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Slovak Republic
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Slovak Republic
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In the Slovak Republic, 21% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education and 43% in vocational upper secondary education. A further 13% are enrolled in lower secondary programmes and 5% in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 23% in vocational upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • In the Slovak Republic,50% of 25-34 year-olds have a vocational education and training (VET) qualification as their highest level of attainment: 48% at upper secondary level, 2% at post-secondary non-tertiary level.
  • Workers in the Slovak Republic aged 25-34 with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment earn 12% more than those without upper secondary attainment, whereas the earning advantage for workers with general upper secondary attainment is 13%.
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, the Slovak Republic spends USD 9 626 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647.
  • On average,annual statutory salaries for upper secondary teachers in general programmes with the most prevalent qualification and 15 years of experience are USD 53 456 across the OECD. In the Slovak Republic, the corresponding salary adjusted for purchasing power is USD 19 342, which is equivalent to EUR 12 706.
  • In the Slovak Republic,35% of teachers in general upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or older, compared to the OECD average of 39%.Teachers in vocational programmes are on average older than their general programme peers, with 50% aged 50 or above (43% on average across the OECD).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54.1 %, rank 3/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.5 %, rank 43/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64.3 %, rank 2/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (60.2 %, rank 1/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a general upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.1 %, rank 38/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.2 %, rank 38/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5 %, rank 36/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Slovak Republic has one of the lowest percentages of 25-64 year-olds whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (0.2 %, rank 35/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (3.8 %, rank 45/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (49.6 %, rank 1/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.6 %, rank 38/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.2 %, rank 33/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (7.8 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (30.4 %, rank 2/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    Slovak Republic has one of the smallest shares of 25-64 year-old men whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (0.1 %, rank 36/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Slovak Republic has one of the smallest shares of 25-64 year-old women whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (0.2 %, rank 34/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (2.8 %, rank 45/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (4.8 %, rank 45/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old men who attained below upper secondary education in Slovak Republic is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.9 %, rank 44/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 55-64 year-old men who attained below upper secondary education in Slovak Republic is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.6 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Slovak Republic is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (4.9 %, rank 38/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Slovak Republic is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (4.2 %, rank 38/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Slovak Republic is one of the highest among countries with available data. (37.8 %, rank 2/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Slovak Republic is one of the highest among countries with available data. (60.9 %, rank 1/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of arts is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (1.4 %, rank 17/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business and administration is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (10.2 %, rank 14/17 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of law is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (3 %, rank 11/15 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (13.3 %, rank 30/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health (medical and dental) is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (2.6 %, rank 13/14 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    In Slovak Republic, the share of first-time entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (2 %, rank 24/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance by field of education and gender

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.1 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic,the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics ans statistics is relatively small. (40.7 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.3 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in engineering, manufacturing and construction in Slovak Republic is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (26.5 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in information and communication technologies in Slovak Republic is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (16.1 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Slovak Republic is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (32.2 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the share of men among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (37 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering master's or equivalent programmes in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Slovak Republic is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (34.7 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes in education in Slovak Republic is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (4.8 %, rank 21/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes in engineering, manufacturing and construction in Slovak Republic is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (61.5 %, rank 29/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Slovak Republic is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (61.5 %, rank 30/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate of 30-39 year-olds in Slovak Republic is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2 %, rank 38/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 15-19-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66.9 %, rank 4/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 17 in general upper secondary programmes in Slovak Republic is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26.3 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 17 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Slovak Republic is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56.4 %, rank 4/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Slovak Republic is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.5 %, rank 3/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the share of upper secondary students enrolled in programmes giving partial completion or insufficient for completion is relatively low compared to the other countries. (2.9 %, rank 14/16 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (100 %, rank 1/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in post-secondary non-tertiary vocational programmes are proportionally more in Slovak Republic than in the other countries. (100 %, rank 1/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of vocational students as a share of short-cycle tertiary students is among the largest in all OECD and partner countries. (100 %, rank 1/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Slovak Republic has a share of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion with access to tertiary education that is higher than other OECD and partner countries; (100 %, rank 1/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in upper secondary general programmes in Slovak Republic is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.4 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in upper secondary vocational programmes in Slovak Republic is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43.3 %, rank 5/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of two-year-olds in pre-primary education in Slovak Republic is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.3 %, rank 3/80 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (0.2 %, rank 5/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (65.6 %, rank 3/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The percentage of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at upper secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (68.5 %, rank 4/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of long first degree master's graduates in public institutions is relatively high in Slovak Republic. (100 %, rank 1/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the share of first-time graduates in general programmes at upper secondary level is comparatively low. (31.5 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of master's or equivalent graduates in Slovak Republic is among the youngest. (25.3 Years, rank 21/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Slovak Republic has one of the largest shares of women graduates from tertiary programmes. (62.6 %, rank 3/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the share of female first-time graduates in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (65.5 %, rank 3/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law in Slovak Republic is relatively large. (14.6 %, rank 4/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of arts and humanities is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (53.5 %, rank 3/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    In Slovak Republic, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively high. (59.4 %, rank 4/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively high in Slovak Republic. (10.8 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the percentage of female post-secondary non-tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is relatively small. (55.3 %, rank 24/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the share of female post-secondary non-tertiary graduates in the field of services is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (40.9 %, rank 23/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (66.9 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of arts and humanities among all national tertiary students in Slovak Republic is relatively low. (7.5 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively small. (0 %, rank 29/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    In Slovak Republic, international or foreign students from North America are least represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 42/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, international or foreign students from Europe are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (89.3 %, rank 2/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, international or foreign students from Oceania are least represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 40/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the percentage of international or foreign students coming from neighbouring countries is comparatively high . (62 Students, rank 3/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all international or foreign tertiary students in Slovak Republic is relatively low. (13.1 %, rank 32/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2 %, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (35.6 %, rank 1/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.9 %, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Adult participation in non-formal education

    In Slovak Republic, the share of 25-64 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (12.7 %, rank 4/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    In Slovak Republic, the salary cost of primary teachers per student is comparatively low. (1587 USD Equivalent, rank 24/24 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the salary cost of lower-secondary teachers per student is comparatively low. (2131 USD Equivalent, rank 23/24 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on tertiary education in Slovak Republic is comparatively high. (1930 USD Equivalent, rank 3/27 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education in Slovak Republic is one of the large among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.3 %, rank 3/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Slovak Republic, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0 %, rank 3/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, total expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to 2015. (117 Index, rank 5/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP for tertiary education is low compared to 2015. (68 Index, rank 36/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2010, from 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is relatively large in Slovak Republic. (6 Index, rank 2/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Slovak Republic is one of the high among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.3 %, rank 3/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, international expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on tertiary education is relatively large. (0.1 %, rank 5/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In Slovak Republic, the share of current expenditure on post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (89.4 %, rank 16/19 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.6 %, rank 3/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers under 30 in lower secondary education is especially high in Slovak Republic. (81.4 %, rank 2/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of male teachers in pre-primary education is especially low in Slovak Republic. (0.4 %, rank 40/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged 50 or more in post secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high in Slovak Republic, compared to the other countries with available data. (51.3 %, rank 4/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged between 30 and 49 in post secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in Slovak Republic, compared to other countries with available data. (44 %, rank 16/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19342 USD Equivalent, rank 34/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19342 USD Equivalent, rank 34/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15836 USD Equivalent, rank 28/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19342 USD Equivalent, rank 34/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.6 Ratio, rank 21/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.76 Ratio, rank 23/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.8 Ratio, rank 23/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher can expect to have one of the lowest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (34 USD Equivalent, rank 26/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher can expect to have one of the lowest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27 USD Equivalent, rank 28/29 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher can expect to have one of the lowest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30 USD Equivalent, rank 28/29 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual pre-primary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22021 USD Equivalent, rank 24/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28168 USD Equivalent, rank 26/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28168 USD Equivalent, rank 27/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29488 USD Equivalent, rank 26/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19342 USD Equivalent, rank 35/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19342 USD Equivalent, rank 35/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15836 USD Equivalent, rank 28/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19342 USD Equivalent, rank 35/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the least rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.29 Ratio, rank 31/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially low. (16798 USD Equivalent, rank 37/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (18882 USD Equivalent, rank 34/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (21636 USD Equivalent, rank 34/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially low. (16798 USD Equivalent, rank 37/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (18882 USD Equivalent, rank 34/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for upper secondary teachers with minimum training are especially low. (16798 USD Equivalent, rank 37/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (18882 USD Equivalent, rank 35/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (21636 USD Equivalent, rank 35/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for pre-primary teachers with minimum training are especially low. (13559 USD Equivalent, rank 31/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (15468 USD Equivalent, rank 29/29 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (17718 USD Equivalent, rank 28/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.29 Ratio, rank 31/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.29 Ratio, rank 31/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary programmes is comparatively low in Slovak Republic. (7.3 Ratio, rank 19/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the number of students per teacher in government-dependent private institutions tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (7.5 Ratio, rank 14/14 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the number of students per teacher in public institutions short-cycle tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (7.2 Ratio, rank 20/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the number of students per teacher in private institutions short-cycle tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (7.5 Ratio, rank 16/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the number of students per teacher in government-dependent private short-cycle tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (7.5 Ratio, rank 10/10 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the share of teachers' aides among contact staff in pre-primary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.5 Ratio, rank 17/17 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Slovak Republic, the intended instruction time for lower secondary students (in hours per year) is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (823 Hours, rank 26/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary students in Slovak Republic is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2707 Hours, rank 34/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the total intended instruction time for primary students (in hours per year) is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2707 Hours, rank 27/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students in Slovak Republic is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4117 Hours, rank 4/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, total intended instruction time for lower secondary students is among the longest compared to other countries with available data. (4117 Hours, rank 5/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (33.3 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Slovak Republic. (31.5 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Slovak Republic. (29 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (40.2 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (32.3 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively low in Slovak Republic. (72.2 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively low in Slovak Republic. (83.1 %, rank 24/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (40.1 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (27.5 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Slovak Republic. (45.8 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Slovak Republic. (15.7 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-old men with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Slovak Republic. (25.4 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by field of education

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of arts is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (76.8 %, rank 16/17 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business and administration is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (79 %, rank 17/17 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business, administration and law is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (80.4 %, rank 28/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health (nursing and associate health fields) is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (84.4 %, rank 10/14 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively high. (37.2 %, rank 2/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (38 %, rank 1/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64, with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the smallest in Slovak Republic, compared to other OECD countries. (3.6 %, rank 28/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 3 months to less than 12 months is one of the smallest in Slovak Republic, compared to other OECD countries. (16.7 %, rank 28/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the largest in Slovak Republic, compared to other OECD countries. (79.7 %, rank 1/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the smallest in Slovak Republic, compared to other OECD countries. (13.1 %, rank 26/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the smallest in Slovak Republic, compared to other OECD countries. (11 %, rank 27/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the largest in Slovak Republic, compared to OECD countries. (50.8 %, rank 3/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Unemployment by gender and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old men with below upper secondary education is compartively high in Slovak Republic. (31 %, rank 2/41 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively high in Slovak Republic. (51.1 %, rank 1/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with below upper secondary education is high in Slovak Republic. (49.9 %, rank 2/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (24.4 %, rank 4/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (46.3 %, rank 3/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity by gender and educational attainment

    In Slovak Republic, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women without an upper secondary education is relatively high. (68 %, rank 3/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men without an upper secondary education is relatively high compared to other countries with available data. (33.5 %, rank 4/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Slovak Republic, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men without an upper secondary education is relatively high compared to other countries with available data. (38.6 %, rank 1/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of women without an upper secondary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Slovak Republic is relatively high (82.4 %, rank 1/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men without an upper secondary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Slovak Republic is relatively high (71.1 %, rank 1/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training without an upper secondary in Slovak Republic is relatively high. (76.5 %, rank 1/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are inactive NEET (18-24 year-olds) in Slovak Republic is relatively low. (4.9 %, rank 36/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Slovak Republic, upper-secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.5 Average score, rank 21/24 , 2020) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Slovak Republic

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Slovak Republic

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.