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Netherlands
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Netherlands
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In the Netherlands, 24% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education and 30% in vocational upper secondary education. A further 21% are enrolled in lower secondary programmes and 17% in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 23% in vocational upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • In the Netherlands,28% of 25-34 year-olds have a vocational education and training (VET) qualification as their highest level of attainment: 26% at upper secondary level and 1% at short-cycle tertiary level.
  • Workers in the Netherlands aged 25-34 with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment earn 12% more than those without upper secondary attainment, whereas the earning advantage for workers with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment is 20%.
  • In the Netherlands,25-34 year-old workers with bachelor's attainment earn 34% more than their peers without upper secondary attainment, while those with master's or doctoral attainment earn 58% more.
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, the Netherlands spends USD 15 714 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647.
  • In the Netherlands, in full-time equivalent terms, there are 16 students per staff member in general upper secondary programmes (OECD average: 14 students per staff member) and 18 students for every teaching staff member in vocational upper secondary programmes (OECD average: 15 students per staff member).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56.4 %, rank 8/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a general upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.4 %, rank 31/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.4 %, rank 36/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.3 %, rank 25/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (31.6 %, rank 10/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (1 %, rank 9/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (22.4 %, rank 6/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52.3 %, rank 7/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (23.8 %, rank 10/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Netherlands has one of the largest share of women among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (48 %, rank 6/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Netherlands has one of the largest share of women among 55-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (50.2 %, rank 8/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained a short cycle tertiary degree is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (1.7 %, rank 24/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained a short cycle tertiary degree is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (0.9 %, rank 25/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Netherlands is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (5.5 %, rank 37/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Netherlands is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (9.3 %, rank 32/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (11.3 %, rank 27/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (19.2 %, rank 26/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    In Netherlands, the average age of new entrants in doctoral programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26.9 Years, rank 38/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the average age of new entrants in bachelor's programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.7 Years, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of new entrants in tertiary education in Netherlands is comparatively young. (19.8 Years, rank 30/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance by field of education and gender

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46.6 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively small. (34.3 %, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively small. (13.5 %, rank 34/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Netherlands is relatively small. (27.1 %, rank 33/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands,the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of education is relatively small. (15.4 %, rank 34/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering doctoral or equivalent programmes in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Netherlands is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (29.6 %, rank 36/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in engineering, manufacturing and construction in Netherlands is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (10.8 %, rank 27/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in information and communication technologies in Netherlands is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (11.2 %, rank 25/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Netherlands is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (11 %, rank 28/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (43.6 %, rank 28/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (18.7 %, rank 23/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate of 6-14 year-olds in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.7 %, rank 9/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among 15-19 year-olds in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92.9 %, rank 5/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (68.7 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 20-24 year-olds in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56 %, rank 2/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the enrolment rate of children under 3 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 37/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 15-19-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55 %, rank 10/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54.7 %, rank 33/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 17 in general upper secondary programmes in Netherlands is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (33.2 %, rank 36/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 17 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43.6 %, rank 10/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 in general upper secondary programmes in Netherlands is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.8 %, rank 35/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (44.8 %, rank 6/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 in general upper secondary programmes in Netherlands is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.2 %, rank 35/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (34.3 %, rank 2/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in general upper secondary programmes in Netherlands is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.7 %, rank 34/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.3 %, rank 1/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of lower secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes in Netherlands is one of the lowest compared to other countries with available data. (16.9 %, rank 17/22 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Netherlands has one of the largest shares of lower secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes. (6.8 %, rank 7/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes in Netherlands is relatively high compared to the other countries. (23.1 %, rank 10/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion without access to tertiary education in Netherlands is relatively high compared to the other countries. (45.3 %, rank 5/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, upper secondary vocational students among all vocational students are relatively more numerous than in other OECD or partner countries. (87.1 %, rank 7/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of vocational students as a share of short-cycle tertiary students is among the largest in all OECD and partner countries. (100 %, rank 1/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Netherlands has a share of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion with access to tertiary education that is higher than other OECD and partner countries; (100 %, rank 1/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in upper secondary general programmes in Netherlands is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24.4 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of two-year-olds in early childhood education in Netherlands is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 71/80 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary programmes in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.7 %, rank 4/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary vocational programmes in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.4 %, rank 1/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in bachelor's programmes in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (35 %, rank 3/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in primary education in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 6/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of five-year-olds in ECEC in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98.8 %, rank 6/83 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of five-year-olds in pre-primary education in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98.8 %, rank 4/83 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of six-year-olds in ECEC in Netherlands is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 74/83 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of six-year-olds in primary education in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.6 %, rank 6/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The average age of graduates from general programmes at the upper secondary level in Netherlands is comparatively low. (17 Years, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at upper secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54.4 %, rank 9/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the average age of first-time tertiary graduates is relatively low. (23.5 Years, rank 32/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctorate graduates in public institutions is relatively high in Netherlands. (100 %, rank 1/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of bachelor's or equivalent graduates in Netherlands is among the youngest. (23.4 Years, rank 30/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (50.9 %, rank 10/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Netherlands has one of the smallest shares of women graduates from tertiary programmes. (55.6 %, rank 28/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of female first-time bachelor's graduates is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (55.6 %, rank 29/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27.8 %, rank 9/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.6 %, rank 38/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of education in Netherlands is relatively small. (1.2 %, rank 39/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humaties in Netherlands is relatively small. (6.8 %, rank 38/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of health and welfare in Netherlands is relatively large. (38.1 %, rank 2/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18 %, rank 31/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26.2 %, rank 4/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of STEM is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.3 %, rank 35/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26.2 %, rank 5/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of business, administration and law is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (42.4 %, rank 5/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of STEM is relatively low compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (11.5 %, rank 31/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of STEM is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.6 %, rank 39/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    In Netherlands, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively low. (39.4 %, rank 37/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of female tertiary graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.8 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of female tertiary graduates in the field of sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11 %, rank 35/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of male tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (32.5 %, rank 8/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is relatively low in Netherlands. (30 %, rank 38/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries. (50 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries. (8.9 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field health and welfare is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries. (88.1 %, rank 9/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of arts and humanities is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (57.6 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (48.7 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (46.4 %, rank 39/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Netherlands, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively low. (9 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of arts and humanities is relatively small. (2.5 %, rank 28/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively small. (8.3 %, rank 28/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of new entrants in arts and humanities bachelor's programmes is especially low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.6 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is comparatively low in Netherlands, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.8 %, rank 28/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of new entrants in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics bachelor's programmes is relatively low in Netherlands among countries with available data. (18.9 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of new entrants in health and welfare master's programmes is relatively lowest, compared to other countries with available data. (9.4 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Netherlands has a large share of international students graduate from tertiary programmes compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (13.2 %, rank 8/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Netherlands has one of the largest proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.7 %, rank 8/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of international and foreign students enrolled in doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48.3 %, rank 3/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, international or foreign students from Africa are lowest represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.6 %, rank 34/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of international graduates among first-time short-cycle tertiary first-time graduates is relatively low. (0 %, rank 23/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of international graduates among bachelor's first-time graduates is relatively high. (13.7 %, rank 6/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of international graduates among first-time doctorate graduates is relatively high. (38.1 %, rank 10/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of international students among the new entrants in master's programmes in Netherlands is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (31.2 %, rank 6/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in bachelor's programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.7 %, rank 7/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in master's programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.8 %, rank 10/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (13.3 %, rank 7/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (12.7 %, rank 6/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Adult learning

    In Netherlands, the percentage of training costs as a share of total costs in all entreprises in 2020, is one of the among the other OECD and partners countries with available data. (2.4 %, rank 1/23 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Adult participation in non-formal education

    In Netherlands, the share of employed 25-64 year-olds participating in at least one job-related non-formal education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.6 %, rank 7/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of 25-64 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (10.4 %, rank 7/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of 25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (11.8 %, rank 4/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (5.7 %, rank 6/20 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15714 USD Equivalent, rank 10/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11562 USD Equivalent, rank 9/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15848 USD Equivalent, rank 7/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13715 USD Equivalent, rank 9/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student on research and development in tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7927 USD Equivalent, rank 9/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in Netherlands is comparatively high. (13855 USD Equivalent, rank 10/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary to tertiary education in Netherlands is comparatively high. (13822 USD Equivalent, rank 9/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Netherlands is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16488 USD Equivalent, rank 10/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Netherlands, expenditure on secondary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (2.4 %, rank 5/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, expenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (1.8 %, rank 8/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0.5 %, rank 5/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0 %, rank 3/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Netherlands is one of the low among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 %, rank 26/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, international expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on tertiary education is relatively large. (0.1 %, rank 5/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Government and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.1 %, rank 6/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.5 %, rank 10/46 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, total public expenditure on post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (0 %, rank 17/25 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively small. (86.8 %, rank 34/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In Netherlands, the share of capital expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.1 %, rank 10/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of current expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (89.9 %, rank 27/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively high in Netherlands. (940 Hours, rank 4/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (88.1 %, rank 42/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55.5 %, rank 36/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially high. (14.1 %, rank 8/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in general upper secondary education in Netherlands is relatively small. (55.5 %, rank 30/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers under 30 in lower secondary education is especially low in Netherlands. (61.2 %, rank 30/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in lower secondary education is especially low in Netherlands. (49.3 %, rank 35/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of bachelor's, master's and doctoral level teachers older than 50 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (31.1 %, rank 28/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of tertiary teachers older than 50 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (31.4 %, rank 31/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of tertiary teachers younger than 30 is relatively high, compared to other countries with data available. (18 %, rank 5/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of male teachers in pre-primary education is especially high in Netherlands. (11.9 %, rank 1/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of teachers under 30 in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.9 %, rank 2/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers under 30 in upper secondary vocational education is especially high in Netherlands. (9.4 %, rank 6/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the percentage of teachers aged between 30 and 49 in upper secondary vocational education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (45 %, rank 22/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (84862 USD Equivalent, rank 3/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.79 Ratio, rank 7/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual pre-primary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (71018 USD Equivalent, rank 1/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (71018 USD Equivalent, rank 2/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (79580 USD Equivalent, rank 2/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (79580 USD Equivalent, rank 3/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (84862 USD Equivalent, rank 3/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (84862 USD Equivalent, rank 3/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (79300 USD Equivalent, rank 2/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (79300 USD Equivalent, rank 3/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary female teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year women workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.05 Ratio, rank 7/21 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary male teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year men workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.84 Ratio, rank 5/21 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 25-34 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is high in Netherlands. (1.06 Ratio, rank 4/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-34 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the highest in Netherlands relatively compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (63044 USD Equivalent, rank 1/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 55-64 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the highest in Netherlands. (88518 USD Equivalent, rank 2/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the most rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.05 Ratio, rank 4/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially high. (48805 USD Equivalent, rank 6/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (69624 USD Equivalent, rank 4/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (99715 USD Equivalent, rank 2/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (48662 USD Equivalent, rank 7/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (73959 USD Equivalent, rank 4/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively high. (2.05 Ratio, rank 8/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Principals' salaries

    The average actual salaries of 25-64 year-old primary school heads is one of the highest in Netherlands. (98651 USD Equivalent, rank 4/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-64 year-old lower secondary education school heads is one of the highest in Netherlands. (111812 USD Equivalent, rank 2/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average upper-secondary school heads' actual salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (111812 USD Equivalent, rank 5/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the average actual salaries of 25-34 year-old lower-secondary school heads is relatively high compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (89293 USD Equivalent, rank 4/17 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 55-64 year-old lower secondary school heads is one of the highest in Netherlands. (114511 USD Equivalent, rank 2/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.9 Ratio, rank 9/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level is especially high. (15.7 Ratio, rank 8/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the upper secondary level is especially high. (17.4 Ratio, rank 7/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the number of students per teacher in general upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.7 Ratio, rank 6/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the vocational upper secondary level is especially high in Netherlands. (18.3 Ratio, rank 5/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the number of students per teacher in public lower secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.7 Ratio, rank 6/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in private institutions is especially high in Netherlands. (15.7 Ratio, rank 6/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the number of students per teacher in all public secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.5 Ratio, rank 5/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the number of students per teacher in all private secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.6 Ratio, rank 6/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the number of students per teacher in independent private institutions tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (14.9 Ratio, rank 18/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the number of students per teacher in public institutions short-cycle tertiary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (16.3 Ratio, rank 7/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the number of students per teacher in private institutions short-cycle tertiary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (16.3 Ratio, rank 5/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the number of students per teacher in private bachelor's, master's, doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (14.8 Ratio, rank 23/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the number of students per teacher in independent private bachelor's, master's, doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (14.8 Ratio, rank 16/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Netherlands, the intended instruction time for lower secondary students (in hours per year) is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1000 Hours, rank 9/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary students in Netherlands is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5640 Hours, rank 6/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the total intended instruction time for primary students (in hours per year) is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5640 Hours, rank 6/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary and lower secondary student in Netherlands is among the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8640 Hours, rank 6/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, total intended instruction time for primary and lower secondary students (in hours per year) is among the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8640 Hours, rank 6/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, compulsory instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (940 Hours, rank 7/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (940 Hours, rank 7/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1000 Hours, rank 8/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    Classes in public primary institutions are comparatively large in Netherlands. (23 Students, rank 7/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (67.6 %, rank 6/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (84.1 %, rank 4/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (91.6 %, rank 8/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is compartively high in Netherlands. (67.4 %, rank 8/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is compartively high in Netherlands. (91.5 %, rank 3/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively high in Netherlands. (86.7 %, rank 4/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively high in Netherlands. (76.1 %, rank 4/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (89.6 %, rank 4/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education is comparatively high. (96.3 %, rank 1/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively high in Netherlands. (89.9 %, rank 7/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively high in Netherlands. (93.5 %, rank 6/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (76.9 %, rank 10/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (57.3 %, rank 7/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively high in Netherlands. (54.1 %, rank 9/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is compartively high in Netherlands. (90.7 %, rank 2/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively high in Netherlands. (82.4 %, rank 4/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively high in Netherlands. (54.8 %, rank 5/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high (85.2 %, rank 2/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high (93.6 %, rank 5/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of employed 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (80.7 %, rank 5/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of employed 25-64 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (90.2 %, rank 4/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by field of education

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of arts is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (89.2 %, rank 2/17 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of humanities (except languages), social sciences, journalism and information is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (88.6 %, rank 9/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business, administration and law is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (91.3 %, rank 4/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (87.7 %, rank 8/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (92.3 %, rank 5/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health (medical and dental) is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (88.9 %, rank 12/14 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively low. (6.3 %, rank 36/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (3.3 %, rank 40/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively low. (3 %, rank 36/41 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (3.4 %, rank 39/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (2.4 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education degree is one the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (1.8 %, rank 28/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (2 %, rank 33/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (4 %, rank 27/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the largest in Netherlands, compared to other OECD countries. (45.3 %, rank 4/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the smallest in Netherlands, compared to OECD countries. (20.7 %, rank 32/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (2.4 %, rank 33/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment by gender and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old men without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (2.9 %, rank 39/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (2.2 %, rank 40/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old women without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (4 %, rank 37/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old women with upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (2.6 %, rank 38/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old men with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Netherlands. (5.4 %, rank 35/41 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Netherlands. (3.3 %, rank 37/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Netherlands. (8 %, rank 31/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Netherlands. (3.3 %, rank 41/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-old men with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Netherlands. (2.5 %, rank 37/41 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (1.9 %, rank 31/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (3 %, rank 30/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.4 %, rank 30/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.5 %, rank 30/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.6 %, rank 33/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low in Netherlands. (10.3 %, rank 39/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with tertiary education is low in Netherlands. (5.6 %, rank 43/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (8.3 %, rank 27/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (7.1 %, rank 34/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (4.6 %, rank 20/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (3.8 %, rank 34/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (6.2 %, rank 31/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a short cycle tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (10.1 %, rank 28/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (13.9 %, rank 37/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (12.8 %, rank 33/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity by gender and educational attainment

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate 25-64 year-old women without an upper secondary education is relatively low compared to other countries with available data. (40.3 %, rank 36/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (12.2 %, rank 30/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (17.2 %, rank 30/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (4.7 %, rank 24/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (8.3 %, rank 30/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (14.8 %, rank 40/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (18.5 %, rank 37/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is relatively low. (6.7 %, rank 43/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The earnings of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education. (86 Index, rank 9/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (126 Index, rank 27/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Netherlands. (135 Index, rank 6/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Netherlands. (137 Index, rank 8/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Netherlands. (112 Index, rank 20/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Netherlands. (114 Index, rank 21/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education earning at or below half the overall median in Netherlands is one of the highest among countries with available data. (22.5 %, rank 9/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Netherlands. (144 Index, rank 30/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary education or post-secondary non-tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (84.1 %, rank 9/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (88.9 %, rank 8/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women (as a percentage of men's earnings) among full- and part-time 25-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (51.4 %, rank 39/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women (as a percentage of men's earnings) among full- and part-time 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (63.2 %, rank 35/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women (as a percentage of men's earnings) among full- and part-time 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (58.8 %, rank 39/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary education or post-secondary non-tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the high among countries with available data. (85.7 %, rank 8/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of young women's earnings as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with tertiary education working full-time full-year), is relatively high compared to OECD and other members with available data (89.5 %, rank 9/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (93.6 %, rank 3/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (86.2 %, rank 6/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (83 %, rank 9/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (84.6 %, rank 7/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (82.1 %, rank 7/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (83.9 %, rank 4/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (85.5 %, rank 4/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of inactive youth neither in formal education nor training among 18-24 year-olds in Netherlands is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (2.7 %, rank 40/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of unemployed youth neither in formal education nor training among 18-24 year-olds in Netherlands is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (1.4 %, rank 39/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of youth who have been unemployed for at least 3 months but less than a year and not in formal education or training among 18-24 year-olds in Netherlands is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (0.8 %, rank 24/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of youth who have been unemployed for less than 3 months and not in formal education or training among 18-24 year-olds in Netherlands is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (1 %, rank 23/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women without an upper secondary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Netherlands is relatively low (47.1 %, rank 28/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training without an upper secondary in Netherlands is relatively low. (31.1 %, rank 33/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Netherlands is relatively low (10.5 %, rank 29/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Netherlands is relatively low (5.4 %, rank 33/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Netherlands is relatively low (7.1 %, rank 30/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Netherlands is relatively low (4.6 %, rank 26/29 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Netherlands is relatively low. (5.9 %, rank 31/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Netherlands is relatively low. (7.9 %, rank 39/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Netherlands is relatively low. (4 %, rank 37/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary in Netherlands is relatively low. (5.7 %, rank 39/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women with tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Netherlands is relatively low. (3.8 %, rank 38/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with tertiary education in Netherlands is relatively low. (4.5 %, rank 37/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women who are inactive NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Netherlands is relatively low. (3.5 %, rank 40/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women who are unemployed NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Netherlands is relatively low. (1.3 %, rank 39/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women who are inactive NEET (18-24 year-olds) in Netherlands is relatively low. (2.7 %, rank 40/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women who are unemployed NEET (18-24 year-olds) in Netherlands is relatively low. (1.5 %, rank 35/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are inactive NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Netherlands is relatively low. (2.4 %, rank 40/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are unemployed NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Netherlands is relatively low. (1.9 %, rank 38/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are inactive NEET (18-24 year-olds) in Netherlands is relatively low. (2.7 %, rank 39/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are unemployed NEET (18-24 year-olds) in Netherlands is relatively low. (1.4 %, rank 39/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of inactive NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Netherlands is relatively low. (2.9 %, rank 40/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of unemployed NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Netherlands is relatively low. (1.6 %, rank 39/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of youth neither employed nor in education or training among 25-29 year-olds in Netherlands is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.1 %, rank 40/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of youth neither employed nor in education or training among 15-29 year-olds in Netherlands is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.5 %, rank 41/41 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of men neither employed nor in education among 15-29 year-olds is relatively low. (4.3 %, rank 40/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of women neither employed nor in education among 15-29 year-olds is relatively low. (4.7 %, rank 40/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Among 15-29 year-olds, the share of youth without an upper secondary or post-secondary non tertiary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training in Netherlands is relatively low. (3.9 %, rank 40/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of youth with a tertiary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training among 15-29 year-olds is comparatively small. (4 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among 25-29 year-old men in Netherlands, a small share of them are neither employed nor in education or training. (6.5 %, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of young women neither employed nor in education or training (25-29 year-olds) in Netherlands is comparatively low . (7.8 %, rank 40/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 18-24 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively small in Netherlands. (4.1 %, rank 40/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 18-24 year-old men neither employed nor in education or training is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (4.1 %, rank 40/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 18-24 year-old women neither employed nor in education or training is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (4.2 %, rank 39/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Netherlands, below upper-secondary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.3 Average score, rank 22/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, upper-secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.5 Average score, rank 21/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, tertiary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 Average score, rank 24/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of adults with below upper secondary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 %, rank 4/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.1 %, rank 17/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of adults with a tertiary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.9 %, rank 17/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of Internet users without an upper secondary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.6 %, rank 7/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of Internet users with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (29.8 %, rank 4/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of Internet users with tertiary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (33.8 %, rank 4/26 , 2021) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Netherlands

    Click on the coverpage to see the full OECD iLibrary version
    Key
    Country Reviews for Netherlands

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.