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Luxembourg
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Luxembourg
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In Luxembourg, 28% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education and 35% in vocational upper secondary education. A further 13% are enrolled in lower secondary programmes and 2% in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 23% in vocational upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • In Luxembourg,16% of 25-34 year-olds have a vocational education and training (VET) qualification as their highest level of attainment: 12% at upper secondary level and 4% at short-cycle tertiary level.
  • Although an upper secondary qualification is often the minimum attainment needed for successful labour-market participation,11% of 25-34 year-olds in Luxembourg have not attained an upper secondary qualification, lower than the OECD average (14%).
  • Workers in Luxembourg aged 25-34 with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment earn 25% more than those without upper secondary attainment, whereas the earning advantage for workers with general upper secondary attainment is 51%.
  • In Luxembourg,25-34 year-old workers with bachelor's attainment earn 77% more than their peers without upper secondary attainment, while those with master's or doctoral attainment earn 87% more.
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, Luxembourg spends USD 26 833 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647.
  • In Luxembourg,31% of teachers in general upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or older, compared to the OECD average of 39%.Teachers in vocational programmes are on average younger than their general programme peers, with 28% aged 50 or above (43% on average across the OECD).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29 %, rank 37/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29.5 %, rank 38/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51.5 %, rank 5/46 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (60 %, rank 5/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.5 %, rank 28/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (2.9 %, rank 4/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.6 %, rank 28/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (35.3 %, rank 1/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a general degree at the tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.4 %, rank 5/46 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56.8 %, rank 5/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (63.3 %, rank 7/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men who attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30.5 %, rank 39/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (12 %, rank 28/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (15.1 %, rank 28/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of educaton is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (6.7 %, rank 27/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (7.6 %, rank 31/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (8 %, rank 29/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (20.3 %, rank 25/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    The share of female students entering doctoral or equivalent programmes in Luxembourg is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (38.6 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the average age of new entrants in short-cycle programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.5 Years, rank 29/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the average age of new entrants in doctoral programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27.6 Years, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance by field of education and gender

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of arts and humanities is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (57 %, rank 34/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.3 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively small. (19.4 %, rank 30/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Luxembourg is relatively small. (14.3 %, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg,the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of education is relatively small. (0 %, rank 35/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.8 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (62.9 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (47.3 %, rank 34/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering doctoral or equivalent programmes in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Luxembourg is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (31.8 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in engineering, manufacturing and construction in Luxembourg is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (26.6 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Luxembourg is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (33.3 %, rank 18/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering master's or equivalent programmes in information and communication technologies in Luxembourg is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (64 %, rank 33/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (37.5 %, rank 22/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The proportion of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (60.8 %, rank 9/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in Luxembourg is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.6 %, rank 5/82 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in public tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in independent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 33/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 20-24 year-olds in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.5 %, rank 41/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 25-29 year-olds in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.6 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 30-39 year-olds in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.8 %, rank 40/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 40-64 year-olds in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 43/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the enrolment rate of children under 3 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.9 %, rank 35/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 15-19-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55.8 %, rank 8/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52.9 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 17 in general upper secondary programmes in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (33.1 %, rank 38/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 17 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Luxembourg is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43.9 %, rank 9/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 27/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Luxembourg is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (42.2 %, rank 7/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.2 %, rank 24/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Luxembourg is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (33.3 %, rank 3/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 22/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Luxembourg is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.5 %, rank 2/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion without access to tertiary education in Luxembourg is relatively high compared to the other countries. (47.1 %, rank 4/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, upper secondary vocational students among all vocational students are relatively more numerous than in other OECD or partner countries. (91.8 %, rank 5/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (100 %, rank 1/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of post-secondary non-tertiary students enrolled in vocational programmes in Luxembourg is among the lowest. (28.1 %, rank 19/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of post-secondary non-tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion without access to tertiary education is relatively large compared to other OECD or partner contries. (100 %, rank 1/14 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (100 %, rank 1/16 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of post-secondary non-tertiary students among all vocational students is relatively small compared to other OECD and partner countries. (3.2 %, rank 20/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of vocational students as a share of short-cycle tertiary students is among the largest in all OECD and partner countries. (100 %, rank 1/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in vocational programmes is comparativele low. (22 %, rank 33/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Luxembourg has a share of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion with access to tertiary education that is higher than other OECD and partner countries; (100 %, rank 1/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in upper secondary general programmes in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27.6 %, rank 35/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in upper secondary vocational programmes in Luxembourg is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (34.8 %, rank 9/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 27/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary programmes in Luxembourg is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.4 %, rank 8/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary vocational programmes in Luxembourg is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.7 %, rank 6/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.5 %, rank 22/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in bachelor's programmes in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.5 %, rank 41/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in master's programmes in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.7 %, rank 34/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in pre-primary in Luxembourg is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.6 %, rank 5/81 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in primary education in Luxembourg is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 6/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of five-year-olds in primary education in Luxembourg is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.3 %, rank 10/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students enrolled in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (21.3 %, rank 30/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (57.4 %, rank 9/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The percentage of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at upper secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (57.9 %, rank 8/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the average age of first-time tertiary graduates is relatively low. (23.6 Years, rank 30/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of bachelor's or equivalent graduates in public institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of master's or equivalent graduates in public institutions is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctorate graduates in public institutions is relatively high in Luxembourg. (100 %, rank 1/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of short-cycle tertiary graduates in Luxembourg is among the youngest. (22.4 Years, rank 24/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of bachelor's or equivalent graduates in Luxembourg is among the youngest. (24.2 Years, rank 24/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates among post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes in Luxembourg is relatively low. (22.5 %, rank 27/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of female first-time graduates in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (63.2 %, rank 5/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of female first-time bachelor's graduates is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (55 %, rank 30/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (47.5 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.4 %, rank 4/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.1 %, rank 44/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.8 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.9 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humaties in Luxembourg is relatively small. (6.6 %, rank 39/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Luxembourg is relatively large. (27.2 %, rank 7/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Luxembourg is relatively small. (11.3 %, rank 39/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of health and welfare in Luxembourg is relatively small. (0 %, rank 43/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29.1 %, rank 5/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.3 %, rank 29/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.4 %, rank 33/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is relatively low. (0 %, rank 25/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively low. (2.7 %, rank 21/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary is relatively low. (0.3 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.2 %, rank 4/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of STEM is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.7 %, rank 29/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.7 %, rank 32/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of business, administration and law is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (38 %, rank 8/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (33.5 %, rank 4/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of services is relatively low compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (0 %, rank 32/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (49.3 %, rank 1/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.6 %, rank 45/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.1 %, rank 38/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (9.4 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in social sciences, business and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (46.1 %, rank 2/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law is relatively high. (64.7 %, rank 2/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively low. (17.6 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of male tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (49.1 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is relatively low in Luxembourg. (29.4 %, rank 39/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively low in Luxembourg. (1.7 %, rank 44/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of female post-secondary non-tertiary graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5 %, rank 23/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries. (77.7 %, rank 27/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in all fields is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (53.8 %, rank 37/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (73.7 %, rank 36/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of arts and humanities is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (58.8 %, rank 38/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (43.2 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of health and welfare is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (86.3 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Completion rates

    A relatively low share of upper secondary students complete their studies within the theoretical programme duration. (49.8 %, rank 23/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    A relatively low share of students in upper secondary vocational programmes complete their studies within the theoretical programme duration. (39.9 %, rank 19/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    A relatively low share of students in upper secondary general programmes complete their studies within the theoretical programme duration. (70.3 %, rank 19/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    A relatively low share of upper secondary students complete their studies up to two years later than the theoretical programme duration. (78.1 %, rank 17/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    A relatively high share of students in upper secondary general programmes complete their studies up to two years later than the theoretical programme duration. (90.7 %, rank 7/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively low. (9.6 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all national tertiary students in Luxembourg is relatively low. (8.5 %, rank 36/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of services among all national tertiary students in Luxembourg is relatively low. (0.3 %, rank 37/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of services is comparatively small. (0.8 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.8 %, rank 34/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (0 %, rank 35/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of arts and humanities is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (3.9 %, rank 36/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (11 %, rank 32/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of health and welfare is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (0 %, rank 36/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively high, compared to other countries with available data. (28.3 %, rank 1/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively high. (29.9 %, rank 2/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively high, compared to other countries with available data. (16.5 %, rank 7/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of services is one of the low among countries with available data. (0 %, rank 28/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of new entrants in engineering, manufacturing and construction bachelor's programmes is relatively low in Luxembourg among countries with available data. (7.8 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the proportion of new entrants in Agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary bachelor's programmes is especially lowest, compared to the other countries with other data. (0 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the proportion of new entrants in services bachelor's programmes is especially low, compared to the other countries with other data. (0 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of new entrants in health and welfare master's programmes is relatively lowest, compared to other countries with available data. (0 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Luxembourg has a large share of international students graduate from tertiary programmes compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (26 %, rank 2/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Luxembourg has one of the largest proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education among OECD and partner countries with available data. (49.3 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of international and foreign students enrolled in doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (90.6 %, rank 1/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, international or foreign students from Europe are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (73.4 %, rank 8/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the proportion of international graduates among bachelor's first-time graduates is relatively high. (23.1 %, rank 2/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the proportion of international graduates among first-time doctorate graduates is relatively high. (88 %, rank 1/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of international students among the new entrants in master's programmes in Luxembourg is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (70.5 %, rank 1/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in bachelor's programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24.1 %, rank 1/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in master's programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (76.1 %, rank 1/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.9 %, rank 6/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (48.4 %, rank 1/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (48.6 %, rank 1/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of arts and humanities among all international or foreign tertiary students in Luxembourg is relatively low. (5.9 %, rank 33/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all international or foreign tertiary students in Luxembourg is relatively high. (36.5 %, rank 3/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics among all international or foreign tertiary students in Luxembourg is relatively high. (11.5 %, rank 8/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies among all international or foreign tertiary students in Luxembourg is relatively high. (9 %, rank 4/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all international or foreign tertiary students in Luxembourg is relatively low. (9 %, rank 33/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of health and welfare among all international or foreign tertiary students in Luxembourg is relatively low. (2.2 %, rank 36/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of services among all international or foreign tertiary students in Luxembourg is relatively low. (0.3 %, rank 37/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 %, rank 32/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of Information and communication technologies is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.6 %, rank 1/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.3 %, rank 36/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of students enrolled in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary among all international or foreign tertiary students is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (6.3 %, rank 1/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Adult participation in non-formal education

    In Luxembourg, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-olds participating in at least one job-related non-formal education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.2 %, rank 2/19 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (17.8 %, rank 8/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (53421 USD Equivalent, rank 1/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26833 USD Equivalent, rank 1/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22702 USD Equivalent, rank 1/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22990 USD Equivalent, rank 1/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26617 USD Equivalent, rank 1/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3607 USD Equivalent, rank 18/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (34741 USD Equivalent, rank 1/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student on research and development in tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18680 USD Equivalent, rank 1/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in Luxembourg is comparatively high. (23829 USD Equivalent, rank 1/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on tertiary education in Luxembourg is comparatively high. (33704 USD Equivalent, rank 1/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary to tertiary education in Luxembourg is comparatively high. (24510 USD Equivalent, rank 1/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on tertiary education in Luxembourg is comparatively high. (1037 USD Equivalent, rank 6/27 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student in primary to tertiary education is one the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23812 USD Equivalent, rank 1/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent student (2012 to 2020) at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is comparatively high. (1.5 %, rank 4/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Luxembourg is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48250 USD Equivalent, rank 1/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the total annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (47405 USD Equivalent 2015, rank 1/22 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Luxembourg, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies. (3.4 %, rank 37/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, expenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (0.5 %, rank 40/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, public and private expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (3 %, rank 30/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0.1 %, rank 1/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (0.4 %, rank 45/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (0 %, rank 39/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (3.2 %, rank 38/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (0.1 %, rank 37/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds at primary to tertiary education is relatively low in Luxembourg. (3.3 %, rank 25/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of private expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is comparatively low in Luxembourg. (0.1 %, rank 26/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education in Luxembourg is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 32/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The percentage of capital expenditure on secondary education is relatively small in Luxembourg. (0 %, rank 28/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Government and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.7 %, rank 36/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.3 %, rank 38/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 %, rank 46/46 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Luxembourg has one of the smallest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (3 %, rank 37/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, total public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (7.1 %, rank 39/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, total public expenditure on post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (0 %, rank 17/25 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of total expenditure on primary to tertiary education is relatively high. (2.8 %, rank 4/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for tertiary education is comparatively large in Luxembourg. (90.3 %, rank 5/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively large. (94.2 %, rank 6/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.7 %, rank 25/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of private expenditure from primary to tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.9 %, rank 26/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the relative share of public expenditure from initial source of funds at primary to tertiary education is relatively large. (94.4 %, rank 6/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (91.3 %, rank 3/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The percentage of current expenditure on secondary education is relatively small in Luxembourg. (4.2 %, rank 27/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In Luxembourg, the share of capital expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.9 %, rank 8/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of current expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (89.1 %, rank 29/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of capital expenditure on post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 18/19 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of capital expenditure on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.7 %, rank 33/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of current expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (97.3 %, rank 3/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in pre-primary public school is especially low. (176 Days, rank 26/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary public school is especially low. (176 Days, rank 24/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92.8 %, rank 36/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51.4 %, rank 36/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30.7 %, rank 21/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education (bachelor's, master's, doctorate or equivalent education) is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (34.4 %, rank 33/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (35.4 %, rank 41/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66 %, rank 29/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially high. (18.8 %, rank 2/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially high. (61.3 %, rank 8/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (13.5 %, rank 40/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (21.2 %, rank 34/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (19.9 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in general upper secondary education in Luxembourg is relatively small. (56.1 %, rank 29/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of women among teaching staff in vocational upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48.6 %, rank 29/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers younger than 30 in primary education is especially low in Luxembourg. (72.8 %, rank 36/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers under 30 in lower secondary education is especially low in Luxembourg. (62.3 %, rank 29/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of female teachers younger than 30 in tertiary education is relatively small . (38.7 %, rank 35/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Females aged 50 or more represent a small proportion of teachers in primary education in Luxembourg. (76.8 %, rank 35/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in lower secondary education is especially low in Luxembourg. (57.1 %, rank 31/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in upper secondary education is especially low in Luxembourg. (46.3 %, rank 34/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in tertiary education is especially low in Luxembourg. (28 %, rank 33/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of tertiary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is relatively high, compared to other countries with data available. (59 %, rank 6/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of short-cycle tertiary teachers older than 50 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (26.8 %, rank 21/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of bachelor's, master's and doctoral level teachers older than 50 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (12.1 %, rank 31/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of tertiary teachers older than 50 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (13.3 %, rank 34/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of tertiary teachers younger than 30 is relatively high, compared to other countries with data available. (27.7 %, rank 1/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of bachelor's, master's and doctoral level female teachers younger than 30 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (38.2 %, rank 31/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of bachelor's, master's and doctoral level female teachers older than 50 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (25.6 %, rank 30/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of teachers aged 50 or more in pre-primary education is especially low in Luxembourg (13 %, rank 33/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of teachers under 30 in pre-primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.6 %, rank 7/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of teachers aged between 30 and 49 in pre-primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (63.4 %, rank 5/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of male teachers in pre-primary education is especially high in Luxembourg. (7.2 %, rank 6/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In upper secondary education, the percentage of teachers aged 50 or more is particularly low in Luxembourg. (31.3 %, rank 25/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of upper secondary general education teachers aged between 30 and 49 is relatively high, compared to the other countries with available data. (62.1 %, rank 5/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of upper secondary vocational education teachers aged 50 or more is relatively low, compared to the other countries with available data. (28.2 %, rank 27/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers under 30 in upper secondary vocational education is especially high in Luxembourg. (10 %, rank 5/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the percentage of teachers aged between 30 and 49 in upper secondary vocational education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (61.8 %, rank 4/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged 50 or more in post secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in Luxembourg, compared to the other countries with available data. (38.2 %, rank 15/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged between 30 and 49 in post secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high in Luxembourg, compared to other countries with available data. (55.7 %, rank 6/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (112008 USD Equivalent, rank 1/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the change in statutory primary education teachers' salaries with 15 years of experience, based on most prevalent qualifications at different points in teachers' careers is relatively small. (87 Index, rank 29/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the change in statutory lower secondary education teachers' salaries with 15 years of experience, based on most prevalent qualifications at different points in teachers' careers is relatively small. (89 Index, rank 29/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the change in statutory upper secondary education teachers' salaries with 15 years of experience, based on most prevalent qualifications at different points in teachers' careers is relatively small. (89 Index, rank 29/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (112008 USD Equivalent, rank 1/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (112008 USD Equivalent, rank 1/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (104604 USD Equivalent, rank 1/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (104604 USD Equivalent, rank 1/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The change in statutory pre-primary teachers' salaries with 15 years of experience, based on most prevalent qualifications at different points in their careers is comparatively small in Luxembourg. (87 Index, rank 22/23 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially high. (71647 USD Equivalent, rank 1/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (92663 USD Equivalent, rank 1/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (126576 USD Equivalent, rank 1/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (81200 USD Equivalent, rank 1/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (101500 USD Equivalent, rank 1/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.7 Ratio, rank 36/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.2 Ratio, rank 37/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (9 Ratio, rank 45/46 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the upper secondary level is especially low. (9.5 Ratio, rank 39/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in secondary schools is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.5 Ratio, rank 36/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary programmes is comparatively low in Luxembourg. (8.8 Ratio, rank 17/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low in Luxembourg. (8 Ratio, rank 18/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the ratio of students to teaching staff in bachelor's and tertiary advanced research programmes is one of the lowest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.4 Ratio, rank 30/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the number of students per teacher in general upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.5 Ratio, rank 35/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the vocational upper secondary level is especially low in Luxembourg. (8.8 Ratio, rank 27/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the number of students per teacher in public upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.1 Ratio, rank 41/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the upper secondary level in government-dependent private institutions is especially low in Luxembourg. (8.5 Ratio, rank 18/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the number of students per teacher in all public secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.6 Ratio, rank 34/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the number of students per teacher in all private secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.2 Ratio, rank 31/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the secondary level in government-dependent private institutions is especially low in Luxembourg. (9.1 Ratio, rank 17/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the number of students per teacher in public institutions tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (4.7 Ratio, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the number of students per teacher in public institutions short-cycle tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (8.8 Ratio, rank 18/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the number of students per teacher in public bachelor's, master's, doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (4.4 Ratio, rank 30/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary students in Luxembourg is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5544 Hours, rank 7/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the total intended instruction time for primary students (in hours per year) is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5544 Hours, rank 7/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, total intended instruction time for lower secondary students is among the shortest compared to other countries with available data. (2535 Hours, rank 24/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, compulsory instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (924 Hours, rank 8/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (924 Hours, rank 8/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for lower secondary students is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (169 Days, rank 32/35 , 2023) Download Indicator

    Classes in public primary institutions are comparatively small in Luxembourg. (15 Students, rank 36/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Classes in in private primary institutions are comparatively large in Luxembourg. (22 Students, rank 9/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary public institutions are comparatively small in Luxembourg. (18 Students, rank 33/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In government-dependent private institutions at primary education level, the average class size is relatively small in Luxembourg among OECD and other partner countries with available data. (16 Students, rank 14/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, classes in primary education are comparatively small. (16 Students, rank 32/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In government-dependent private institutions at lower secondary level, classes are one of the smallest in Luxembourg among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18 Students, rank 14/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In independent private institutions at lower secondary level, classes are one of the largest in Luxembourg among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24 Students, rank 3/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, classes in lower secondary education are comparatively small. (18 Students, rank 31/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (89.2 %, rank 34/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (68.6 %, rank 33/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is compartively high in Luxembourg. (77.9 %, rank 1/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is compartively high in Luxembourg. (89.7 %, rank 10/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively high in Luxembourg. (84 %, rank 10/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Luxembourg. (31.7 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-olds with tertiary education is compartively low in Luxembourg. (64.2 %, rank 38/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Luxembourg. (39 %, rank 43/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (85.4 %, rank 2/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men with upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (77.6 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (56.6 %, rank 9/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with below upper secondary education is compartively high in Luxembourg. (78.9 %, rank 9/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively high in Luxembourg. (76.4 %, rank 1/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-old men with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Luxembourg. (36.5 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-old men with tertiary education is compartively low in Luxembourg. (70.9 %, rank 40/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Luxembourg. (45.5 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Luxembourg. (27.8 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Luxembourg. (32.5 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low (86.2 %, rank 29/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of employed 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (63 %, rank 31/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of employed 25-64 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (73.1 %, rank 36/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high in Luxembourg compared to other countries with available data. (88.1 %, rank 1/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by field of education

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of humanities (except languages), social sciences, journalism and information is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (92.7 %, rank 1/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (94.7 %, rank 1/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (94.8 %, rank 1/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 3 months to less than 12 months is one of the smallest in Luxembourg, compared to other OECD countries. (30.1 %, rank 26/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    In Luxembourg, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a short cycle tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (18 %, rank 9/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (24.9 %, rank 8/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (29.4 %, rank 2/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity by gender and educational attainment

    In Luxembourg, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (35.5 %, rank 4/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (24.6 %, rank 1/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (20.1 %, rank 2/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is relatively low. (8.3 %, rank 39/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (30.6 %, rank 25/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (34.3 %, rank 30/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (18.2 %, rank 27/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (49.4 %, rank 29/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the share of worker earning more than twice the median among those with a master's or doctoral or equivalent education degree is comparatively low. (20.6 %, rank 30/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers without an upper secondary education earning more than twice the overall median in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (1.1 %, rank 30/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Luxembourg. (151 Index, rank 3/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Luxembourg. (125 Index, rank 9/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Luxembourg. (109 Index, rank 24/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Luxembourg. (92 Index, rank 27/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education earning more than twice the overall median in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (3.6 %, rank 33/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with tertiary education earning at or below half the overall median in Luxembourg is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (5.7 %, rank 32/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Luxembourg. (175 Index, rank 31/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    The earnings of men without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of men with an upper secondary education. (89 Index, rank 5/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The earnings of women without an upper secondary education are relatively low compared to those of women with an upper secondary education. (67 Index, rank 40/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (67.2 %, rank 37/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary education or post-secondary non-tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (87 %, rank 4/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (82.2 %, rank 7/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women (as a percentage of men's earnings) among full- and part-time 25-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (59.7 %, rank 34/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women (as a percentage of men's earnings) among full- and part-time 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education are one of the highest among countries with available data. (78.6 %, rank 4/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women (as a percentage of men's earnings) among full- and part-time 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education are one of the highest among countries with available data. (79 %, rank 6/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Luxembourg, the proportion of young women's earnings as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with tertiary education working full-time full-year), is relatively high compared to OECD and other members with available data (92.7 %, rank 3/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds without an upper secondary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (51.8 %, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (73.7 %, rank 26/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (91.3 %, rank 3/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (114.2 %, rank 1/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (83.9 %, rank 9/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (77.2 %, rank 19/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (85.8 %, rank 2/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (108.2 %, rank 1/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (83.3 %, rank 8/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings by field of education

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Luxembourg. (83.2 %, rank 5/15 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Luxembourg. (93.5 %, rank 16/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT) are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Luxembourg. (103 %, rank 16/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of health and welfare are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Luxembourg. (82.6 %, rank 16/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Luxembourg who studied in the field of health and welfare, are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (88.9 %, rank 13/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Luxembourg who studied in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT), are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (101.6 %, rank 13/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Luxembourg who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics, are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (90.7 %, rank 15/15 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The proportion of youth neither employed nor in education or training among 15-29 year-olds in Luxembourg is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.7 %, rank 38/41 , 2022) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Luxembourg

    Click on the coverpage to see the full OECD iLibrary version
    Key
    Country Reviews for Luxembourg

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.