87 PISA Index, rank 4/73 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Sense of belonging at school

    Kosovo saw one of the strongest decreases on the index of sense of belonging between PISA 2012 and PISA 2022 (-0.28 PISA Index, rank 39/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Performance and socio-economic status

    The variance of results in mathematics is weakly associated with the socio-economic status of students, as measured by the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS). (5.7 %, rank 70/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The maths performance of students in the bottom international decile of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) scale is among the lowest, compared to countries and economies participating in PISA. (313 PISA Score, rank 62/64 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The maths performance of students in the international median of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) scale is among the lowest, compared to countries and economies participating in PISA. (346 PISA Score, rank 76/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The maths performance of students in the ninth international decile of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) scale is among the lowest, compared to countries and economies participating in PISA. (377 PISA Score, rank 78/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The maths performance of students in the top international decile of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) scale is among the lowest, compared to countries and economies participating in PISA. (400 PISA Score, rank 75/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low performers in maths among disadvantaged students in Kosovo is among the highest compared to countries and economies participating in PISA. (90.7 %, rank 10/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low performers in maths among advantaged students in Kosovo is among the highest compared to countries and economies participating in PISA. (72.2 %, rank 5/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of top performers in maths among advantaged students in Kosovo is among the lowest compared to countries and economies participating in PISA. (0.1 %, rank 70/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to the share non-disadvantaged low performers in maths, the share of disadvantaged low performers in maths is one of the lowest among countries and economies participating in PISA. (2.02 Ratio, rank 75/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Kosovo, the variation within schools of the mathematics performance is among the smallest, when compared to average total variation across OECD countries. (33.8 %, rank 74/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Kosovo has one of the lowest differences in mathematics performance between students in the top quarter and students in the bottom quarter of the economic, social and cultural status index (ESCS). (39 PISA Score, rank 75/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Kosovo is one of the countries where the relationship between reading performance and socio-economics status (ESCS) is the weakest. (3.9 %, rank 73/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The difference in reading performance associated with a one-unit increase in the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) in Kosovo is one of the smallest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (15 PISA Score, rank 74/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Performance and diversity

    Kosovo has a relatively high share of low performers in mathematics among students with an immigrant background, compared to other OECD and partner countries. (86.2 %, rank 8/76 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Kosovo, the share of immigrant students aged 15 who do not speak the language of the PISA assessment at home is relatively low. (7.4 %, rank 70/76 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    In Kosovo, there is a small number of computers per student, compared to other countries and economies participating in PISA. (0.2 Ratio, rank 76/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    Between 2018 and 2022, the change in the student to teacher ratio in Kosovo was relatively smaller than in other OECD and partner countries/economies. (-2.09 Ratio, rank 32/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Governance

    Schools in Kosovoare less autonomous than in other countries and economies participating in PISA, as measured by the percentage of tasks for which they have considerable responsibility. (-1.86 PISA Index, rank 63/66 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Between 2018 and 2022, Kosovo recorded a particularly small change in the share of 15-year-old students attending government or public schools, compared to the other OECD and partner countries/economies. (-4.9 %, rank 12/15 , 2022) Download Indicator

    COVID-19 effects on education

    Compared to other OECD and partner countries/economies, students in Kosovo are relatively curious, as measured by the PISA index of curiosity. (0.31 PISA Index, rank 10/72 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The difference between boys and girls in the confidence they have on their capacity to drive self-directed learning is one of the smallest among countries participating in PISA (-0.16 PISA Index, rank 22/30 , 2022) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
    
    • Singapore scored significantly higher than all other countries/economies in mathematics (575 points) and, along with Hong Kong (China), Japan, Korea, Macao (China), and Chinese Taipei, outperformed all other countries and economies in mathematics. Another 17 countries also performed above the OECD average (472 points), ranging from Estonia (510 points) to New Zealand (479 points).
    • Boys outperformed girls in mathematics by nine score points and girls outperformed boys in reading by 24 score points on average across OECD countries. In science, the performance difference between boys and girls is not significant.
    • An average of 69% of students are at least basically proficient in mathematics in OECD countries. This means they are beginning to demonstrate the ability and initiative to use mathematics in simple real-life situations.
    • In 16 out of 81 countries/economies participating in PISA 2022, more than 10% of students attained Level 5 or 6 proficiency, meaning they are high-performing: they understand that a problem is quantitative in nature and can formulate complex mathematical models to solve it. By contrast, less than 5% of students are high-performing in 42 countries/economies.
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    • Singapore scored significantly higher than all other countries/economies in reading (543 points) and science (561 points). Behind Singapore, Ireland performed as well as Estonia, Japan, Korea and Chinese Taipei while another 14 education systems performed above the OECD average in reading (476 points), ranging from Macao (China) (510 points) to Italy (482 points).
    • About three out of four students have achieved basic proficiency in reading in OECD countries.
    • In reading, an OECD average of 7% of students attained the highest proficiency levels of 5 or 6. In 13 countries/economies, more than 10% of students are top performers in reading.
    • No change in the OECD average over consecutive PISA assessments up to 2018 has ever exceeded five points in reading: in PISA 2022, however, the OECD average dropped by about 10 score points in reading compared to PISA 2018.. The unprecedented drops reading point to the shock effect of COVID-19 on most countries.
    • Only four countries and economies improved their performance between PISA 2018 and 2022 in all three subjects: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, the Dominican Republic and Chinese Taipei.
    • Trend analysis of PISA results reveals a decades-long decline that began well before the pandemic. In reading, performances peaked in 2012 and 2009, respectively, before dipping while performance began a downward descent in mathematics before 2018 in Australia, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Iceland, Korea, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Slovak Republic and Switzerland.
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    • Mean performance in science remained stable.
    • In science, the highest-performing education systems are Singapore, Japan, Macao (China), Chinese Taipei, Korea, Estonia, Hong Kong (China) and Canada. Finland performed as well as Canada in science. In addition to these nine countries and economies, another 15 education systems also performed above the OECD average in science (485 points), ranging from Australia (507 points) to Belgium (491 points).
    • About three out of four students have achieved basic proficiency science in OECD countries.
    • In science, an OECD average of 7% of students attained the highest proficiency levels of 5 or 6. In 14 countries/economies, more than 10% of students are top performers in science.
    • Only four countries and economies improved their performance between PISA 2018 and 2022 in all three subjects: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, the Dominican Republic and Chinese Taipei.
    • Trend analysis of PISA results reveals a decades-long decline that began well before the pandemic. In science, performances peaked in 2012 and 2009, respectively, before dipping. while performance began a downward descent in mathematics before 2018 in Australia, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Iceland, Korea, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Slovak Republic and Switzerland.
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    • Socio-economically advantaged students scored 93 points more in mathematics than disadvantaged students on average across OECD countries. The performance gap attributed to students' socio-economic status is greater than 93 score points in 22 countries or economies and 50 points or fewer in 13 countries or economies.
    • Boys outperformed girls in mathematics by nine score points and girls outperformed boys in reading by 24 score points on average across OECD countries. In science, the performance difference between boys and girls is not significant.
    • Non-immigrant students scored 29 points more than immigrant students in mathematics on average across OECD countries but non-immigrant students scored only five points more than immigrant students once socio-economic status and language spoken at home had been accounted for.
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    • Between 2018 and 2022 trends in students' sense of belonging at school were mixed, with equal proportions of countries/economies showing stable, improving or deteriorating trends. Of the 47 education systems with improving or stable trends, only 20 maintained or attained a level of students' sense of belonging at school that was at or above the OECD average. 
    • Around 10% of students reported feeling unsafe on their way to or from school, or in places outside of the classroom, on average across OECD countries. Some 20% of students reported that they are bullied at least a few times a month.
    • Overall, students felt more confident about using digital technology for learning remotely during future school closures than they felt about taking responsibility for their own learning. For instance, on average across OECD countries, about three out of four students reported that they feel confident or very confident about using a learning-management system, a school learning platform or a video communication program, as well as about finding learning resources online on their own.
    • Students' experience with learning at home was more positive in systems that were better prepared for remote learning. However, when learning remotely, 40% of all students reported feeling lonely and 50% of all students reported feeling anxious about schoolwork and that they fell behind in their studies; and three in ten students reported that teachers were not available when needed, on average across OECD countries. 
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    • Singapore, Korea, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Estonia and Finland are the highest-performing systems in creative thinking, significantly above the OECD average. Students in Singapore score 41 points on average in creative thinking.
    • There is a large performance gap in creative thinking between the highest-performing and lowest-performing country of 28 score points – or around four proficiency levels. 97 out of 100 students in the five best-performing countries performed above the average student in the five lowest performing countries.
    • Academic excellence is not a pre-requisite for excellence in creative thinking. While around half of all students who performed at the highest level in creative thinking performed at the highest level in mathematics, similar proportions of students within the third quintile of creative thinking performance scored within the second, third and fourth quintiles, respectively, in mathematics. However, very few students below a baseline proficiency in mathematics excelled in creative thinking.
    • In no country or economy did boys outperform girls in creative thinking, with girls scoring 3 points higher in creative thinking on average across the OECD. The gender gap is significant in all countries/economies after accounting for mathematics performance and in around half of all countries/economies even after accounting for students’ reading performance.
    • Students with higher socio-economic status performed better in creative thinking, with advantaged students scoring around 9.5 points higher than their disadvantaged peers on average across the OECD. In general, the strength of the association between socio-economic status and performance is weaker in creative thinking than it is for mathematics, reading and science.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Kosovo

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Kosovo

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.