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Turkey
Overview of the education system (EAG 2021)
  • In Turkey, men are more likely than women to pursue a vocational track. In 2019, 52% of upper secondary vocational graduates were men, compared to 55% on average across OECD countries.
  • In Turkey, 36% of 25-34 year-old women had a tertiary qualification in 2019 compared to 35% of their male peers.
  • In 2018, Turkey invested a total of USD 4 707 per student on primary to tertiary institutions compared to USD 10 454 on average across OECD countries. This represents 5.1% of GDP, compared to 4.9% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2019, 43% of 3-5 year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education and care programmes and primary education in Turkey, compared to 88% on average across OECD countries.
  • Statutory salaries of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of their salary scales are 19% to 22% higher than those of teachers with the minimum qualifications at the start of their career at pre-primary (ISCED 02), primary and general lower and upper secondary levels in Turkey compared to 86% - 91% on average.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (40.9 %, rank 7/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.8 %, rank 41/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (58.3 %, rank 5/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.7 %, rank 42/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22 %, rank 39/46 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11 %, rank 42/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 %, rank 29/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 32/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (75 %, rank 4/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14 %, rank 41/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.7 %, rank 29/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.9 %, rank 30/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (36.1 %, rank 36/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men who attained below upper secondary education in Turkey is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (39.2 %, rank 7/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women who attained below upper secondary education in Turkey is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (42.6 %, rank 6/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men who attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26.3 %, rank 40/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women who attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.3 %, rank 42/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Turkey has one of the smallest share of women among 55-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (33.3 %, rank 33/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Education expectancy

    For women, the expected years in education between ages 15 and 29 are relatively short in Turkey. (5.7 Years, rank 36/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate of 6-14 year-olds in Turkey is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among 15-19 year-olds in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (68.9 %, rank 38/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.7 %, rank 38/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (39.5 %, rank 40/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in public tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92.2 %, rank 7/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in independent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.8 %, rank 22/30 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 20-24 year-olds in Turkey is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51.4 %, rank 5/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 40-64 year-olds in Turkey is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.2 %, rank 6/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 3-5 year-old children in early childhood and primary education in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43.2 %, rank 40/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the enrolment rate of children under 3 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.2 %, rank 36/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 20-24-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27.5 %, rank 33/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99 %, rank 8/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation expectancy

    In Turkey, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from a doctoral or equivalent programme before the age of 35 ranks as one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 27/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree before the age of 35 is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (6.5 %, rank 28/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Turkey has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree before the age of 30. (6.2 %, rank 23/27 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Turkey has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to complete a doctoral or an equivalent education before the age of 30. (0.3 %, rank 22/26 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The share of long first degree master's graduates in public institutions is relatively low in Turkey. (90.5 %, rank 15/22 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of first-time short-cycle graduates is relatively high in Turkey. (39 %, rank 4/26 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates is relatively low in Turkey. (58.8 %, rank 25/30 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time master's graduates is relatively low in Turkey. (2.2 %, rank 19/23 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Turkey has one of the smallest shares of women graduates from tertiary programmes. (53.6 %, rank 30/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively high. (55.4 %, rank 8/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively high. (37.7 %, rank 7/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of male tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (32.8 %, rank 9/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is relatively low in Turkey. (25.7 %, rank 38/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by age

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from vocational programmes in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (17.9 Years, rank 34/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the average age of first-time tertiary graduates is relatively high. (26.6 Years, rank 7/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the percentage of first-time master's graduates younger than 35 is relatively low. (79.5 %, rank 22/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the percentage of first-time doctorate graduates younger than 35 is relatively low. (48.5 %, rank 24/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (8.6 %, rank 38/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.8 %, rank 9/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29.9 %, rank 9/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.7 %, rank 39/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.6 %, rank 42/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humaties in Turkey is relatively large. (16 %, rank 5/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law in Turkey is relatively large. (14.7 %, rank 7/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Turkey is relatively small. (15.2 %, rank 36/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of information and communication technologies in Turkey is relatively small. (0.5 %, rank 41/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Turkey, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively low. (2.6 %, rank 35/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is relatively low. (1.8 %, rank 36/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of arts and humanities is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55.6 %, rank 33/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51.3 %, rank 35/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (44.5 %, rank 35/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (68 %, rank 34/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics among all national tertiary students in Turkey is relatively low. (2.3 %, rank 32/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies among all national tertiary students in Turkey is relatively low. (1.1 %, rank 42/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of health and welfare among all national tertiary students in Turkey is relatively low. (9.4 %, rank 29/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of education is relatively small. (51.5 %, rank 31/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey,the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics ans statistics is relatively small. (44.8 %, rank 32/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively small. (61.4 %, rank 30/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of health and welfare is relatively small. (31 %, rank 28/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Turkey has a small share of international students graduate from tertiary programmes compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (1 %, rank 27/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Turkey has one of the smallest proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2 %, rank 37/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international students entering tertiary education in Turkey is relatively low. (3.1 %, rank 26/31 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of national tertiary students enrolled abroad in Turkey is relatively low. (0.6 %, rank 42/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of international and foreign students enrolled in doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (6.4 %, rank 34/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of international graduates among first-time short-cycle tertiary first-time graduates is relatively low. (0.2 %, rank 18/23 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of international graduates among bachelor's first-time graduates is relatively low. (1.4 %, rank 28/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of international graduates among first-time master's graduates is relatively low. (4.6 %, rank 27/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of international graduates among first-time doctorate graduates is relatively low. (9 %, rank 23/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of social sciences, journalism and information among all international or foreign tertiary students in Turkey is relatively high. (13.1 %, rank 8/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies among all international or foreign tertiary students in Turkey is relatively low. (1.1 %, rank 42/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all international or foreign tertiary students in Turkey is relatively high. (24.6 %, rank 3/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of arts and humanities is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (1.9 %, rank 32/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (2.6 %, rank 31/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (1 %, rank 32/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.3 %, rank 31/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Adult learning

    In Turkey, the number of annual hours of participation of adults in formal and/or non-formal education and training is comparatively high (154 %, rank 4/26 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the number of annual hours of participation of adults in formal education and training is comparatively low (229 %, rank 24/26 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the number of annual hours of participation of adults without an upper secondary education in formal and/or non-formal education and training is comparatively high (135 %, rank 7/24 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the number of annual hours of participation of adults without an upper secondary education in formal education and training is comparatively high (106 %, rank 9/10 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the number of annual hours of participation of adults with upper secondary or post-secondary education in formal education and training is comparatively low (286 %, rank 19/24 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the number of annual hours of participation of adults with tertiary education in formal education and training is comparatively low (274 %, rank 22/26 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Adult participation in non-formal education

    In Turkey, the proportion of employed adults participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (28.1 %, rank 34/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (13.2 %, rank 36/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (52 %, rank 31/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of adults employed in the private sector and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (27.3 %, rank 34/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (47.4 %, rank 34/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (23.8 %, rank 33/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (8.9 %, rank 33/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over of 249 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (47.2 %, rank 31/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of adults employed in the private sector and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (23.3 %, rank 31/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (42.2 %, rank 32/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (2.8 %, rank 34/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (2.3 %, rank 36/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (2.4 %, rank 24/27 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of adults employed in the private sector and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (2.5 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is is relatively low in Turkey. (1 %, rank 14/19 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low in Turkey. (3 %, rank 34/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Turkey had one of the smallest share of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer. (2.2 %, rank 33/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Turkey had one of the smallest share of adults employed in the private sector and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer. (2.6 %, rank 34/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the number of annual hours of participation of adults with upper secondary or post-secondary education in non-formal education and training is comparatively high (113 %, rank 8/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10008 USD Equivalent, rank 31/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5723 USD Equivalent, rank 34/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3945 USD Equivalent, rank 35/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5058 USD Equivalent, rank 35/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8176 USD Equivalent, rank 28/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student on research and development in tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1832 USD Equivalent, rank 30/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in Turkey is comparatively low. (4468 USD Equivalent, rank 26/27 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on tertiary education in Turkey is comparatively low. (8037 USD Equivalent, rank 22/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary to tertiary education in Turkey is comparatively low. (5152 USD Equivalent, rank 24/24 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in Turkey is comparatively low. (239 USD Equivalent, rank 21/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary educational services on primary to tertiary education in Turkey is comparatively low. (220 USD Equivalent, rank 21/23 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student on research and development for primary to tertiary education in Turkey is comparatively low. (351 USD Equivalent, rank 31/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the total expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student in primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education, is relatively low. (4707 USD Equivalent, rank 35/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    At primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level, the public expenditure on public educational institutions per full-time equivalent student is comparatively low in Turkey. (3655 USD Equivalent, rank 35/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4732 USD Equivalent 2015, rank 35/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The public expenditure per full-time equivalent student from primary to tertiary education is relatively low in Turkey. (4518 USD Equivalent, rank 34/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5752 USD Equivalent 2015, rank 33/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The public expenditure on public educational institutions per full-time equivalent student at tertiary level is comparatively low in Turkey. (8522 USD Equivalent, rank 30/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10060 USD Equivalent 2015, rank 30/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Turkey, expenditure on primary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (0.9 %, rank 31/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, expenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (1.7 %, rank 7/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (1.4 %, rank 6/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary level is low. (2.4 %, rank 24/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the private expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary level is high . (0.9 %, rank 2/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on educational institutions at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is relatively high in Turkey. (5.8 %, rank 1/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the international expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to tertiary education is high. (0 USD Equivalent, rank 2/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent student from primary to tertiary education is one of the largest in Turkey among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.7 %, rank 1/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of private expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is comparatively large in Turkey. (1.4 %, rank 4/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Turkey is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.1 %, rank 1/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education in Turkey is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.4 %, rank 9/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent student in tertiary education is one of the largest in Turkey. (7.2 %, rank 1/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    At tertiary level, the public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds is comparatively high in Turkey. (1.2 %, rank 9/27 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The private expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on tertiary education is relatively high in Turkey. (0.5 %, rank 6/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on tertiary education in Turkey is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.9 %, rank 2/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on tertiary education in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-3.1 %, rank 27/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27.1 %, rank 2/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Turkey has one of the largest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (27.1 %, rank 6/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of total expenditure on tertiary education is relatively low. (0.8 %, rank 26/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively small. (72.7 %, rank 36/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively small. (72.5 %, rank 32/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2015, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of total government expenditure, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively small. (90 Index, rank 32/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the relative share of public expenditure from initial sources of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (72.6 %, rank 25/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the relative share of private expenditure from initial sources of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27.1 %, rank 2/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The relative share of international expenditure on primary to tertiary education from initial source of funds is relatively small in Turkey. (0.5 %, rank 20/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the relative share of public expenditure from initial source of funds at primary to tertiary education is relatively low. (72.4 %, rank 24/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2015, the share of total public expenditure from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is comparatively large in Turkey. (112 Index, rank 10/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the relative share of private expenditure from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is relatively large. (27.1 %, rank 2/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The relative share of international expenditure on tertiary education from initial source of funds in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.8 %, rank 24/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2015, the share of total government expenditure is comparatively high in Turkey. (125 Index, rank 3/46 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In Turkey, the share of capital expenditure on primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.6 %, rank 5/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of current expenditure on primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (87.4 %, rank 29/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of capital expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively in Turkey. (12.9 %, rank 4/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of current expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (87.1 %, rank 31/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of capital expenditure for primary to tertiary education in Turkey is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.6 %, rank 2/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of current expenditure for primary to tertiary education in Turkey is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (85.4 %, rank 30/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of capital expenditure on secondary education is relatively in Turkey. (13 %, rank 2/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of current expenditure on secondary education is relatively in Turkey. (87 %, rank 33/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of capital expenditure on tertiary education is relatively in Turkey. (17.7 %, rank 3/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of current expenditure on tertiary education is relatively in Turkey. (82.3 %, rank 29/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively low in Turkey. (505 Hours, rank 30/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively low in Turkey. (505 Hours, rank 30/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94.4 %, rank 30/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64 %, rank 42/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.8 %, rank 36/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (41.6 %, rank 20/25 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (58.3 %, rank 33/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially high. (18.2 %, rank 2/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially high. (67.1 %, rank 2/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (21.2 %, rank 34/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (7.2 %, rank 35/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (16.5 %, rank 37/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (14.7 %, rank 37/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in general upper secondary education in Turkey is relatively small. (52.2 %, rank 30/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of women among teaching staff in vocational upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (49.5 %, rank 24/30 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers younger than 30 in primary education is especially low in Turkey. (76.6 %, rank 31/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Females under 30 represent a large proportion of teachers in upper secondary education in Turkey. (66.8 %, rank 10/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of female teachers younger than 30 in tertiary education is relatively large. (54 %, rank 9/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Females aged 50 or more represent a small proportion of teachers in primary education in Turkey. (49.4 %, rank 38/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in lower secondary education is especially low in Turkey. (41.6 %, rank 34/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in upper secondary education is especially low in Turkey. (36.2 %, rank 35/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in tertiary education is especially low in Turkey. (32 %, rank 27/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31967 USD Equivalent, rank 28/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31967 USD Equivalent, rank 28/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30812 USD Equivalent, rank 28/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher can expect to have one of the lowest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (34 USD Equivalent, rank 15/20 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the least rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.12 Ratio, rank 34/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (32428 USD Equivalent, rank 29/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (30740 USD Equivalent, rank 26/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.12 Ratio, rank 27/28 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.12 Ratio, rank 34/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.12 Ratio, rank 34/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In pre-primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is relatively low. (1.22 Ratio, rank 23/28 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.22 Ratio, rank 32/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.19 Ratio, rank 33/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In upper secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is relatively low. (1.19 Ratio, rank 34/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.2 Ratio, rank 5/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.8 Ratio, rank 10/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (17.5 Ratio, rank 10/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the number of students per teacher in public lower secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.3 Ratio, rank 7/40 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in private institutions is especially low in Turkey. (8.2 Ratio, rank 32/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the number of students per teacher in private upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.8 Ratio, rank 36/40 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the upper secondary level in independent private institutions is especially low in Turkey. (7.8 Ratio, rank 19/23 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the number of students per teacher in all public secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.4 Ratio, rank 10/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the number of students per teacher in all private secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.9 Ratio, rank 35/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the secondary level in independent private institutions is especially low in Turkey. (7.9 Ratio, rank 20/24 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Turkey, total intended instruction time for primary students is relatively short. (2880 Hours, rank 25/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, total compulsory instruction time for primary and lower secondary students is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6251 Hours, rank 34/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, total intended instruction time for primary and lower secondary students is relatively short. (6251 Hours, rank 27/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, total intended instruction time for lower secondary students is relatively long. (3371 Hours, rank 9/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average hours per year dedicated to intended instruction time for lower secondary students in Turkey is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (843 Hours, rank 23/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Class size

    Classes in lower secondary public institutions are comparatively large in Turkey. (26 Students, rank 8/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively small in Turkey. (17 Students, rank 27/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (73.6 %, rank 43/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (50.1 %, rank 38/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (60 %, rank 43/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (65 %, rank 37/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (75.4 %, rank 39/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (83.8 %, rank 32/41 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Turkey. (51.7 %, rank 35/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is compartively low in Turkey. (72.3 %, rank 40/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Turkey. (60.8 %, rank 40/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (65.7 %, rank 33/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (56.9 %, rank 38/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education is comparatively low. (65 %, rank 31/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (64.1 %, rank 33/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (56.6 %, rank 39/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (72.2 %, rank 32/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (66.7 %, rank 39/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (63.6 %, rank 33/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (54.7 %, rank 39/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (53.5 %, rank 40/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (82.5 %, rank 39/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (77.2 %, rank 42/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (69.3 %, rank 41/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (58.6 %, rank 43/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education is comparatively low. (74.4 %, rank 31/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education is comparatively low. (72.9 %, rank 34/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with below upper secondary education is compartively high in Turkey. (78.8 %, rank 8/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is compartively low in Turkey. (82.9 %, rank 35/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Turkey. (25.9 %, rank 39/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is compartively low in Turkey. (61.8 %, rank 42/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Turkey. (33.6 %, rank 42/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (14.9 %, rank 7/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with below upper secondary education is high in Turkey. (38.2 %, rank 9/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with tertiary education is high in Turkey. (15 %, rank 10/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (13.5 %, rank 4/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (16.9 %, rank 5/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (24.1 %, rank 1/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (31.6 %, rank 2/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (9.7 %, rank 7/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (25 %, rank 2/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (71.9 %, rank 8/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (60.7 %, rank 2/27 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The earnings of women without an upper secondary education are relatively low compared to those of women with an upper secondary education. (70 Index, rank 34/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (70.6 %, rank 31/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (80.4 %, rank 5/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (88 %, rank 5/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of youth neither employed nor in education or training (15-19 year-olds) in Turkey is relatively high. (17 %, rank 3/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of youth neither employed nor in education or training among 15-29 year-olds in Turkey is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.8 %, rank 4/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Among 15-29 year-olds, the share of youth without an upper secondary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training in Turkey is relatively high. (29.1 %, rank 3/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of young men who are neither employed nor in education or training among 15-19 year-olds is comparatively large. (13.2 %, rank 3/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the percentage of women neither employed nor in education or training among 15-19 year-olds is relatively high . (21.2 %, rank 3/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Turkey, the proportion of adults without an upper secondary education who reported being interested in politics is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (52.1 %, rank 8/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Participation in education by gender

    The share of women among tertiary education new entrants is one of the smallest compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.6 %, rank 35/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering bachelor's programmes in Turkey is relatively small. (51.1 %, rank 37/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the proportion of women (excluding international students) expected to enter bachelor's programmes before the age of 25 is relatively small. (36.3 %, rank 28/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    The share of new entrants younger than 25 in bachelor's or equivalent programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (73.3 %, rank 34/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the average age of new entrants in master's long first degree (LFD) programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.4 Years, rank 20/24 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the percentage of young people expected to enter in a bachelor's or equivalent programme before the age of 25 is relatively low. (37.1 %, rank 32/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the percentage of young people expected to enter into tertiary education before the age of 25 is relatively high. (72.3 %, rank 1/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the percentage of first-time entrants into tertiary education younger than 25 is relatively low. (71.1 %, rank 30/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The average age of new entrants in tertiary education in Turkey is comparatively old. (23.9 Years, rank 4/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of youth (excluding international students) expected to enter bachelor's or equivalent programme before the age of 25 is comparatively low in Turkey. (35.1 %, rank 26/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of youth (excluding international students) expected to enter tertiary education before the age of 25 is comparatively high in Turkey. (69.6 %, rank 2/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Turkey, the share of first-time entrants into bachelor's or equivalent programmes before the age of 25 is relatively low. (73.3 %, rank 34/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of young people expected to enter master's programmes before the age of 30 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.7 %, rank 29/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Excluding international students, Turkey has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to enter master's programmes before turning 30. (8 %, rank 24/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Excluding international students, Turkey has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to enter master's programmes before turning 25. (0.7 %, rank 30/35 , 2019) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
                            
    • One in five adults across the OECD has not attained upper secondary education.
    • In 2020, the unemployment rate of adults that had not completed upper secondary education was almost twice as high as those with higher qualifications, and 27% of these adults earn only at or below half the median on average across OECD countries.
    • In 2019, at least 10% of school-aged youth were not in school in about a quarter of OECD countries.
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    • In 2019, women made up 55% of new entrants to tertiary education on average. If current patterns continue, it is expected that 46% of young women will graduate with a tertiary degree for the first time before they turn 30, 15 percentage points more than men.
    • Women also earn on average about 76-78% of men’s salaries regardless of educational attainment, although the gender gap narrowed by 2 percentage points between 2013 and 2019.
    • Women are less likely than men to enter a STEM field of study, and the average share remained generally stable between 2013 and 2019.
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    • On average across countries, expenditure on educational institutions amounted to approximately USD 9 300 per student at pre-primary level; USD 10 500 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non tertiary level; and USD 17 100 at tertiary level.
    • The public sector funds 90% of total expenditure on primary and secondary institutions on average, often compulsory in most OECD countries, compared to 83% at pre-primary level and 66% at tertiary level.
    • In 2018, the OECD countries spent on average 4.9% of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on primary to tertiary educational institutions.
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    • In 2019, less than 5% of pre-primary teachers were men, compared to 18% at primary level, 40% at upper secondary level and more than 50% at tertiary level on average.
    • Between 2005 and 2020, on average across OECD countries and economies with available data for all reference years, the statutory salaries of teachers with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications increased by 3% at primary level, 4% at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 2% at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • In most countries, teachers above 50 years of age make up more than a third of the teaching force.
    • Attracting male teachers to the profession can be difficult: While the average actual salary of female teachers is equal to or higher than the average salary of other full-time, tertiary-educated women, primary and secondary male teachers earn between 76% and 85% of the average earnings of other full-time, tertiary-educated men.
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    • On average across OECD countries, 87% of children aged 3-5 are enrolled in education on average across OECD countries compared to 25% for children below the age of 3.
    • There are 15 children for every teacher at pre-primary level on average across OECD countries.
    • Half of children enrolled in early childhood development services and a two-thirds of pre-primary children attend public institutions on average across OECD countries
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Turkey

    Click on the coverpage to see the full OECD iLibrary version
    Key
    Country Reviews for Turkey

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.