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Thailand
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Thailand
Student performance (PISA 2022)
  • In mathematics, the main topic of PISA 2022, 15-year-olds in score 394 points compared to an average of 472 points in OECD countries.
  • On average, 15-year-olds score 379 points in reading compared to an average of 476 points in OECD countries.
  • In Thailand, the average performance in science of 15-year-olds is 409 points, compared to an average of 485 points in OECD countries.
  • Average 2022 results were down compared to 2018 in mathematics, reading and science.
  • In all three subjects, average performance was lower in 2022 than in any previous assessment: the decline in mean scores between 2018 and 2022 confirmed and reinforced a decline that began earlier, between 2012 and 2015. Over the 2012-2022 period, performance declined by about 30 points in mathematics and science and about 60 points in reading– in other words, by more than the typical gain that students make, around the age of 15, over an entire school year.
  • Over the most recent period (2018 to 2022), the gap between the highest-scoring students (10% with the highest scores) and the weakest students (10% with the lowest scores) narrowed in mathematics, while it did not change significantly in reading and science. In mathematics, almost all students became weaker, but high-achievers declined by more than low-achievers did.
  • In Thailand, 32% of students attained at least Level 2 proficiency in mathematics, significantly less than on average across OECD countries (OECD average: 69%). At a minimum, these students can interpret and recognize, without direct instructions, how a simple situation can be represented mathematically.
  • Some 1% of students in Thailand were top performers in mathematics, meaning that they attained Level 5 or 6 in the PISA mathematics test (OECD average: 9%). At these levels, students can model complex situations mathematically, and can select, compare and evaluate appropriate problem-solving strategies for dealing with them.
  • In Thailand, 33% of students (the largest share) were in the bottom international quintile of the socio-economic scale, meaning that they were among the most disadvantaged students who took the PISA test in 2022. Their average score in mathematics was 375 score points.
  • Boys and girls performed at similar levels on average in mathematics but girls outperformed boys in reading by 27 score points in Thailand. Globally, in mathematics, boys outperformed girls in 40 countries and economies, girls outperformed boys in another 17 countries or economies, and no significant difference was found in the remaining 24. In reading, girls, on average, scored above boys in all but two countries and economies that participated in PISA 2022 (79 out of 81).
  • In Thailand, 41% of students reported that their school building was closed for more than three months due to COVID-19. On average across OECD countries, 51% of students experienced similarly long school closures. In education systems where performance remained high and students' sense of belonging improved, fewer students experienced longer school closures.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Student performance in mathematics

    The change in maths performance between 2015 and 2018 shows one of the strongest decreases among PISA-participating countries and economies. (-25 PISA Score, rank 40/48 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Student performance in reading

    Over the period of participation in PISA, the average decennial rate of change in mean reading performance of Thailand was among the lowest. (-20 PISA Score, rank 22/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Student performance in science

    The change in science performance between 2015 and 2018 shows one of the strongest decreases among PISA-participating countries and economies. (-17 PISA Score, rank 33/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Educational outcomes

    in Thailand, compared to the share of students who did not attended pre-primary school for at least one year, the share of students who did so having repeated a grade at least once in any education level is one of the smallest among PISA-participating countries and economies, before accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile. (0.15 Ratio, rank 68/72 , 2022) Download Indicator

    in Thailand, compared to the share of students who did not attended pre-primary school for at least one year, the share of students who did so having repeated a grade at least once in any education level is one of the smallest among PISA-participating countries and economies, after accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile. (0.19 Ratio, rank 69/70 , 2022) Download Indicator

    School climate

    Students in Thailand reported feeling relatively less safe than students in other OECD and partner countries/economies. (-0.47 PISA Index, rank 71/74 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Student well-being

    In Thailand, the percentage of students who did not eat because there was not enough money to buy food is particularly large compared to the other OECD or partner countries/economies. (27.6 %, rank 6/66 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Students' engagement, drive and self-beliefs

    The time spent on homework per day in a typical school week in Thailand is long compared to the other OECD and partner countries/economies. (2 Hours, rank 6/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Sense of belonging at school

    In 2015, the index of sense of belonging was one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (-0.34 PISA Index, rank 73/78 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Performance and socio-economic status

    Compared to the share non-disadvantaged low performers in maths, the share of disadvantaged low performers in maths is one of the lowest among countries and economies participating in PISA. (2.09 Ratio, rank 74/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The mean PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) in Thailand is one of the lowest among countries and economies participating in PISA. (-1.23 PISA Index, rank 71/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Thailand has one of the largest differences in mathematics score associated with repeating a grade among OECD and partner countries/economies, before accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile. (-44 PISA Score points, rank 6/76 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Thailand has one of the largest differences in mathematics score associated with repeating a grade among OECD and partner countries/economies, after accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile. (-27 PISA Score points, rank 5/75 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Thailand, a low share of students is in the top two deciles of international economic, social and cultural status (ESCS), compared to other countries and economies participating in PISA. (7.1 %, rank 75/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Thailand ranked among the countries with the smallest difference in mathematics performance associated with principals reporting that the school's capacity to provide instruction is hindered to some extent or a lot by a lack of educational material, before accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile. (-34 PISA Score points, rank 38/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The change between 2012 and 2022 in the number of computers per student at schoolin Thailand is small compared to the other OECD and partner countries. (-0.07 Ratio, rank 34/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of students in schools whose principal reported that the use of cell phones is not allowed on the school premises is relatively low in Thailand. (12.4 %, rank 74/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Thailand has one of the largest differences in mathematics performance associated with a one-hour increase in the time spent per day on digital devices for learning at school, after accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile. (3 PISA Score points, rank 7/60 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in schools attended by 15-year-olds is comparatively high in Thailand. (20.04 Ratio, rank 10/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Between 2012 and 2022, Thailand recorded a particularly significant change in the percentage of teachers fully certified by the appropriate authority, compared to the other OECD and partner countries/economies. (-4.4 %, rank 8/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Teachers' engagement, motivation and drive

    Thailand has one of the highest levels of preparedness for digital learning among OECD and partner countries/economies. (0.69 Ratio, rank 4/70 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Governance

    Schools in Thailand are highly autonomous, as measured by the percentage of tasks for which they have considerable responsibility. (0.4 PISA Index, rank 10/66 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Thailand, compared to attending a public school, the difference in mathematics performance associated with attendance at private schools is among the smallest of the OECD and partner countries/economies, before accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile. (-22 PISA Score points, rank 47/48 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Thailand has a relatively small difference in the index of preparedness for digital learning between private and public schools. (-0.3 PISA Index, rank 29/29 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Thailand has a school system where school selectivity is more intense than in the other OECD and partner countries/economies. (2.93 PISA Index, rank 4/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    COVID-19 effects on education

    In Thailand, the schools were relatively well prepared for remote instruction before the pandemic, compared to other OECD and partner countries/economies. (0.58 PISA Index, rank 7/77 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Thailand, the schools were relatively well prepared for remote instruction after the pandemic, compared to other OECD and partner countries/economies. (0.45 PISA Index, rank 4/48 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Schools in Thailand developed few actions and activities to maintain learning, compared to other OECD and partner countries/economies. (-0.37 PISA Index, rank 74/77 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Thailand ranked among the countries where students reported a relatively low feeling of confidence in their capacity for self-directed learning, compared to the other OECD and partner countries/economies. (-0.27 PISA Index, rank 71/76 , 2022) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
    
    • Singapore scored significantly higher than all other countries/economies in mathematics (575 points) and, along with Hong Kong (China), Japan, Korea, Macao (China), and Chinese Taipei, outperformed all other countries and economies in mathematics. Another 17 countries also performed above the OECD average (472 points), ranging from Estonia (510 points) to New Zealand (479 points).
    • Boys outperformed girls in mathematics by nine score points and girls outperformed boys in reading by 24 score points on average across OECD countries. In science, the performance difference between boys and girls is not significant.
    • An average of 69% of students are at least basically proficient in mathematics in OECD countries. This means they are beginning to demonstrate the ability and initiative to use mathematics in simple real-life situations.
    • In 16 out of 81 countries/economies participating in PISA 2022, more than 10% of students attained Level 5 or 6 proficiency, meaning they are high-performing: they understand that a problem is quantitative in nature and can formulate complex mathematical models to solve it. By contrast, less than 5% of students are high-performing in 42 countries/economies.
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    • Singapore scored significantly higher than all other countries/economies in reading (543 points) and science (561 points). Behind Singapore, Ireland performed as well as Estonia, Japan, Korea and Chinese Taipei while another 14 education systems performed above the OECD average in reading (476 points), ranging from Macao (China) (510 points) to Italy (482 points).
    • About three out of four students have achieved basic proficiency in reading in OECD countries.
    • In reading, an OECD average of 7% of students attained the highest proficiency levels of 5 or 6. In 13 countries/economies, more than 10% of students are top performers in reading.
    • No change in the OECD average over consecutive PISA assessments up to 2018 has ever exceeded five points in reading: in PISA 2022, however, the OECD average dropped by about 10 score points in reading compared to PISA 2018.. The unprecedented drops reading point to the shock effect of COVID-19 on most countries.
    • Only four countries and economies improved their performance between PISA 2018 and 2022 in all three subjects: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, the Dominican Republic and Chinese Taipei.
    • Trend analysis of PISA results reveals a decades-long decline that began well before the pandemic. In reading, performances peaked in 2012 and 2009, respectively, before dipping while performance began a downward descent in mathematics before 2018 in Australia, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Iceland, Korea, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Slovak Republic and Switzerland.
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    • Mean performance in science remained stable.
    • In science, the highest-performing education systems are Singapore, Japan, Macao (China), Chinese Taipei, Korea, Estonia, Hong Kong (China) and Canada. Finland performed as well as Canada in science. In addition to these nine countries and economies, another 15 education systems also performed above the OECD average in science (485 points), ranging from Australia (507 points) to Belgium (491 points).
    • About three out of four students have achieved basic proficiency science in OECD countries.
    • In science, an OECD average of 7% of students attained the highest proficiency levels of 5 or 6. In 14 countries/economies, more than 10% of students are top performers in science.
    • Only four countries and economies improved their performance between PISA 2018 and 2022 in all three subjects: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, the Dominican Republic and Chinese Taipei.
    • Trend analysis of PISA results reveals a decades-long decline that began well before the pandemic. In science, performances peaked in 2012 and 2009, respectively, before dipping. while performance began a downward descent in mathematics before 2018 in Australia, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Iceland, Korea, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Slovak Republic and Switzerland.
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    • Socio-economically advantaged students scored 93 points more in mathematics than disadvantaged students on average across OECD countries. The performance gap attributed to students' socio-economic status is greater than 93 score points in 22 countries or economies and 50 points or fewer in 13 countries or economies.
    • Boys outperformed girls in mathematics by nine score points and girls outperformed boys in reading by 24 score points on average across OECD countries. In science, the performance difference between boys and girls is not significant.
    • Non-immigrant students scored 29 points more than immigrant students in mathematics on average across OECD countries but non-immigrant students scored only five points more than immigrant students once socio-economic status and language spoken at home had been accounted for.
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    • Between 2018 and 2022 trends in students' sense of belonging at school were mixed, with equal proportions of countries/economies showing stable, improving or deteriorating trends. Of the 47 education systems with improving or stable trends, only 20 maintained or attained a level of students' sense of belonging at school that was at or above the OECD average. 
    • Around 10% of students reported feeling unsafe on their way to or from school, or in places outside of the classroom, on average across OECD countries. Some 20% of students reported that they are bullied at least a few times a month.
    • Overall, students felt more confident about using digital technology for learning remotely during future school closures than they felt about taking responsibility for their own learning. For instance, on average across OECD countries, about three out of four students reported that they feel confident or very confident about using a learning-management system, a school learning platform or a video communication program, as well as about finding learning resources online on their own.
    • Students' experience with learning at home was more positive in systems that were better prepared for remote learning. However, when learning remotely, 40% of all students reported feeling lonely and 50% of all students reported feeling anxious about schoolwork and that they fell behind in their studies; and three in ten students reported that teachers were not available when needed, on average across OECD countries. 
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Thailand

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Thailand

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.