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Poland
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In Poland, the total compulsory instruction time over the course of primary and lower secondary education is lower than the OECD average, at 5 245 hours, distributed over eight grades.
  • In Poland, 36% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education and 46% in vocational upper secondary education. A further 2% are enrolled in lower secondary programmes and 8% in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 23% in vocational upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • In Poland,38% of 25-34 year-olds have a vocational education and training (VET) qualification as their highest level of attainment: 36% at upper secondary level, 3% at post-secondary non-tertiary level.
  • Although an upper secondary qualification is often the minimum attainment needed for successful labour-market participation,6% of 25-34 year-olds in Poland have not attained an upper secondary qualification, lower than the OECD average (14%).
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, Poland spends USD 10 447 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647.
  • In Poland, in full-time equivalent terms, there are 12 students per staff member in general upper secondary programmes (OECD average: 14 students per staff member) and 11 students for every teaching staff member in vocational upper secondary programmes (OECD average: 15 students per staff member).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.3 %, rank 39/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (53.2 %, rank 6/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.5 %, rank 43/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59.6 %, rank 3/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.5 %, rank 37/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.5 %, rank 3/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a general upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.1 %, rank 29/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Poland has one of the lowest percentages of 25-64 year-old adults with less than primary education. (0.3 %, rank 26/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Poland has one of the lowest percentages of 25-64 year-olds whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (0.1 %, rank 36/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (7.7 %, rank 41/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (38.5 %, rank 5/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (13 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (27.2 %, rank 3/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92.3 %, rank 8/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (95.1 %, rank 6/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Poland has one of the smallest shares of 25-64 year-old women whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (0.1 %, rank 36/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (8.1 %, rank 39/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (7.2 %, rank 42/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men who attained below upper secondary education in Poland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.7 %, rank 37/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women who attained below upper secondary education in Poland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.9 %, rank 39/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old men who attained below upper secondary education in Poland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7 %, rank 42/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained below upper secondary education in Poland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.1 %, rank 43/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 55-64 year-old men who attained below upper secondary education in Poland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Poland is one of the highest among countries with available data. (30.6 %, rank 6/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Poland is one of the highest among countries with available data. (46.1 %, rank 4/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of arts is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (1.4 %, rank 17/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (8.1 %, rank 27/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    The share of women among tertiary education new entrants is one of the largest compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (57 %, rank 4/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the average age of new entrants in doctoral programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27.9 Years, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the percentage of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes younger than 25 is relatively low. (16.1 %, rank 32/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of women among the new entrants in master's programmes in Poland is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (70.1 %, rank 1/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of first-time entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (0.2 %, rank 27/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance by field of education and gender

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14 %, rank 36/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively small. (56.9 %, rank 34/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (67.6 %, rank 34/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.4 %, rank 33/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in information and communication technologies in Poland is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (15.4 %, rank 36/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in education in Poland is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (58.7 %, rank 21/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in information and communication technologies in Poland is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (0 %, rank 28/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of men among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (36.5 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering master's or equivalent programmes in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Poland is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (29.3 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering master's or equivalent programmes in education in Poland is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (10.4 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering master's or equivalent programmes in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Poland is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (54.8 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes in engineering, manufacturing and construction in Poland is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (10.5 %, rank 32/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Poland is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (19 %, rank 32/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (50 %, rank 20/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate among 15-19 year-olds in Poland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92.4 %, rank 6/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in independent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31.6 %, rank 7/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the enrolment rate of children under 3 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2 %, rank 33/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 15-19-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56.3 %, rank 7/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 20-24-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.9 %, rank 36/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 17 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Poland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50 %, rank 6/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 in general upper secondary programmes in Poland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43.6 %, rank 10/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Poland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 22/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 tertiary programmes in Poland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 25/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Poland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (47.4 %, rank 5/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 tertiary programmes in Poland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 30/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Poland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (35.9 %, rank 1/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in general upper secondary programmes in Poland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.3 %, rank 7/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Poland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.2 %, rank 7/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 tertiary programmes in Poland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 32/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes in Poland is relatively low compared to the other countries. (16.8 %, rank 34/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (100 %, rank 1/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of post-secondary non-tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion without access to tertiary education is relatively large compared to other OECD or partner contries. (100 %, rank 1/14 , 2021) Download Indicator

    in Poland, the share of post-secondary non-tertiary students among all vocational students is relatively large compared to other OECD and partner countries. (19.1 %, rank 8/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (100 %, rank 1/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (0 %, rank 29/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (37.2 %, rank 1/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Poland has a share of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion with access to tertiary education that is higher than other OECD and partner countries; (100 %, rank 1/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in upper secondary programmes in Poland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (82.1 %, rank 1/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in upper secondary vocational programmes in Poland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46.2 %, rank 4/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in short-cycle tertiary programmes in Poland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 28/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of two-year-olds in other registered ECEC services in Poland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.4 %, rank 2/7 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary general programmes in Poland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.2 %, rank 9/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary vocational programmes in Poland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.6 %, rank 30/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Poland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.4 %, rank 5/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in short-cycle tertiary programmes in Poland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 32/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in master's programmes in Poland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.4 %, rank 3/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in primary education in Poland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 6/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of six-year-olds in ECEC in Poland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98.9 %, rank 1/83 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of six-year-olds in pre-primary education in Poland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98.9 %, rank 1/83 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of six-year-olds in primary education in Poland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.8 %, rank 42/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students enrolled in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (70.9 %, rank 4/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (74 %, rank 1/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The average age of graduates from general programmes at the upper secondary level in Poland is comparatively high. (20.3 Years, rank 5/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the percentage of first-time short-cycle tertiary graduates younger than 30 is relatively low. (40.9 %, rank 28/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of long first degree master's graduates in public institutions is relatively low in Poland. (79.8 %, rank 20/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of first-time short-cycle graduates is relatively low in Poland. (0.3 %, rank 28/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of short-cycle tertiary graduates in Poland is among the oldest. (34.7 Years, rank 2/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of master's or equivalent graduates in Poland is among the oldest. (29.8 Years, rank 4/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (38 %, rank 37/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Poland has one of the largest shares of women graduates from tertiary programmes. (61.1 %, rank 5/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates among post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes in Poland is relatively high. (76.3 %, rank 1/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of female first-time graduates in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (94.7 %, rank 1/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of female first-time master's graduates is relatively largest, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (65.7 %, rank 8/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humaties in Poland is relatively large. (22.3 %, rank 2/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 32/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively low. (0.1 %, rank 25/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of services is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24.2 %, rank 8/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of arts and humanities is relatively low compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (0 %, rank 36/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of business, administration and law is relatively low compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (0 %, rank 32/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of STEM is relatively low compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (0 %, rank 36/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (100 %, rank 1/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of services is relatively low compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (0 %, rank 32/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of services is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.6 %, rank 3/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    In Poland, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively high. (52.9 %, rank 9/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively high. (42.4 %, rank 4/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively high in Poland. (11 %, rank 4/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries. (66.7 %, rank 33/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in all fields is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (64.9 %, rank 2/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the field of education is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (87.1 %, rank 6/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of arts and humanities is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (73.2 %, rank 4/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of business, administration and law is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (65.7 %, rank 4/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (69.6 %, rank 2/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (41.5 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (40.7 %, rank 2/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Poland, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is relatively low. (3.5 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively small. (0.5 %, rank 28/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively small. (5 %, rank 31/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of arts and humanities is relatively high, compared to other countries with available data. (14.7 %, rank 6/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of business, administration and law is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (4.3 %, rank 31/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively high, compared to other countries with available data. (24.3 %, rank 5/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of new entrants in education bachelor's programmes is comparatively smallest, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (4 %, rank 34/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the proportion of new entrants in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics master's programmes is relatively low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.1 %, rank 34/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of new entrants in Information and communication tecnologies master's programmes is one of the lowest, compared to other countries with available data. (1 %, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is comparatively low in Poland, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.5 %, rank 32/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of services is one of the low among countries with available data. (0 %, rank 28/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the proportion of new entrants in science, technology, engineering and mathematics master's programmes is especially low, compared to the other countries with other data. (9 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of new entrants in engineering, manufacturing and construction master's programmes is relatively low in Poland among countries with available data. (4.8 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    In Poland, the proportion of international graduates among first-time short-cycle tertiary first-time graduates is relatively low. (0 %, rank 23/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in master's programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.3 %, rank 34/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.4 %, rank 8/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the percentage of international or foreign students coming from neighbouring countries is comparatively high . (61 Students, rank 4/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of social sciences, journalism and information among all international or foreign tertiary students in Poland is relatively high. (15.8 %, rank 4/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics among all international or foreign tertiary students in Poland is relatively low. (3.3 %, rank 29/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all international or foreign tertiary students in Poland is relatively low. (7.4 %, rank 35/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 33/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.2 %, rank 4/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 38/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3 %, rank 28/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (36.4 %, rank 6/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (33.3 %, rank 6/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of students enrolled in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics among all international or foreign students is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (16.5 %, rank 34/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Adult learning

    In Poland, the percentage of training costs as a share of total costs in all entreprises in 2020, is one of the among the other OECD and partners countries with available data. (0.6 %, rank 21/23 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Adult participation in non-formal education

    In Poland, the share of employed 25-64 year-olds participating in at least one job-related non-formal education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.2 %, rank 21/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of 25-64 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (3.1 %, rank 19/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of 25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (2.1 %, rank 24/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (10.7 %, rank 19/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per student in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5841 USD Equivalent, rank 16/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary educational services on primary to tertiary education in Poland is comparatively low. (233 USD Equivalent, rank 25/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education in Poland is one of the large among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.8 %, rank 6/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of current expenditure for primary to tertiary education in Poland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-3 %, rank 40/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Poland, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0.4 %, rank 8/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Poland, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0.1 %, rank 1/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the private expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary level is high. (0.3 %, rank 9/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2010, from 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is relatively large in Poland. (3 Index, rank 9/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Poland is one of the high among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.7 %, rank 10/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Government and private expenditure in education

    In Poland, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of total expenditure on primary to tertiary education is relatively high. (2 %, rank 7/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the relative share of public expenditure from initial sources of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (85.7 %, rank 28/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (87 %, rank 8/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2015, the share of total government expenditure is comparatively highest in Poland. (136 Index, rank 7/49 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In Poland, the share of current expenditure on post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (90.2 %, rank 15/19 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of capital expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.4 %, rank 9/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of current expenditure on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (87.6 %, rank 27/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively low in Poland. (611 Hours, rank 32/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively low in Poland. (489 Hours, rank 33/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively low in Poland. (483 Hours, rank 32/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year pre-primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively high in Poland. (1095 Hours, rank 9/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (76 %, rank 10/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (75.8 %, rank 10/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers younger than 30 is especially low. (5.5 %, rank 37/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially low. (4.4 %, rank 33/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially low. (4.1 %, rank 34/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially low. (4.6 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of tertiary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is relatively high, compared to other countries with data available. (56.9 %, rank 9/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of short-cycle tertiary teachers younger than 30 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (1.5 %, rank 21/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of short-cycle tertiary female teachers younger than 30 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (0 %, rank 22/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of teachers under 30 in Poland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.4 %, rank 29/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers under 30 in upper secondary vocational education is especially low in Poland. (3.9 %, rank 25/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the percentage of teachers aged between 30 and 49 in upper secondary vocational education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (58.7 %, rank 5/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged 50 or more in post secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in Poland, compared to the other countries with available data. (36.5 %, rank 16/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of post secondary non-tertiary education teachers under 30 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (6.3 %, rank 6/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged between 30 and 49 in post secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high in Poland, compared to other countries with available data. (57.3 %, rank 5/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25192 USD Equivalent, rank 31/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25192 USD Equivalent, rank 24/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25192 USD Equivalent, rank 31/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.82 Ratio, rank 20/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the change in statutory lower secondary education teachers' salaries with 15 years of experience, based on most prevalent qualifications at different points in teachers' careers is relatively large. (108 Index, rank 6/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (38630 USD Equivalent, rank 19/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (39082 USD Equivalent, rank 20/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (39378 USD Equivalent, rank 21/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31447 USD Equivalent, rank 29/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31447 USD Equivalent, rank 29/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31447 USD Equivalent, rank 21/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the lowest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31447 USD Equivalent, rank 28/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary male teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year men workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.65 Ratio, rank 18/21 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salary of 25-64 year-old lower secondary female teachers is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (39496 USD Equivalent, rank 18/23 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salary 25-64 year-old lower secondary teachers is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (37522 USD Equivalent, rank 19/23 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 25-34 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Poland. (0.72 Ratio, rank 18/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-34 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the lowest in Poland relatively compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (28633 USD Equivalent, rank 20/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 55-64 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the lowest in Poland. (41615 USD Equivalent, rank 18/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially low. (18478 USD Equivalent, rank 35/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (21762 USD Equivalent, rank 33/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (26251 USD Equivalent, rank 32/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially low. (18478 USD Equivalent, rank 35/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (21762 USD Equivalent, rank 33/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for upper secondary teachers with minimum training are especially low. (19235 USD Equivalent, rank 35/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (25766 USD Equivalent, rank 31/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (32778 USD Equivalent, rank 32/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for pre-primary teachers with minimum training are especially low. (18478 USD Equivalent, rank 27/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially low. (21762 USD Equivalent, rank 26/29 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (26251 USD Equivalent, rank 25/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Principals' salaries

    Lower-secondary 25-64 year-old school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Poland. (1.1 Ratio, rank 19/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Upper-secondary 25-64 year-old school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Poland. (1.18 Ratio, rank 17/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-64 year-old primary school heads is one of the lowest in Poland. (53083 USD Equivalent, rank 19/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-64 year-old lower secondary education school heads is one of the lowest in Poland. (53083 USD Equivalent, rank 19/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average upper-secondary school heads' actual salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56783 USD Equivalent, rank 19/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the average actual salaries of 25-34 year-old lower-secondary school heads is relatively low compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (44444 USD Equivalent, rank 15/17 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 35-44 year-old lower secondary school heads is one of the lowest in Poland. (50358 USD Equivalent, rank 18/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 45-54 year-old lower secondary school heads is one of the lowest in Poland. (52773 USD Equivalent, rank 18/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 55-64 year-old lower secondary school heads is one of the lowest in Poland. (54199 USD Equivalent, rank 18/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of lower secondary men school heads aged 25 to 64 is one of the lowest in Poland. (53311 USD Equivalent, rank 18/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of lower secondary women school heads aged 25 to 64 is one of the lowest in Poland. (53004 USD Equivalent, rank 18/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.6 Ratio, rank 27/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (11.6 Ratio, rank 37/46 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level is especially low. (9.9 Ratio, rank 32/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in private institutions is especially low in Poland. (8.6 Ratio, rank 30/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in government-dependent private institutions is especially low in Poland. (8.6 Ratio, rank 16/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the secondary level in government-dependent private institutions is especially low in Poland. (10 Ratio, rank 14/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the number of students per teacher in public institutions tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (10.2 Ratio, rank 34/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the number of students per teacher in private institutions tertiary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (31.9 Ratio, rank 3/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the number of students per teacher in public institutions short-cycle tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (9.6 Ratio, rank 16/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the number of students per teacher in private institutions short-cycle tertiary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (20.4 Ratio, rank 3/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the number of students per teacher in public bachelor's, master's, doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (10.2 Ratio, rank 27/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the number of students per teacher in private bachelor's, master's, doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the highest among countries with available data. (31.9 Ratio, rank 4/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Poland, the intended instruction time for lower secondary students (in hours per year) is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (817 Hours, rank 28/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary students in Poland is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2230 Hours, rank 36/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the total intended instruction time for primary students (in hours per year) is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2453 Hours, rank 28/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary and lower secondary student in Poland is among the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5245 Hours, rank 36/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Poland, total intended instruction time for primary and lower secondary students (in hours per year) is among the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5723 Hours, rank 28/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Poland, compulsory instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (558 Hours, rank 36/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (613 Hours, rank 28/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Poland, compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (754 Hours, rank 36/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    Classes in public primary institutions are comparatively small in Poland. (18 Students, rank 28/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Classes in in private primary institutions are comparatively small in Poland. (12 Students, rank 32/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary public institutions are comparatively small in Poland. (19 Students, rank 27/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively small in Poland. (13 Students, rank 33/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In government-dependent private institutions at primary education level, the average class size is relatively small in Poland among OECD and other partner countries with available data. (11 Students, rank 18/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In independent private institutions at primary education level, the average class size is relatively smallest in Poland among OECD and other partner countries with available data. (12 Students, rank 18/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, classes in primary education are comparatively small. (17 Students, rank 28/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In government-dependent private institutions at lower secondary level, classes are one of the smallest in Poland among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12 Students, rank 19/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In independent private institutions at lower secondary level, classes are one of the smallest in Poland among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13 Students, rank 17/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, classes in lower secondary education are comparatively small. (18 Students, rank 31/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (91.2 %, rank 3/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (49.2 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (88.8 %, rank 10/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (91.8 %, rank 7/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (95.8 %, rank 9/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Poland. (50.5 %, rank 37/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is compartively high in Poland. (91.4 %, rank 4/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (50.8 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively high in Poland. (94.9 %, rank 7/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively high in Poland. (93.1 %, rank 7/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (59.8 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is comparatively high. (94.5 %, rank 3/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (37.3 %, rank 37/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively high. (88.9 %, rank 9/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Poland. (58.6 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is compartively high in Poland. (95.2 %, rank 2/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is compartively high in Poland. (89 %, rank 5/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Poland. (25.4 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low (69.9 %, rank 28/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high (92.4 %, rank 7/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of employed 25-64 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (87.4 %, rank 5/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of employed 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (63.3 %, rank 29/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high in Poland. (88.7 %, rank 7/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by field of education

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of humanities (except languages), social sciences, journalism and information is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (89.7 %, rank 6/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business, administration and law is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (91.7 %, rank 3/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (89.3 %, rank 4/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (93.3 %, rank 2/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (1.9 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (2 %, rank 37/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (1.2 %, rank 44/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (2 %, rank 38/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (1 %, rank 36/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (2.8 %, rank 26/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (3.3 %, rank 30/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64, with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the smallest in Poland, compared to other OECD countries. (22.2 %, rank 19/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the smallest in Poland, compared to OECD countries. (25 %, rank 28/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (3.7 %, rank 27/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (4.6 %, rank 30/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively low in Poland. (2.8 %, rank 34/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively low in Poland. (1.5 %, rank 33/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment by gender and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (2.5 %, rank 37/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is comparatively low. (1.2 %, rank 43/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively low. (1.2 %, rank 43/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is compartively low in Poland. (1.8 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Poland. (3.1 %, rank 40/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is compartively low in Poland. (2 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Poland. (2.1 %, rank 36/41 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Poland. (1.8 %, rank 37/41 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (3.1 %, rank 27/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.4 %, rank 32/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.2 %, rank 25/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.6 %, rank 26/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with below upper secondary education is high in Poland. (43.7 %, rank 3/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with tertiary education is low in Poland. (6.8 %, rank 39/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (46.9 %, rank 2/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (7.7 %, rank 38/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (22.8 %, rank 5/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity by gender and educational attainment

    In Poland, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women without an upper secondary education is relatively high. (56.6 %, rank 7/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the inactivity rate 25-64 year-old women without an upper secondary education is relatively high compared to other countries with available data. (59.6 %, rank 4/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men without an upper secondary education is relatively high compared to other countries with available data. (35.8 %, rank 3/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men without an upper secondary education is relatively high compared to other countries with available data. (35.8 %, rank 3/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (8.5 %, rank 28/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (10.5 %, rank 30/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (26.5 %, rank 8/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (34.6 %, rank 5/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (4.7 %, rank 24/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (33.7 %, rank 10/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (5.6 %, rank 36/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is relatively low. (3 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is relatively low. (4.4 %, rank 41/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The earnings of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education. (86 Index, rank 9/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers with a master's, doctoral or equivalent education degree are comparatively low. (158.9 %, rank 28/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the proportion of young 25-34 year-old adults with post-secondary non-tertiary education, is relatively low compared to OECD and other members with available data (97 %, rank 16/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers without an upper secondary education earning at or below half the overall median in Poland is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education earning more than twice the overall median in Poland is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (3.9 %, rank 32/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education earning at or below half the overall median in Poland is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 38/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with tertiary education earning at or below half the overall median in Poland is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (0 %, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (87.8 %, rank 10/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women (as a percentage of men's earnings) among full- and part-time 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education are one of the highest among countries with available data. (81.1 %, rank 5/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the proportion of young women's earnings as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with tertiary education working full-time full-year), is relatively low compared to OECD and other members with available data (75.4 %, rank 35/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds without an upper secondary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (79.3 %, rank 23/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of women without an upper secondary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Poland is relatively high (77.9 %, rank 3/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men without an upper secondary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Poland is relatively high (45.5 %, rank 4/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training without an upper secondary in Poland is relatively high. (55.9 %, rank 4/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Poland is relatively high (33 %, rank 7/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Poland is relatively high (21.5 %, rank 9/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Poland is relatively high (28.8 %, rank 10/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Poland is relatively low (6.9 %, rank 21/29 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women who are unemployed NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Poland is relatively low. (2.3 %, rank 32/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women who are unemployed NEET (18-24 year-olds) in Poland is relatively low. (2.4 %, rank 29/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of unemployed NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Poland is relatively low. (2.9 %, rank 31/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Poland, below upper-secondary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.6 Average score, rank 2/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Poland, upper-secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.7 Average score, rank 1/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Poland, tertiary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.5 Average score, rank 3/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of adults with below upper secondary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.1 %, rank 17/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.1 %, rank 6/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of adults with a tertiary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.2 %, rank 3/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of Internet users with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.6 %, rank 23/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Poland, the share of Internet users with tertiary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (32.5 %, rank 5/26 , 2021) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Poland

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Poland

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.