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Netherlands
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Netherlands
Overview of the education system (EAG 2022)
  • Between 2000 and 2021, the share of 25-34 year-olds with tertiary attainment in the Netherlands increased at an even faster pace than on average across OECD countries, by 29 percentage points (from 27% in 2000 to 56% in 2021).
  • In the Netherlands, 56% of 25-34 year-olds had a tertiary qualification in 2021 compared to 47% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2020, 92% of 3-5 year-olds in the Netherlands were enrolled in early childhood education programmes education in the Netherlands, compared to 83% on average across OECD countries. The share of children enrolled in private institutions at pre-primary level was 28%. In 2019, the Netherlands spent USD 7 985 on pre-primary educational institutions, below the OECD average (USD 9 598%), 15% was funded by private sources.
  • In the Netherlands, the share of women among general upper secondary graduates is 54% (OECD average 55%). Men make up 49% of all vocational upper secondary graduates, below the OECD average (55%).
  • The share of part-time students at the tertiary level in the Netherlands is 19%, which is slightly below the OECD average (22%).
  • In 2019, the Netherlands spent 5.1% of its GDP or a total of USD 14 720 per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary educational institutions compared to USD 11 990 on average across OECD countries. Education funding reached USD 20 889 per student at the tertiary level, 36% of which corresponds to expenditure for research and development (R&D).
  • Pre-primary and primary teachers in the Netherlands earn 28.2% less than other tertiary-educated workers, while lower and upper secondary (general programme) teachers 12.8% less.
  • Based on official regulations or agreements,annual teaching hours in the Netherlands are 940 hours per year at pre-primary level, 940 hours at primary level, 720 hours at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 720 hours at upper secondary level (general programmes).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    In Netherlands, the share of first-time graduates in general programmes at upper secondary level is comparatively low. (48.9 %, rank 27/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Attainment

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55.6 %, rank 8/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.3 %, rank 26/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (31.6 %, rank 9/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (0.9 %, rank 9/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (21.8 %, rank 7/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.8 %, rank 7/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (27.7 %, rank 8/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (11.3 %, rank 27/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate among 15-19 year-olds in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92 %, rank 5/41 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (68.1 %, rank 4/42 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 20-24 year-olds in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (53.8 %, rank 3/41 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of part-time students in short-cycle programmes is relatively large. (66.7 %, rank 4/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of part-time students in master's programmes is relatively large. (34.6 %, rank 10/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the enrolment rate of children under 3 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 34/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 15-19-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54.4 %, rank 9/41 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52.5 %, rank 29/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 17 in general upper secondary programmes in Netherlands is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (33.4 %, rank 37/42 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 17 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43 %, rank 10/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (44.1 %, rank 7/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (34.2 %, rank 2/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in general upper secondary programmes in Netherlands is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.9 %, rank 33/41 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Netherlands is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.3 %, rank 1/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The percentage of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at upper secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51.1 %, rank 10/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of doctorate graduates in public institutions is relatively high in Netherlands. (100 %, rank 1/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of first-time short-cycle graduates is relatively low in Netherlands. (3.3 %, rank 21/27 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates is relatively high in Netherlands. (96.7 %, rank 4/31 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary general programmes is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (52 %, rank 9/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (50.8 %, rank 8/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively low. (35.3 %, rank 41/42 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of female tertiary graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.6 %, rank 4/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of female tertiary graduates in the field of sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.3 %, rank 31/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of male tertiary graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively large. (10.4 %, rank 10/41 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of male tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (33.3 %, rank 8/41 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is relatively low in Netherlands. (28.9 %, rank 35/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries. (51.3 %, rank 33/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field health and welfare is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries. (88.3 %, rank 9/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field of services is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries. (47.8 %, rank 30/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Graduation by age

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from general programmes in Netherlands is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (17.1 Years, rank 37/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the average age of first-time tertiary graduates is relatively low. (23.5 Years, rank 28/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.5 %, rank 32/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.5 %, rank 33/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of education in Netherlands is relatively small. (0.9 %, rank 41/42 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humaties in Netherlands is relatively small. (7.8 %, rank 33/42 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of health and welfare in Netherlands is relatively large. (34 %, rank 3/42 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.1 %, rank 28/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25 %, rank 4/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Netherlands, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively low. (9.5 %, rank 33/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of arts and humanities is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (57.9 %, rank 31/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46.6 %, rank 35/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively small. (34.4 %, rank 34/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively small. (14 %, rank 33/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Netherlands is relatively small. (27 %, rank 30/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands,the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of education is relatively small. (16.1 %, rank 33/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of arts and humanities is relatively small. (2.3 %, rank 27/31 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively small. (8.8 %, rank 26/31 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.2 %, rank 31/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (49.2 %, rank 27/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering doctoral or equivalent programmes in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Netherlands is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (29.7 %, rank 33/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Netherlands is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (45.9 %, rank 31/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in engineering, manufacturing and construction in Netherlands is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (10.1 %, rank 26/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in information and communication technologies in Netherlands is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (9.7 %, rank 24/26 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Netherlands is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (10 %, rank 28/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of men among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.8 %, rank 9/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering master's or equivalent programmes in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Netherlands is one of the largest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (54.1 %, rank 6/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of men among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (86.8 %, rank 5/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering doctoral or equivalent programmes in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Netherlands is one of the largest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (70.3 %, rank 3/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Netherlands has a large share of international students graduate from tertiary programmes compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (12.3 %, rank 7/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Netherlands has one of the largest proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.3 %, rank 10/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the number of international or foreign students per national student abroad is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 Students, rank 6/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of international and foreign students enrolled in doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (47.9 %, rank 4/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of international graduates among first-time short-cycle tertiary first-time graduates is relatively low. (0 %, rank 22/26 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of international graduates among bachelor's first-time graduates is relatively high. (12.7 %, rank 6/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of international graduates among first-time doctorate graduates is relatively high. (44.6 %, rank 5/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of international students among the new entrants in master's programmes in Netherlands is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (31.7 %, rank 6/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in bachelor's programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.3 %, rank 8/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the number of international or foreign students for every hundred national students home or abroad is comparatively high. (15 Students, rank 9/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of international or foreign students enrolled in bachelor's programmes among women is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (12.1 %, rank 6/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of international or foreign students enrolled in doctoral or equivalent programmes among men is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (50.7 %, rank 5/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of international or foreign students enrolled in doctoral or equivalent programmes among women is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (44.9 %, rank 3/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of international or foreign students enrolled in master's programmes among women is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (19.5 %, rank 8/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education among women is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (13.9 %, rank 9/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20889 USD Equivalent, rank 10/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14720 USD Equivalent, rank 9/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14902 USD Equivalent, rank 8/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13299 USD Equivalent, rank 10/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student on research and development in tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7589 USD Equivalent, rank 8/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in Netherlands is comparatively high. (12871 USD Equivalent, rank 7/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on tertiary education in Netherlands is comparatively high. (13299 USD Equivalent, rank 6/27 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13448 USD Equivalent 2015, rank 8/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The public expenditure on public educational institutions per full-time equivalent student at tertiary level is comparatively high in Netherlands. (15904 USD Equivalent, rank 10/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19083 USD Equivalent 2015, rank 10/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Netherlands, expenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (1.7 %, rank 8/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the international expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to tertiary education is high. (0.1 %, rank 8/30 , 2019) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Netherlands is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 %, rank 23/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.8 %, rank 8/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively high in Netherlands. (940 Hours, rank 4/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (88.1 %, rank 38/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54.7 %, rank 35/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66.7 %, rank 24/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially high. (14.1 %, rank 10/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in general upper secondary education in Netherlands is relatively small. (54.7 %, rank 28/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers under 30 in lower secondary education is especially low in Netherlands. (61.1 %, rank 28/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in lower secondary education is especially low in Netherlands. (47.8 %, rank 33/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of bachelor's, master's and doctoral level teachers older than 50 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (32.2 %, rank 25/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of tertiary teachers older than 50 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (32.5 %, rank 28/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of bachelor's, master's and doctoral level teachers younger than 30 is relatively high, compared to other countries with data available. (17.7 %, rank 6/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of tertiary teachers younger than 30 is relatively high, compared to other countries with data available. (17.4 %, rank 5/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of short-cycle tertiary female teachers younger than 30 is relatively high, compared to other countries with data available. (61.2 %, rank 7/22 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (84315 USD Equivalent, rank 3/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.72 Ratio, rank 19/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average actual pre-primary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (65219 USD Equivalent, rank 2/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (65219 USD Equivalent, rank 2/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (79182 USD Equivalent, rank 2/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (79182 USD Equivalent, rank 3/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (84315 USD Equivalent, rank 3/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 25-34 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is high in Netherlands. (1.04 Ratio, rank 5/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-34 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the highest in Netherlands relatively compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (62841 USD Equivalent, rank 1/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 55-64 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the highest in Netherlands. (87727 USD Equivalent, rank 2/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the most rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.04 Ratio, rank 5/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (48336 USD Equivalent, rank 7/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (73498 USD Equivalent, rank 4/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively high. (2.04 Ratio, rank 9/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Principals' salaries

    Primary school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Netherlands. (1.01 Ratio, rank 16/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Upper-secondary school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Netherlands. (1.2 Ratio, rank 15/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average lower secondary school heads' actual salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (109194 USD Equivalent, rank 2/22 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average upper-secondary school heads' actual salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (109194 USD Equivalent, rank 4/22 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the average actual salaries of 25-34 year-old lower-secondary school heads is relatively high compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (90174 USD Equivalent, rank 4/15 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 55-64 year-old lower secondary school heads is one of the highest in Netherlands. (111907 USD Equivalent, rank 2/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of students per teacher in secondary schools is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.7 Ratio, rank 9/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the number of students per teacher in general upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.9 Ratio, rank 5/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the vocational upper secondary level is especially high in Netherlands. (18.3 Ratio, rank 5/30 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the number of students per teacher in public lower secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.9 Ratio, rank 10/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in private institutions is especially high in Netherlands. (15.9 Ratio, rank 9/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the number of students per teacher in all public secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.6 Ratio, rank 7/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the number of students per teacher in all private secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.7 Ratio, rank 8/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the number of students per teacher in indeoendent private institutions tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (14.4 Ratio, rank 16/21 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the number of students per teacher in independent private short-cycle tertiary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (12.6 Ratio, rank 6/8 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the number of students per teacher in private bachelor's, master's, doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (14.6 Ratio, rank 20/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the number of students per teacher in independent private bachelor's, master's, doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (14.6 Ratio, rank 16/17 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (66.4 %, rank 6/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (82.9 %, rank 4/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (91.3 %, rank 8/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (95.5 %, rank 5/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is compartively high in Netherlands. (70.8 %, rank 4/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is compartively high in Netherlands. (91.1 %, rank 2/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively high in Netherlands. (85.6 %, rank 2/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively high in Netherlands. (89.6 %, rank 9/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (7.5 %, rank 36/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively high in Netherlands. (91.8 %, rank 9/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (5.1 %, rank 9/12 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (3.2 %, rank 26/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-old with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively high in Netherlands. (93.1 %, rank 4/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (3.5 %, rank 36/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a short cycle tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (2.5 %, rank 28/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a short cycle tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (8.4 %, rank 33/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is relatively high in Netherlands. (89 %, rank 9/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (14.4 %, rank 36/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with below upper secondary education is compartively high in Netherlands. (77.4 %, rank 10/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is compartively high in Netherlands. (93.1 %, rank 6/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively high in Netherlands. (61.7 %, rank 3/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Employment by field of education

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of arts is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (89.2 %, rank 2/17 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of humanities (except languages), social sciences, journalism and information is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (88.6 %, rank 9/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business, administration and law is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (91.3 %, rank 4/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (87.7 %, rank 8/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (92.3 %, rank 5/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health (medical and dental) is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (88.9 %, rank 12/14 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively low. (6.4 %, rank 37/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (3.7 %, rank 39/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (3.3 %, rank 36/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (4.4 %, rank 37/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (3.1 %, rank 38/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (2.6 %, rank 35/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education degree is one the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (2.2 %, rank 29/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (1.3 %, rank 23/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with below upper secondary education is low in Netherlands. (24.4 %, rank 34/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low in Netherlands. (11.1 %, rank 37/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with tertiary education is low in Netherlands. (5.8 %, rank 41/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively low in Netherlands. (3.1 %, rank 33/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively high in Netherlands. (3.2 %, rank 10/11 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old with a short cycle tertiary education degree is relatively low in Netherlands. (3.3 %, rank 26/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of adults who have been unemployed for at least 3 months but less than a year among all unemployed adults with below upper secondary education is relatively high. (37.5 %, rank 5/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of adults who have been unemployed for at least a year among all unemployed adults with tertiary education is relatively low. (20.7 %, rank 33/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of adults who have been unemployed for less than 3 months among all unemployed adults with tertiary education is relatively high. (45.3 %, rank 5/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of adults who have been unemployed for at least 3 months but less than a year among all unemployed adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (31.4 %, rank 22/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the proportion of adults who have been unemployed for less than 3 months among all unemployed adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (34.5 %, rank 8/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    Earnings of women (as a percentage of men's earnings) among full- and part-time 25-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (51.4 %, rank 36/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of worker earning more than twice the median among those with a short-cycle tertiary education degree is comparatively high. (15.3 %, rank 7/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds with below secondary education compared to those of adults with an upper secondary education are relatively high in Netherlands. (130.5 %, rank 6/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women (as a percentage of men's earnings) among full- and part-time 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (63.1 %, rank 32/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women (as a percentage of men's earnings) among full- and part-time 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (58.7 %, rank 34/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of inactive youth neither in formal education nor training among 18-24 year-olds in Netherlands is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (2.5 %, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of unemployed youth neither in formal education nor training among 18-24 year-olds in Netherlands is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (2.1 %, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of youth who have been unemployed for at least 3 months but less than a year and not in formal education or training among 18-24 year-olds in Netherlands is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (0.8 %, rank 24/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of youth who have been unemployed for less than 3 months and not in formal education or training among 18-24 year-olds in Netherlands is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (1 %, rank 23/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of youth neither employed nor in education or training among 20-24 year-olds in Netherlands is relatively small. (5 %, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of youth neither employed nor in education or training among 25-29 year-olds in Netherlands is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.5 %, rank 38/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of youth neither employed nor in education or training among 15-29 year-olds in Netherlands is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.4 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of men neither employed nor in education among 15-29 year-olds is relatively low. (6.2 %, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the share of women neither employed nor in education among 15-29 year-olds is relatively low. (8.7 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among 20-24 year-olds men in Netherlands, a small share of them are neither employed nor in education or training. (5.7 %, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among 25-29 year-olds men in Netherlands, a small share of them are neither employed nor in education or training. (4.9 %, rank 38/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the percentage of women neither employed nor in education or training among 20-24 year-olds is relatively low. (4.2 %, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of young women neither employed nor in education or training (25-29 year-olds) in Netherlands is comparatively low . (12.2 %, rank 36/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 18-24 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively small in Netherlands. (4.6 %, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 18-24 year-old men neither employed nor in education or training is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (5.1 %, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 18-24 year-old women neither employed nor in education or training is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (4.1 %, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    In Netherlands, the average age of new entrants in doctoral programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26.9 Years, rank 36/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Netherlands, the average age of new entrants in bachelor's programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.8 Years, rank 33/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The average age of new entrants in tertiary education in Netherlands is comparatively young. (20 Years, rank 28/32 , 2020) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
                            
    • Tertiary attainment has increased strongly in most OECD countries among 25-34 year olds. The average share of younger adults with a tertiary degree has increased from 27% in 2000 to 48% in 2021.
    • Higher educational attainment leads to better labour-market outcomes including higher wages and higher employment rates.
    • Expenditure on tertiary education accounts for 1.5% of gross domestic product (GDP) on average across OECD countries or 30% of all education funding allocated to educational institutions.
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    • Tertiary attainment has increased strongly in most OECD countries among 25-34 year-olds. The average share of younger adults with a tertiary degree has increased from 27% in 2000 to 48% in 2021. In this age group, the share of individuals with tertiary attainment is 7 percentage points higher than the share of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment on average across OECD countries. If current trends continue, a tertiary education will be the most common attainment among working-age adults on average across OECD countries within a few years.
    • Higher educational attainment leads to better labour-market outcomes. In 2021, on average, employment rates for tertiary-educated young adults (25-34 year-olds) are 8 percentage points higher than those who have attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education and 26 percentage points higher than those who have attained below upper secondary education across OECD countries.
    • Greater educational attainment yields better earnings and this holds true for higher levels of tertiary attainment in most countries. On average across the OECD, full-time full-year workers who attained short-cycle tertiary education earned 20% more than those with upper secondary attainment in 2020. This earnings advantage increases to 44% among those who attained a bachelor's or equivalent qualification and to 88% among those with a master's or doctoral or equivalent degree.
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    • On average, the vast majority (88%) of children between the age of 3 and 5 are enrolled in early childhood education (ECE) across the OECD. In a few countries, it is also common for younger children between the age of 0 and 2 to participate in ECE and over 50% of children in this age group are enrolled. However, only 27% of under-threes are enrolled in ECE on average across the OECD.
    • In almost all countries with available data, the majority of upper secondary graduates from general programmes are women. Men dominate graduation from vocational programmes in almost three-quarters of the countries.
    • While the average age of first-time graduates from general upper secondary education does not differ much across countries, the difference widens in vocational education, ranging from 16 to 34 years.
    • Around one-fifth of tertiary students are enrolled on a part-time basis, but large differences exist across OECD countries. Studying part-time is especially common in many Nordic countries, Australia, New Zealand and the United States, where more than 30% of students study part-time. However, in some countries like the Czech Republic, and Greece, less than 5% of students study part-time.
    • Students are more likely to cross borders to pursue their studies as they reach more advanced levels of education. Internationally mobile students account for only 7% of bachelor's students, but 17% of master's students and 26% of doctoral students on average in OECD countries.
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    • Total public spending on education (from primary to tertiary level) averages 10.6% of total government expenditure across OECD countries, from around 7% to 17%. The largest share of government funding is devoted to primary and secondary levels, explained by near-universal enrolment rates at those levels of education and the greater contribution of private sources at tertiary level.
    • On average across OECD countries, expenditure on primary education amounts to 30% of the funding for educational institutions, while secondary education accounts for 39%.
    • In 2019, OECD countries spent an average of USD 17 559 per student per year at the tertiary level. However, this average is driven up by high values in a few countries, reaching over USD 25 000 in Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States.
    • On average across OECD countries, 63% of total expenditure on tertiary educational institutions goes to core services (e.g. teachers' salaries, school buildings, teaching materials and administration), 33% on research and development activities, and 4% on ancillary services (e.g. meals and transport).
    • Expenditure on tertiary education accounts for 1.5% of gross domestic product (GDP) on average across OECD countries or 30% of all education funding allocated to educational institutions.
    • On average across OECD countries, public funds account for 83% of total spending on educational institutions. Private sources are more important at the tertiary level, where they make up 31% of all expenditure compared to just 10% at the non-tertiary levels (primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary).
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    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary level are 4-14% lower than the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants. School heads' actual salaries are substantially higher than those of teachers across primary and secondary education.
    • Teachers in public schools in OECD and partner countries are required to teach on average 987 hours per year at pre-primary level, 784 hours at primary level, 711 hours at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 684 hours at upper secondary level (general and vocational programmes).
    • Typically, the duration of initial teacher education programmes varies from 3 years to 6.5 years, for prospective lower secondary teachers of general subjects. A tertiary qualification is awarded upon completion of the programme in most countries, regardless of the level of education at which the teacher will teach.
    • Continuing professional development is compulsory to some extent for teachers of general subjects at least at one level of education in most countries with data, except Denmark, Italy, the Netherlands and New Zealand. It can be either generally compulsory for all teachers as a regular part of their work, or for some teachers for specific purposes such as promotion or salary increases, or in some cases, both.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Netherlands

    Click on the coverpage to see the full OECD iLibrary version
    Key
    Country Reviews for Netherlands

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.