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Diagram of the education system

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  • Education system in Turkey

    Turkey
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2020)
  • On average, 46% of all upper secondary students enrol in VET programmes in Turkey, a higher proportion than the OECD average of 42%.
  • In 2019, 35% of 25-34 year-olds had a tertiary degree in Turkey compared to 45% on average across OECD countries.
  • In Turkey, in 2018, 25-64 year-olds with a tertiary degree with income from full-time, full-year employment earned 67% more than full-time, full-year workers with upper secondary education compared to 54% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2017, Turkey invested a total of USD 5 586 per student on primary to tertiary institutions compared to USD 11 231 on average across OECD countries. This represents 5% of GDP, compared to 4.9% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2018, 43% of 3-5 year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education and care programmes and primary education in Turkey, compared to 88% on average across OECD countries.
  • Statutory salaries of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of their salary scales are 28% - 28% higher than those of teachers with the minimum qualifications at the start of their career at pre-primary (ISCED 02), primary and general lower and upper secondary levels in Turkey compared to 78-80% on average.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

    Show indicators for which your country ranks among the top or bottom: Sort by:

    Educational outcomes

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 %, rank 29/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7 %, rank 29/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 31/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14 %, rank 41/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.7 %, rank 29/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.9 %, rank 30/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from vocational programmes in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (17.9 Years, rank 33/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the percentage of first-time master's graduates younger than 35 is relatively high. (99.5 %, rank 1/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 32/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Turkey has one of the smallest share of women among 55-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (33.3 %, rank 32/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (30.7 %, rank 4/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (5.2 %, rank 10/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (1.2 %, rank 31/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (6.5 %, rank 32/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate among 15-19 year-olds in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (70.9 %, rank 36/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.4 %, rank 38/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (39.3 %, rank 40/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 40-64 year-olds in Turkey is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.8 %, rank 8/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the average age of new entrants in master's long first degree (LFD) programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.1 Years, rank 21/24 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of new female entrants in master's long first degree (LFD) programmes is relatively low. (52.4 %, rank 19/24 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the percentage of young people expected to enter into tertiary education before the age of 25 is relatively high. (68.9 %, rank 5/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the percentage of first-time entrants into tertiary education younger than 25 is relatively low. (73.4 %, rank 28/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 15-19-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50 %, rank 10/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 20-24-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24.3 %, rank 31/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in school- and work-based programmes among all upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (74 %, rank 8/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.1 %, rank 9/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation expectancy

    In Turkey, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from a doctoral or equivalent programme before the age of 35 ranks as one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 29/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree before the age of 35 is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (1.2 %, rank 30/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Turkey has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree before the age of 30. (1 %, rank 28/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Turkey has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctoral or an equivalent education before the age of 30. (0.3 %, rank 23/27 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Turkey has one of the smallest shares of women graduates from tertiary programmes. (52.8 %, rank 33/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively high. (57.7 %, rank 4/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively high. (39.5 %, rank 8/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30.8 %, rank 9/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.4 %, rank 39/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.7 %, rank 41/42 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humaties in Turkey is relatively large. (15.4 %, rank 7/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law in Turkey is relatively large. (14.2 %, rank 7/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of information and communication technologies in Turkey is relatively small. (0.2 %, rank 41/44 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26.1 %, rank 3/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.1 %, rank 27/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Adult learning

    In Turkey, the proportion of employed adults participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (28.1 %, rank 34/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (13.2 %, rank 36/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (52 %, rank 31/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of adults employed in the private sector and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (27.3 %, rank 34/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (47.4 %, rank 34/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (23.8 %, rank 33/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (8.9 %, rank 33/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over of 249 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (47.2 %, rank 31/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of adults employed in the private sector and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (23.3 %, rank 31/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (42.2 %, rank 32/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (2.8 %, rank 34/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (2.3 %, rank 36/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (2.4 %, rank 24/27 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of adults employed in the private sector and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (2.5 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is is relatively low in Turkey. (1 %, rank 14/19 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low in Turkey. (3 %, rank 34/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Turkey had one of the smallest share of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer. (2.2 %, rank 33/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Turkey had one of the smallest share of adults employed in the private sector and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer. (2.6 %, rank 34/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the number of annual hours of participation of adults in formal and/or non-formal education and training is comparatively high (154 %, rank 4/26 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the number of annual hours of participation of adults in formal education and training is comparatively low (229 %, rank 24/26 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the number of annual hours of participation of adults without an upper secondary education in formal and/or non-formal education and training is comparatively high (135 %, rank 7/24 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the number of annual hours of participation of adults without an upper secondary education in formal education and training is comparatively high (106 %, rank 9/10 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the number of annual hours of participation of adults with upper secondary or post-secondary education in formal education and training is comparatively low (286 %, rank 19/24 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the number of annual hours of participation of adults with upper secondary or post-secondary education in non-formal education and training is comparatively high (113 %, rank 8/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the number of annual hours of participation of adults with tertiary education in formal education and training is comparatively low (274 %, rank 22/26 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Turkey, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively low. (2.7 %, rank 34/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is relatively low. (1.4 %, rank 35/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.8 %, rank 34/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43.9 %, rank 34/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (68.9 %, rank 31/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of education among all national tertiary students in Turkey is relatively low. (5.4 %, rank 30/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics among all national tertiary students in Turkey is relatively low. (2.4 %, rank 32/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies among all national tertiary students in Turkey is relatively low. (1.3 %, rank 35/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of health and welfare among all national tertiary students in Turkey is relatively low. (8.3 %, rank 30/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of education is relatively small. (52.2 %, rank 32/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively small. (66.3 %, rank 30/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively small. (2.7 %, rank 34/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively small. (1.4 %, rank 35/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Turkey has a small share of international students graduate from tertiary programmes compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (0.9 %, rank 28/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Turkey has one of the smallest proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.7 %, rank 38/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Turkey is one of the most attractive destinations to foreign students compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.2 %, rank 10/81 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of national tertiary students enrolled abroad in Turkey is relatively low. (0.6 %, rank 44/46 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of international graduates among first-time short-cycle tertiary first-time graduates is relatively low. (0.2 %, rank 19/24 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of international graduates among bachelor's first-time graduates is relatively low. (1.3 %, rank 28/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of international graduates among first-time doctorate graduates is relatively low. (7.1 %, rank 24/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of social sciences, journalism and information among all international or foreign tertiary students in Turkey is relatively high. (13.9 %, rank 9/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics among all international or foreign tertiary students in Turkey is relatively low. (5.3 %, rank 26/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies among all international or foreign tertiary students in Turkey is relatively low. (0.9 %, rank 34/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all international or foreign tertiary students in Turkey is relatively high. (25.2 %, rank 3/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of arts and humanities is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (1.7 %, rank 30/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (2.3 %, rank 30/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (0.8 %, rank 30/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (1.2 %, rank 30/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (2.4 %, rank 28/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of services is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (1 %, rank 28/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    In Turkey, the share of capital expediture on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.4 %, rank 6/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of current expediture on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (89.6 %, rank 27/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of capital expediture on primary through tertiary is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.4 %, rank 1/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of current expediture on primary through tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (86.6 %, rank 29/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Between 2012 and 2017, the average annual growth rate in total expenditure on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.2 %, rank 1/31 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2015, total governement expenditure is relatively high. (119 Index, rank 2/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of current expediture on secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (89.2 %, rank 30/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of current expediture on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (80.1 %, rank 30/31 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average annual growth rate of total expenditure on tertiary educational institutions between 2012 and 2017 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.9 %, rank 6/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9708 USD Equivalent, rank 30/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5586 USD Equivalent, rank 34/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4002 USD Equivalent, rank 34/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4859 USD Equivalent, rank 35/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7857 USD Equivalent, rank 26/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in Turkey is comparatively low. (4354 USD Equivalent, rank 27/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on tertiary education in Turkey is comparatively low. (6755 USD Equivalent, rank 24/26 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary to tertiary education in Turkey is comparatively low. (4820 USD Equivalent, rank 26/26 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in Turkey is comparatively low. (240 USD Equivalent, rank 22/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the total expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student in primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education, is relatively low. (4594 USD Equivalent, rank 34/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the total annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student in primary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3942 USD Equivalent, rank 33/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the total annual expenditure per student on all levels below tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4526 USD Equivalent, rank 33/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, between 2012 and 2017, the average annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student from primary to tertiary education is one the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.9 %, rank 10/30 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student in primary to tertiary education is one the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5502 USD Equivalent, rank 33/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent students from primary to tertiary education between 2012 and 2017 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.2 %, rank 1/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student in secondary education is one the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4786 USD Equivalent, rank 34/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average annual growth rate of total expenditure per full-time equivalent student in tertiary education between 2012 and 2017 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-4.6 %, rank 28/31 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average annual growth of the number of full-time equivalent students in tertiary education between 2012 and 2017 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.9 %, rank 1/38 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Turkey, expenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (1.7 %, rank 7/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, government expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from initial source of funds is relatively low. (2.4 %, rank 26/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (2.4 %, rank 38/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (1.2 %, rank 9/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26.7 %, rank 2/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Turkey has one of the largest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (24.4 %, rank 9/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively small. (73.2 %, rank 35/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively small. (75.3 %, rank 28/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of public expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (73 %, rank 27/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of public expenditure on primary through tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (75.2 %, rank 23/26 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94.6 %, rank 33/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (61.9 %, rank 41/42 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50 %, rank 37/42 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (41.3 %, rank 22/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially high. (18 %, rank 3/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (12.4 %, rank 36/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31359 USD Equivalent, rank 26/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31359 USD Equivalent, rank 26/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31359 USD Equivalent, rank 25/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31359 USD Equivalent, rank 28/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31359 USD Equivalent, rank 28/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31359 USD Equivalent, rank 21/27 , 2019) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31359 USD Equivalent, rank 28/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the least rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.12 Ratio, rank 33/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (33011 USD Equivalent, rank 28/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (30108 USD Equivalent, rank 25/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (33011 USD Equivalent, rank 28/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (30108 USD Equivalent, rank 26/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (33011 USD Equivalent, rank 28/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (33011 USD Equivalent, rank 22/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.12 Ratio, rank 27/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.12 Ratio, rank 33/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.12 Ratio, rank 33/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.28 Ratio, rank 32/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.28 Ratio, rank 31/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In upper secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is relatively low. (1.28 Ratio, rank 33/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25.1 Ratio, rank 3/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.8 Ratio, rank 8/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (17.2 Ratio, rank 10/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Turkey, the intended instruction time for lower secondary students (in hours per year) is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (843 Hours, rank 24/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary students in Turkey is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2880 Hours, rank 30/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the total intended instruction time for primary students (in hours per year) is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2880 Hours, rank 26/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (720 Hours, rank 21/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary public institutions are comparatively large in Turkey. (26 Students, rank 10/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively small in Turkey. (18 Students, rank 25/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (65 %, rank 38/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (75.4 %, rank 40/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (83.8 %, rank 38/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (56.6 %, rank 38/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (65.7 %, rank 33/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (56.9 %, rank 37/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education is comparatively low. (65 %, rank 31/31 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (64.1 %, rank 33/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (72.2 %, rank 34/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (66.7 %, rank 37/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (63.6 %, rank 34/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (54.7 %, rank 37/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (53.5 %, rank 39/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (82.5 %, rank 42/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (77.2 %, rank 43/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (69.3 %, rank 41/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (58.6 %, rank 42/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education is comparatively . (74.4 %, rank 34/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education is comparatively . (72.9 %, rank 34/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the smallest in Turkey, compared to other OECD countries. (20.1 %, rank 32/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with below upper secondary education is high in Turkey. (38.2 %, rank 6/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with tertiary education is high in Turkey. (15 %, rank 6/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (13.5 %, rank 4/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (16.9 %, rank 3/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively Turkey. (24.1 %, rank 1/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively Turkey. (31.6 %, rank 3/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (9.7 %, rank 5/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (25 %, rank 2/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (72.3 %, rank 9/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (57.7 %, rank 2/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The earnings of women without an upper secondary education are relatively low compared to those of women with an upper secondary education. (71 Index, rank 32/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite high. (167 Index, rank 9/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (71.4 %, rank 30/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (83.6 %, rank 3/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (90.4 %, rank 4/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    (17 %, rank 4/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    (13.2 %, rank 4/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    (21.2 %, rank 3/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Turkey, the proportion of adults without an upper secondary education who reported being interested in politics is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (52.1 %, rank 8/25 , 2018) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
                            
    • While 37% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are in vocational programmes, the share increases to 61% among students over 25.
    • The most popular fields of study among vocational graduates vary at different levels of education. While engineering, manufacturing and construction is the most common broad field at upper secondary level, at short-cycle tertiary level, most students graduate from business, administration and law, or health and welfare.
    • Combined school and work-based learning can help students transition smootly into the labor market. However, only one -third of all upper secondary vocational students are enrolled in school and work-based programmes on average across OECD countries.
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    • Between the age of 3 to 5, 88% of children are enrolled in pre-primary and primary education, on average across OECD countries.
    • The estimated expenditure on all children aged 3 to 5 enrolled in ECEC and primary education amounts to an average of 0.6% of GDP. Only in Iceland and Norway does it equal or exceed 1.0%.
    • The ECEC workforce is at the heart of high-quality education. On average across OECD countries, there are 14 children for every teacher working in pre-primary education (ISCED 02).
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    • In 2019, 45% of 25-34 year-olds held a tertiary degree, compared to 28% among 55-64 year-olds, on average across OECD countries.
    • On average across OECD countries, 17% of first-time tertiary entrants enter short-cycle tertiary programmes. The employment rate of adults with a short-cycle tertiary degree is 4 percentage points higher than those with an upper secondary vocational attainment and they earn 16% more, on average across OECD countries.
    • Based on current patterns, it is estimated that 38% of young adults across OECD countries will graduate from tertiary education for the first time before the age of 30 (excluding international students).
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    • In 2017, total expenditure amounted to approximately USD 9 100 per student in primary institutions and USD 10 500 in secondary institutions on average across OECD countries.
    • After increasing between 2005 and 2012, total expenditure on primary to tertiary institutions as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) has fallen to 4.9% in 2017 on average, below its 2005 value of 5.1%. This is due to educational expenditure rising more slowly than GDP over this period, growing by 17% while GDP grew by 27%.
    • Private sources financed more than 30% of the expenditure, on average, at tertiary level compared to 10% at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level.
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    • There are relatively few young teachers (under the age of 30), and the proportion decreases with the level of education. Young teachers make up 12% of the teaching population in primary education, 10% in lower secondary education and 8% in upper secondary education, on average across OECD countries.
    • While instruction time for students increases at higher educational levels, statutory teaching time in public institutions decreases: teachers in OECD countries and economies are required to teach on average 778 hours per year at primary level compared to 680 hours at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • Between 2005 and 2019, the statutory salaries of primary and secondary general teachers - with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications - increased by 2-3%, despite salaries falling after the 2008 economic crisis, on average across OECD countries and economies with available data.
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    Key
    Country Reviews for Turkey

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Some countries may have provided data refering to another year, to know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.