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United States
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In the United States, 58% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education. A further 7% are enrolled in lower secondary programmes and 19% in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • In the United States,4% of 25-34 year-olds have a vocational education and training (VET) qualification at short-cycle tertiary level as their highest level of attainment.
  • Although an upper secondary qualification is often the minimum attainment needed for successful labour-market participation,6% of 25-34 year-olds in the United States have not attained an upper secondary qualification, lower than the OECD average (14%).
  • In the United States,25-34 year-old workers with bachelor's attainment earn 63% more than their peers without upper secondary attainment, while those with master's or doctoral attainment earn 100% more.
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, the United States spends USD 19 973 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647. Expenditure per student is equivalent to 31% of per capita GDP, which is above the OECD average of 27%.
  • In the United States, in full-time equivalent terms, there are 15 students per staff member in general upper secondary programmes (OECD average: 14 students per staff member).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.2 %, rank 40/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50 %, rank 9/46 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (44.7 %, rank 4/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a general upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (41.8 %, rank 1/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (25 %, rank 10/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (2.1 %, rank 5/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (42.8 %, rank 1/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (1.6 %, rank 3/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a general degree at the tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (45.9 %, rank 9/46 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a general degree at the tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54 %, rank 10/46 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (93.5 %, rank 5/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94.6 %, rank 7/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (23.8 %, rank 10/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men who attained below upper secondary education in United States is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.5 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women who attained below upper secondary education in United States is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.4 %, rank 38/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old men who attained below upper secondary education in United States is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 %, rank 39/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained below upper secondary education in United States is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.4 %, rank 39/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 55-64 year-old men who attained below upper secondary education in United States is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.4 %, rank 39/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 55-64 year-old women who attained below upper secondary education in United States is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.3 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in United States is one of the highest among countries with available data. (38.3 %, rank 1/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in United States is one of the highest among countries with available data. (47.2 %, rank 2/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (9.7 %, rank 30/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Education expectancy

    In United States, the expected years in education between ages 15 and 29 are comparatively short for men. (5.7 Years, rank 36/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    The share of women among tertiary education new entrants is one of the largest compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (56.8 %, rank 5/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering doctoral or equivalent programmes in United States is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (45.9 %, rank 33/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of new entrants in tertiary education in United States is comparatively young. (19.6 Years, rank 31/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the share of first-time entrants in bachelor's programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (58.1 %, rank 29/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in United States is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29.7 %, rank 74/82 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in United States is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.3 %, rank 77/82 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in independent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27.6 %, rank 8/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 17 in general upper secondary programmes in United States is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92.4 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 17 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in United States is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.2 %, rank 9/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 17 in tertiary programmes in United States is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 %, rank 4/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in United States is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2 %, rank 7/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 tertiary programmes in United States is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.4 %, rank 4/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 tertiary programmes in United States is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.5 %, rank 3/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in general upper secondary programmes in United States is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 41/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 tertiary programmes in United States is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.9 %, rank 3/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (100 %, rank 1/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of post-secondary non-tertiary students enrolled in vocational programmes in United States is among the lowest. (27.7 %, rank 20/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in post-secondary non-tertiary vocational programmes are proportionally more in United States than in the other countries. (100 %, rank 1/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in upper secondary general programmes in United States is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (57.9 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in United States is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.1 %, rank 9/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in short-cycle tertiary programmes in United States is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.9 %, rank 4/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary programmes in United States is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 42/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary general programmes in United States is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 39/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in short-cycle tertiary programmes in United States is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.6 %, rank 2/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (0.2 %, rank 5/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in pre-primary in United States is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.3 %, rank 75/81 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in primary education in United States is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 6/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The average age of graduates from general programmes at the upper secondary level in United States is comparatively low. (17.4 Years, rank 34/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the percentage of master's or equivalent graduates in public institutions is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46.4 %, rank 29/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctorate graduates in public institutions is relatively low in United States. (58.9 %, rank 31/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates is relatively low in United States. (59.9 %, rank 29/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    In United States, the share of female first-time graduates in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (63 %, rank 6/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.3 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.6 %, rank 39/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.1 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.8 %, rank 6/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.5 %, rank 7/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.1 %, rank 27/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of STEM is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25.2 %, rank 33/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29.1 %, rank 2/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of arts and humanities is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (41.7 %, rank 4/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20 %, rank 8/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (8.8 %, rank 36/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in the humanities and arts is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (17.9 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (26.1 %, rank 8/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in social sciences, business and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (15.7 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the share of female tertiary graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.6 %, rank 9/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the proportion of male tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is relatively large. (16.3 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the proportion of male tertiary graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively large. (10.7 %, rank 8/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is relatively low in United States. (31.2 %, rank 36/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively high in United States. (10.2 %, rank 10/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (50.8 %, rank 37/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (38.1 %, rank 9/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (24 %, rank 35/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Completion rates

    A relatively high share of upper secondary students complete their studies within the theoretical programme duration. (86.5 %, rank 2/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    A relatively high share of students in upper secondary general programmes complete their studies within the theoretical programme duration. (86.5 %, rank 4/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    In United States, international or foreign students from North America are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.2 %, rank 10/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, international or foreign students from Latin America and the Caribbean are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.7 %, rank 7/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, international or foreign students from Asia are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (75.1 %, rank 5/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, international or foreign students from Europe are least represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.9 %, rank 34/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, international or foreign students from Oceania are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.7 %, rank 4/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the percentage of international or foreign students coming from neighbouring countries is comparatively low . (6 Students, rank 40/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    In United States, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.4 %, rank 30/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of Information and communication technologies is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.5 %, rank 5/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (33.8 %, rank 5/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (36172 USD Equivalent, rank 2/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19973 USD Equivalent, rank 2/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14321 USD Equivalent, rank 4/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16018 USD Equivalent, rank 6/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31795 USD Equivalent, rank 2/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in United States is comparatively high. (14077 USD Equivalent, rank 6/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on tertiary education in United States is comparatively high. (27445 USD Equivalent, rank 2/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary to tertiary education in United States is comparatively high. (17126 USD Equivalent, rank 2/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on tertiary education in United States is comparatively high. (4350 USD Equivalent, rank 1/27 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in United States is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16500 USD Equivalent, rank 9/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In United States, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies. (6.1 %, rank 8/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United States, expenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (2.5 %, rank 2/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United States, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (1.9 %, rank 4/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Government and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (62.5 %, rank 5/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.9 %, rank 5/46 , 2020) Download Indicator

    United States has one of the largest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (30.4 %, rank 4/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for tertiary education is comparatively small in United States. (37.5 %, rank 36/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United States, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively small. (69.6 %, rank 36/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2015, the share of total public expenditure from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is comparatively largest in United States. (123 Index, rank 7/41 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2015, the share of total government expenditure is comparatively highest in United States. (133 Index, rank 10/49 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In United States, the share of capital expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.6 %, rank 9/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United States, the share of current expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (89.4 %, rank 28/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United States, the share of current expenditure on post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (90.5 %, rank 14/19 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively high in United States. (1004 Hours, rank 2/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively high in United States. (966 Hours, rank 3/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in pre-primary public school is especially low. (180 Days, rank 23/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92.8 %, rank 36/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.9 %, rank 7/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially high. (14 %, rank 9/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of male teachers in pre-primary education is especially high in United States. (7.2 %, rank 6/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of teachers under 30 in United States is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.7 %, rank 8/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (57859 USD Equivalent, rank 9/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.62 Ratio, rank 20/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.64 Ratio, rank 25/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.66 Ratio, rank 25/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.68 Ratio, rank 25/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the change in statutory primary education teachers' salaries with 15 years of experience, based on most prevalent qualifications at different points in teachers' careers is relatively small. (94 Index, rank 27/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the change in statutory lower secondary education teachers' salaries with 15 years of experience, based on most prevalent qualifications at different points in teachers' careers is relatively small. (96 Index, rank 25/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual pre-primary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (60424 USD Equivalent, rank 3/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (62089 USD Equivalent, rank 6/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64298 USD Equivalent, rank 4/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66438 USD Equivalent, rank 5/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (69439 USD Equivalent, rank 5/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (69641 USD Equivalent, rank 5/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (68905 USD Equivalent, rank 3/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66251 USD Equivalent, rank 6/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary female teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year women workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.79 Ratio, rank 20/21 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary male teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year men workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.58 Ratio, rank 20/21 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 25-34 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in United States. (0.72 Ratio, rank 18/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 35-44 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in United States. (0.64 Ratio, rank 20/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 45-54 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in United States. (0.65 Ratio, rank 21/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 55-64 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in United States. (0.64 Ratio, rank 20/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-34 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the highest in United States relatively compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (55725 USD Equivalent, rank 5/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 55-64 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the highest in United States. (70729 USD Equivalent, rank 4/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially high. (44992 USD Equivalent, rank 9/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (52443 USD Equivalent, rank 10/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (65375 USD Equivalent, rank 10/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (46018 USD Equivalent, rank 10/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Principals' salaries

    Lower-secondary 25-64 year-old school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in United States. (1.13 Ratio, rank 18/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Upper-secondary 25-64 year-old school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in United States. (1.16 Ratio, rank 19/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-64 year-old primary school heads is one of the highest in United States. (107099 USD Equivalent, rank 1/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-64 year-old lower secondary education school heads is one of the highest in United States. (110271 USD Equivalent, rank 3/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average upper-secondary school heads' actual salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (113562 USD Equivalent, rank 4/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the average actual salaries of 25-34 year-old lower-secondary school heads is relatively high compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (90498 USD Equivalent, rank 2/17 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 55-64 year-old lower secondary school heads is one of the highest in United States. (111357 USD Equivalent, rank 4/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level is especially high. (15 Ratio, rank 9/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the upper secondary level is especially high. (15.3 Ratio, rank 10/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the number of students per teacher in general upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.3 Ratio, rank 7/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the number of students per teacher in public lower secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.6 Ratio, rank 8/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the number of students per teacher in all public secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.9 Ratio, rank 7/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the number of students per teacher in private institutions tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (11.3 Ratio, rank 29/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United States, the number of students per teacher in independent private institutions tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (11.3 Ratio, rank 21/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary students in United States is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5841 Hours, rank 5/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary and lower secondary student in United States is among the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8909 Hours, rank 5/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In United States, compulsory instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (974 Hours, rank 6/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In United States, compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1023 Hours, rank 6/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    Classes in in private primary institutions are comparatively small in United States. (16 Students, rank 25/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively small in United States. (15 Students, rank 31/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In independent private institutions at lower secondary level, classes are one of the smallest in United States among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15 Students, rank 16/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (70.6 %, rank 38/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (86.3 %, rank 36/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (90.2 %, rank 32/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (74.4 %, rank 34/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men with upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (76.6 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is comparatively low. (87.3 %, rank 36/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the share of employed 25-64 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (63.7 %, rank 30/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the share of employed 25-64 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (76.6 %, rank 35/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by field of education

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of educaton is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (80.1 %, rank 25/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of arts is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (80.8 %, rank 14/17 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (87.7 %, rank 22/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (2.5 %, rank 37/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (2.2 %, rank 35/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (1.4 %, rank 32/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (1 %, rank 18/21 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64, with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the largest in United States, compared to other OECD countries. (35.9 %, rank 7/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the smallest in United States, compared to other OECD countries. (25 %, rank 30/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the smallest in United States, compared to other OECD countries. (21.9 %, rank 31/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively low in United States. (2.9 %, rank 33/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively low in United States. (1.2 %, rank 36/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old with a short cycle tertiary education degree is relatively low in United States. (3.5 %, rank 18/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment by gender and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is compartively low in United States. (2.2 %, rank 38/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with tertiary education is high in United States. (12.2 %, rank 8/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (15.7 %, rank 9/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (8.8 %, rank 3/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (8.9 %, rank 8/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (12.5 %, rank 2/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a short cycle tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (16.4 %, rank 8/27 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a short cycle tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (20.1 %, rank 6/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (15.6 %, rank 6/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (26.3 %, rank 5/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (26.3 %, rank 5/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity by gender and educational attainment

    In United States, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (33.6 %, rank 8/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (20 %, rank 2/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (14.9 %, rank 6/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (20 %, rank 3/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is relatively high. (14.9 %, rank 8/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is relatively high. (19.5 %, rank 6/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is relatively high. (8.8 %, rank 5/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United States, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is relatively high. (10.9 %, rank 1/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (68.4 %, rank 26/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite high. (173 Index, rank 7/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (110 Index, rank 25/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (169 Index, rank 3/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (167 Index, rank 5/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United States, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (176 Index, rank 4/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full and part-time workers with tertiary education are comparatively high. (177.3 %, rank 7/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of foreign-born aged between 25 and 64 who work full- and part-time with a short cycle tertiary education are comparatively low. (111.6 %, rank 26/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United States, the proportion of young 25-34 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent attainment earnings is relatively high compared to OECD and other members with available data (162.4 %, rank 3/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers without an upper secondary education earning at or below half the overall median in United States is one of the highest among countries with available data. (44.6 %, rank 3/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education earning at or below half the overall median in United States is one of the highest among countries with available data. (26.9 %, rank 5/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with bachelor's or equivalent attainment compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in United States. (215 Index, rank 3/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with bachelor's or equivalent attainment compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in United States. (224 Index, rank 5/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (74.2 %, rank 32/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (71.8 %, rank 33/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (78.2 %, rank 36/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women (as a percentage of men's earnings) among full- and part-time 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (67.3 %, rank 31/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United States, the proportion of young women's earnings as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with tertiary education working full-time full-year), is relatively low compared to OECD and other members with available data (79.3 %, rank 31/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds without an upper secondary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (62.1 %, rank 28/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds without an upper secondary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (69.5 %, rank 30/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings by field of education

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of education are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in United States. (64.9 %, rank 16/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in United States. (83.7 %, rank 4/15 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in United States. (122.7 %, rank 1/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in United States. (127.4 %, rank 3/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of health and welfare are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in United States. (88.1 %, rank 13/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in United States who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information are high, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (86.6 %, rank 4/14 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in United States who studied in the field of education, are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (66.7 %, rank 16/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in United States who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction, are high, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (123.6 %, rank 1/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in United States who studied in the field of health and welfare, are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (88.5 %, rank 14/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in United States who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics, are high, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (122.1 %, rank 1/15 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of men without an upper secondary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in United States is relatively low (20.1 %, rank 30/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in United States is relatively high (31 %, rank 8/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in United States is relatively high (16.6 %, rank 9/29 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in United States is relatively high (23.1 %, rank 5/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in United States is relatively high. (16.6 %, rank 7/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are inactive NEET (15-29 year-olds) in United States is relatively high. (8.7 %, rank 7/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Among 15-29 year-olds, the share of youth without an upper secondary or post-secondary non tertiary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training in United States is relatively high. (18.8 %, rank 9/40 , 2021) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
    Visualisations
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - United States

    Click on the coverpage to see the full OECD iLibrary version
    Key
    Country Reviews for United States

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.