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Diagram of the education system

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  • Diagram of education system in country language


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  • Education system in Korea

    Korea
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2020)
  • On average, 18% of all upper secondary students enrol in VET programmes in Korea, a lower proportion than the OECD average of 42%.
  • In 2019, 70% of 25-34 year-olds had a tertiary degree in Korea compared to 45% on average across OECD countries.
  • In Korea, in 2018, 25-64 year-olds with a tertiary degree with income from full-time, full-year employment earned 36% more than full-time, full-year workers with upper secondary education compared to 54% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2017, Korea invested a total of USD 11 981 per student on primary to tertiary institutions compared to USD 11 231 on average across OECD countries. This represents 5% of GDP, compared to 4.9% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2018, 94% of 3-5 year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education and care programmes and primary education in Korea, compared to 88% on average across OECD countries.
  • Statutory salaries of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of their salary scales are 180% - 192% higher than those of teachers with the minimum qualifications at the start of their career at pre-primary (ISCED 02), primary and general lower and upper secondary levels in Korea compared to 78-80% on average.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

    Show indicators for which your country ranks among the top or bottom: Sort by:

    Educational outcomes

    In Korea, the percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (31.5 %, rank 2/46 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at upper secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.3 %, rank 32/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28 %, rank 7/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (42.9 %, rank 2/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.9 %, rank 3/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from vocational programmes in Korea is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (18.1 Years, rank 32/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the percentage of first-time doctorate graduates younger than 35 is relatively low. (40.5 %, rank 29/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    In Korea, the share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (33.7 %, rank 2/46 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (29.3 %, rank 4/46 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The proportion of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.5 %, rank 37/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering doctoral or equivalent programmes in Korea is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (42.4 %, rank 36/42 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 40-64 year-olds in Korea is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.6 %, rank 31/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the percentage of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes younger than 25 is relatively high. (97.5 %, rank 2/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 15-19-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.5 %, rank 32/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 20-24-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.3 %, rank 32/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary general programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (47.8 %, rank 41/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively low. (35.6 %, rank 42/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law is relatively low. (27.7 %, rank 40/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively low. (14.4 %, rank 42/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.7 %, rank 4/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.4 %, rank 41/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.8 %, rank 43/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.3 %, rank 4/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of sciences, journalism and information in Korea is relatively small. (4.8 %, rank 41/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Korea is relatively small. (13.3 %, rank 39/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Korea is relatively large. (24.4 %, rank 3/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27.5 %, rank 8/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43.7 %, rank 7/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.5 %, rank 30/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.3 %, rank 31/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Adult learning

    In Korea, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in non-formal education and training is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (84.2 %, rank 2/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in non-formal education and training is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (84.3 %, rank 2/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (41.1 %, rank 27/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (20.7 %, rank 30/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the number of annual hours of participation of adults with upper secondary or post-secondary education in non-formal education and training is comparatively high (226 %, rank 2/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Korea, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively low. (5.4 %, rank 33/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is relatively low. (13.4 %, rank 36/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (63.2 %, rank 26/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of social sciences, journalism and information among all national tertiary students in Korea is relatively low. (5.7 %, rank 32/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all national tertiary students in Korea is relatively low. (14 %, rank 35/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively small. (37.1 %, rank 33/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively small. (19.1 %, rank 23/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Korea is relatively small. (19.1 %, rank 32/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively small. (5.4 %, rank 33/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of business, administration and law is relatively small. (13.4 %, rank 36/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Korea has one of the smallest proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.7 %, rank 37/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of arts and humanities among all international or foreign tertiary students in Korea is relatively high. (21.2 %, rank 3/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of social sciences, journalism and information among all international or foreign tertiary students in Korea is relatively high. (14.1 %, rank 8/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all international or foreign tertiary students in Korea is relatively high. (30.5 %, rank 8/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics among all international or foreign tertiary students in Korea is relatively low. (2.8 %, rank 29/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of health and welfare among all international or foreign tertiary students in Korea is relatively low. (4.1 %, rank 31/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of arts and humanities is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (3.6 %, rank 28/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (1.5 %, rank 30/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (1.7 %, rank 28/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (1.5 %, rank 30/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (0.8 %, rank 30/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.5 %, rank 28/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    In Korea, the share of current expediture on primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (82.6 %, rank 32/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the share of capital expediture on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.5 %, rank 1/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the share of current expediture on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (85.5 %, rank 32/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the share of capital expediture on primary through tertiary is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.1 %, rank 2/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the share of current expediture on primary through tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (86.9 %, rank 27/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the share of current expediture on secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (87.6 %, rank 32/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10633 USD Equivalent, rank 28/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11702 USD Equivalent, rank 8/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13579 USD Equivalent, rank 8/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the total expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student in primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education, is relatively high. (12704 USD Equivalent, rank 7/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the total annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student in primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11412 USD Equivalent, rank 8/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average annual growth of the number of students in primary, secondary and post-secondary non tertiary education between 2012 and 2017 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-3.1 %, rank 38/38 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent students from primary to tertiary education between 2012 and 2017 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-2.6 %, rank 36/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Korea, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (1.4 %, rank 7/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.7 %, rank 10/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (61.9 %, rank 6/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Korea has one of the largest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (27.9 %, rank 7/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Korea, total public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively high. (13 %, rank 10/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for tertiary education is comparatively small. (38.1 %, rank 32/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively small. (72.1 %, rank 30/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Total public expenditure on education as a percentage of total government expenditure, for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high in Korea compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.2 %, rank 6/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the share of public expenditure on primary through tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (77.6 %, rank 22/26 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the share of public expenditure on tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54.3 %, rank 25/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary school is especially high. (190 Days, rank 10/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year pre-primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively low in Korea. (782 Hours, rank 22/26 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52.5 %, rank 34/42 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education (bachelor's, master's, doctorate or equivalent education) is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (33.2 %, rank 31/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (35.6 %, rank 35/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially high. (13.5 %, rank 10/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (23.7 %, rank 30/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55038 USD Equivalent, rank 9/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56648 USD Equivalent, rank 9/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the most rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.8 Ratio, rank 1/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (90023 USD Equivalent, rank 3/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers longer to progress through the salary scale in Korea compared to other OECD and partner countries. (37 Years, rank 4/26 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively high. (2.86 Ratio, rank 3/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Korea, the intended instruction time for lower secondary students (in hours per year) is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (842 Hours, rank 25/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Korea, total intended instruction time for lower secondary students is among the shortest compared to other countries with available data. (2525 Hours, rank 26/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Korea, compulsory instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (655 Hours, rank 30/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (655 Hours, rank 28/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary public institutions are comparatively large in Korea. (27 Students, rank 7/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively large in Korea. (26 Students, rank 3/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (77 %, rank 33/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (77 %, rank 39/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (84.6 %, rank 36/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (65.8 %, rank 34/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education is comparatively low. (76.8 %, rank 28/31 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (73.7 %, rank 33/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (78.4 %, rank 43/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (81.9 %, rank 42/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (73.7 %, rank 39/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education is comparatively . (75.6 %, rank 33/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education is comparatively . (80.8 %, rank 31/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (3.5 %, rank 32/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with tertiary education is high in Korea. (18.9 %, rank 3/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively Korea. (29.1 %, rank 5/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (51.4 %, rank 20/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (63.9 %, rank 24/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (43.6 %, rank 22/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (25.9 %, rank 20/25 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (75 %, rank 25/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (43.6 %, rank 25/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (50.1 %, rank 28/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (25.7 %, rank 26/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (133 Index, rank 32/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (136 Index, rank 30/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary education or post-secondary non-tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (69 %, rank 34/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (70.6 %, rank 37/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full and part-time workers with tertiary education are comparatively low. (140 Index, rank 29/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Korea, the proportion of adults without an upper secondary education who reported being interested in politics is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (52.5 %, rank 6/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Korea, the proportion of adults with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who reported being interested in politics is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (46.3 %, rank 19/28 , 2018) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
                            
    • While 37% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are in vocational programmes, the share increases to 61% among students over 25.
    • The most popular fields of study among vocational graduates vary at different levels of education. While engineering, manufacturing and construction is the most common broad field at upper secondary level, at short-cycle tertiary level, most students graduate from business, administration and law, or health and welfare.
    • Combined school and work-based learning can help students transition smootly into the labor market. However, only one -third of all upper secondary vocational students are enrolled in school and work-based programmes on average across OECD countries.
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    • Between the age of 3 to 5, 88% of children are enrolled in pre-primary and primary education, on average across OECD countries.
    • The estimated expenditure on all children aged 3 to 5 enrolled in ECEC and primary education amounts to an average of 0.6% of GDP. Only in Iceland and Norway does it equal or exceed 1.0%.
    • The ECEC workforce is at the heart of high-quality education. On average across OECD countries, there are 14 children for every teacher working in pre-primary education (ISCED 02).
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    • In 2019, 45% of 25-34 year-olds held a tertiary degree, compared to 28% among 55-64 year-olds, on average across OECD countries.
    • On average across OECD countries, 17% of first-time tertiary entrants enter short-cycle tertiary programmes. The employment rate of adults with a short-cycle tertiary degree is 4 percentage points higher than those with an upper secondary vocational attainment and they earn 16% more, on average across OECD countries.
    • Based on current patterns, it is estimated that 38% of young adults across OECD countries will graduate from tertiary education for the first time before the age of 30 (excluding international students).
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    • In 2017, total expenditure amounted to approximately USD 9 100 per student in primary institutions and USD 10 500 in secondary institutions on average across OECD countries.
    • After increasing between 2005 and 2012, total expenditure on primary to tertiary institutions as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) has fallen to 4.9% in 2017 on average, below its 2005 value of 5.1%. This is due to educational expenditure rising more slowly than GDP over this period, growing by 17% while GDP grew by 27%.
    • Private sources financed more than 30% of the expenditure, on average, at tertiary level compared to 10% at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level.
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    • There are relatively few young teachers (under the age of 30), and the proportion decreases with the level of education. Young teachers make up 12% of the teaching population in primary education, 10% in lower secondary education and 8% in upper secondary education, on average across OECD countries.
    • While instruction time for students increases at higher educational levels, statutory teaching time in public institutions decreases: teachers in OECD countries and economies are required to teach on average 778 hours per year at primary level compared to 680 hours at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • Between 2005 and 2019, the statutory salaries of primary and secondary general teachers - with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications - increased by 2-3%, despite salaries falling after the 2008 economic crisis, on average across OECD countries and economies with available data.
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    Key
    Country Reviews for Korea

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Some countries may have provided data refering to another year, to know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.