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Russian Federation
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Diagram of the education system

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  • Diagram of education system in country language


  • General methodological notes for ISCED diagrams


  • Education system in Russian Federation

    Russian Federation
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2020)
  • On average, 51% of all upper secondary students enrol in VET programmes in the Russian Federation, a higher proportion than the OECD average of 42%.
  • In 2018, 62% of 25-34 year-olds had a tertiary degree in the Russian Federation compared to 45% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2017, the Russian Federation invested a total of USD 6 090 per student on primary to tertiary institutions compared to USD 11 231 on average across OECD countries. This represents 3.4% of GDP, compared to 4.9% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2018, 83% of 3-5 year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education and care programmes and primary education in the Russian Federation, compared to 88% on average across OECD countries.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

    Show indicators for which your country ranks among the top or bottom: Sort by:

    Educational outcomes

    In Russian Federation, the percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (2.6 %, rank 46/46 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (0.6 %, rank 27/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.4 %, rank 43/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.4 %, rank 26/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.8 %, rank 2/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.4 %, rank 1/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the average age of upper secondary graduates from general programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (25.6 Years, rank 19/23 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    In Russian Federation, the share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (2.3 %, rank 45/46 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (3 %, rank 45/46 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 31/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Russian Federation has one of the smallest share of women among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (36.9 %, rank 26/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of humanities (except languages), social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (0.5 %, rank 30/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (11.3 %, rank 30/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (3.4 %, rank 27/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (0.3 %, rank 32/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (29.7 %, rank 1/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in Russian Federation is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (84.5 %, rank 32/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 40-64 year-olds in Russian Federation is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 37/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the average age of new entrants in master's long first degree (LFD) programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.4 Years, rank 19/24 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of new female entrants in master's long first degree (LFD) programmes is relatively low. (50.4 %, rank 21/24 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary general programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (48.3 %, rank 39/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates among post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes in Russian Federation is relatively low. (34.9 %, rank 22/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.4 %, rank 38/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.8 %, rank 36/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.2 %, rank 9/42 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.1 %, rank 1/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.6 %, rank 37/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law in Russian Federation is relatively large. (15.8 %, rank 5/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is relatively low. (5.2 %, rank 22/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively low. (3.7 %, rank 20/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Adult learning

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of employed adults participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (23.3 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (13.7 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (33.2 %, rank 34/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of adults employed in the private sector and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (17.3 %, rank 36/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (29.4 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (17.8 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (8.5 %, rank 34/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over of 249 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (28.3 %, rank 34/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of adults employed in the private sector and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (12.5 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (22.4 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (2.7 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (2.8 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (1.3 %, rank 27/27 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of adults employed in the private sector and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (1.7 %, rank 36/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (3.7 %, rank 33/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of employed adults participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (0.6 %, rank 33/33 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is is relatively low in Russian Federation. (1.1 %, rank 14/15 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low in Russian Federation. (2.2 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Russian Federation had one of the smallest share of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer. (1.6 %, rank 34/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Russian Federation had one of the smallest share of adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer. (2.2 %, rank 28/31 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Russian Federation had one of the smallest share of adults employed in the private sector and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer. (1.9 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Russian Federation had one of the smallest share of adults employed in the public sector and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer. (2.9 %, rank 35/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the number of annual hours of participation of adults with upper secondary or post-secondary education in non-formal education and training is comparatively high (137 %, rank 5/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Russian Federation, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of arts and humanities is relatively low. (5.1 %, rank 33/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively low. (3.2 %, rank 31/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of health and welfare is relatively low. (8.7 %, rank 30/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of arts and humanities is relatively small. (5.1 %, rank 33/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively small. (3.2 %, rank 31/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in field of health and welfare is relatively small. (8.7 %, rank 30/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Russian Federation is one of the most attractive destinations to foreign students compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.7 %, rank 5/81 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    The average annual growth rate of total expenditure on tertiary educational institutions between 2012 and 2017 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-3.1 %, rank 29/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8629 USD Equivalent, rank 32/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6090 USD Equivalent, rank 33/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5382 USD Equivalent, rank 33/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7750 USD Equivalent, rank 28/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student on research and development in tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (879 USD Equivalent, rank 33/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student on research and development for primary to tertiary education in Russian Federation is comparatively low. (192 USD Equivalent, rank 32/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the total expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student in primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education, is relatively low. (5382 USD Equivalent, rank 32/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the total annual expenditure per student on all levels below tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5048 USD Equivalent, rank 31/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, between 2012 and 2017, the average annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student from primary to tertiary education is one the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-0.2 %, rank 26/30 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student in primary to tertiary education is one the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5712 USD Equivalent, rank 32/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent students from primary to tertiary education between 2012 and 2017 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.2 %, rank 8/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student in secondary education is one the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5048 USD Equivalent, rank 32/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the total annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student in tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8094 USD Equivalent, rank 31/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average annual growth of the number of full-time equivalent students in tertiary education between 2012 and 2017 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-3.8 %, rank 34/38 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Russian Federation, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies. (3.4 %, rank 33/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (2.3 %, rank 40/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (3 %, rank 38/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.6 %, rank 29/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, total public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (8.9 %, rank 33/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in primary school is especially low. (170 Days, rank 33/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary school is especially high. (210 Days, rank 1/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.2 %, rank 7/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (82.6 %, rank 3/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (62 %, rank 1/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (78.2 %, rank 2/21 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.6 Ratio, rank 27/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (22.9 Ratio, rank 4/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the ratio of students to teaching staff in bachelor's and tertiary advanced research programmes is one of the lowest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.4 Ratio, rank 23/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary students in Russian Federation is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2393 Hours, rank 35/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, compulsory instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (598 Hours, rank 35/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (803 Hours, rank 31/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly small in lower secondary schools. (19 Students, rank 27/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for primary students is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (169 Days, rank 35/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Classes in in private primary institutions are comparatively small in Russian Federation. (13 Students, rank 30/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary public institutions are comparatively small in Russian Federation. (19 Students, rank 27/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively small in Russian Federation. (12 Students, rank 32/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (63 %, rank 35/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (69.2 %, rank 34/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (77.6 %, rank 10/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64, with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the smallest in Russian Federation, compared to other OECD countries. (17.9 %, rank 24/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the smallest in Russian Federation, compared to other OECD countries. (21.8 %, rank 29/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the largest in Russian Federation, compared to OECD countries. (45.7 %, rank 6/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively Russian Federation. (7.4 %, rank 27/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively Russian Federation. (15.6 %, rank 31/37 , 2019) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
                            
    • While 37% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are in vocational programmes, the share increases to 61% among students over 25.
    • The most popular fields of study among vocational graduates vary at different levels of education. While engineering, manufacturing and construction is the most common broad field at upper secondary level, at short-cycle tertiary level, most students graduate from business, administration and law, or health and welfare.
    • Combined school and work-based learning can help students transition smootly into the labor market. However, only one -third of all upper secondary vocational students are enrolled in school and work-based programmes on average across OECD countries.
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    • Between the age of 3 to 5, 88% of children are enrolled in pre-primary and primary education, on average across OECD countries.
    • The estimated expenditure on all children aged 3 to 5 enrolled in ECEC and primary education amounts to an average of 0.6% of GDP. Only in Iceland and Norway does it equal or exceed 1.0%.
    • The ECEC workforce is at the heart of high-quality education. On average across OECD countries, there are 14 children for every teacher working in pre-primary education (ISCED 02).
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    • In 2019, 45% of 25-34 year-olds held a tertiary degree, compared to 28% among 55-64 year-olds, on average across OECD countries.
    • On average across OECD countries, 17% of first-time tertiary entrants enter short-cycle tertiary programmes. The employment rate of adults with a short-cycle tertiary degree is 4 percentage points higher than those with an upper secondary vocational attainment and they earn 16% more, on average across OECD countries.
    • Based on current patterns, it is estimated that 38% of young adults across OECD countries will graduate from tertiary education for the first time before the age of 30 (excluding international students).
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    • In 2017, total expenditure amounted to approximately USD 9 100 per student in primary institutions and USD 10 500 in secondary institutions on average across OECD countries.
    • After increasing between 2005 and 2012, total expenditure on primary to tertiary institutions as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) has fallen to 4.9% in 2017 on average, below its 2005 value of 5.1%. This is due to educational expenditure rising more slowly than GDP over this period, growing by 17% while GDP grew by 27%.
    • Private sources financed more than 30% of the expenditure, on average, at tertiary level compared to 10% at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level.
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    • There are relatively few young teachers (under the age of 30), and the proportion decreases with the level of education. Young teachers make up 12% of the teaching population in primary education, 10% in lower secondary education and 8% in upper secondary education, on average across OECD countries.
    • While instruction time for students increases at higher educational levels, statutory teaching time in public institutions decreases: teachers in OECD countries and economies are required to teach on average 778 hours per year at primary level compared to 680 hours at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • Between 2005 and 2019, the statutory salaries of primary and secondary general teachers - with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications - increased by 2-3%, despite salaries falling after the 2008 economic crisis, on average across OECD countries and economies with available data.
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    Key
    Country Reviews for Russian Federation

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Some countries may have provided data refering to another year, to know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.