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Japan
Overview of the education system (EAG 2021)
  • In Japan, men are more likely than women to pursue a vocational track. In 2019, 57% of upper secondary vocational graduates were men, compared to 55% on average across OECD countries.
  • In Japan, 64% of 25-34 year-old women had a tertiary qualification in 2019 compared to 59% of their male peers.
  • In 2018, Japan invested a total of USD 10 185 per student on primary to tertiary institutions compared to USD 10 454 on average across OECD countries. This represents 4% of GDP, compared to 4.9% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2019, 94% of 3-5 year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education and care programmes and primary education in Japan, compared to 88% on average across OECD countries.
  • Statutory salaries of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of their salary scales are 105% to 110% higher than those of teachers with the minimum qualifications at the start of their career at primary and general lower and upper secondary levels in Japan compared to 86% - 91% on average.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52.7 %, rank 3/46 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (61.5 %, rank 4/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (44.5 %, rank 4/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (31.3 %, rank 2/46 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.6 %, rank 4/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.2 %, rank 4/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (58.7 %, rank 2/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64.4 %, rank 5/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate of 6-14 year-olds in Japan is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.1 %, rank 38/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in Japan is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99 %, rank 4/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in public tertiary educational institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.1 %, rank 39/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in independent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (78.9 %, rank 2/30 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the enrolment rate of children under 3 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.4 %, rank 33/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98.5 %, rank 9/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation expectancy

    Japan has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree before the age of 30. (43.8 %, rank 5/31 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The percentage of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at upper secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.2 %, rank 27/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of bachelor's or equivalent graduates in public institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.6 %, rank 32/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of master's or equivalent graduates in public institutions is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56.1 %, rank 27/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of long first degree master's graduates in public institutions is relatively low in Japan. (32.6 %, rank 21/22 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctorate graduates in public institutions is relatively low in Japan. (76.1 %, rank 28/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of first-time short-cycle graduates is relatively high in Japan. (32.9 %, rank 7/26 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates is relatively low in Japan. (64.5 %, rank 22/30 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time master's graduates is relatively low in Japan. (2.6 %, rank 18/23 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary general programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (49 %, rank 34/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Japan has one of the smallest shares of women graduates from tertiary programmes. (51.7 %, rank 34/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively low. (22.5 %, rank 44/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law is relatively low. (27.5 %, rank 40/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively low. (17.2 %, rank 41/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female tertiary graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7 %, rank 37/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female tertiary graduates in the field of sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.4 %, rank 37/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of male tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is relatively large. (9.5 %, rank 10/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively high in Japan. (10.7 %, rank 8/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by age

    In Japan, the average age of first-time tertiary graduates is relatively low. (22 Years, rank 28/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates younger than 30 is relatively high. (98.6 %, rank 1/31 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in social sciences, business and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (15.5 %, rank 41/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15 %, rank 5/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.5 %, rank 9/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of sciences, journalism and information in Japan is relatively small. (2.6 %, rank 44/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law in Japan is relatively small. (4.2 %, rank 38/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Japan is relatively small. (14 %, rank 40/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Japan is relatively large. (21.8 %, rank 9/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30.4 %, rank 3/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43 %, rank 8/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.6 %, rank 25/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.3 %, rank 29/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Japan, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively low. (3 %, rank 33/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (70.7 %, rank 34/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46.1 %, rank 36/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (37.1 %, rank 36/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27.1 %, rank 36/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.6 %, rank 36/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66.7 %, rank 35/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of education is relatively small. (43.5 %, rank 33/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively small. (18.6 %, rank 34/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Japan is relatively small. (16 %, rank 34/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of health and welfare is relatively small. (34.2 %, rank 33/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    In Japan, the proportion of young men who are neither employed nor in education or training among 15-19 year-olds is comparatively large. (3.3 %, rank 9/81 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the number of international or foreign students per national student abroad is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 Students, rank 6/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, international or foreign students from Asia are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (93.7 %, rank 7/75 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of international graduates among bachelor's first-time graduates is relatively low. (2.1 %, rank 26/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    In Japan, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (0.7 %, rank 30/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (0.8 %, rank 32/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.5 %, rank 32/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Adult participation in non-formal education

    In Japan, the proportion of employed adults participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (49.4 %, rank 28/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (36.2 %, rank 29/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (62.8 %, rank 28/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (39.8 %, rank 28/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over of 249 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (53.3 %, rank 30/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is is relatively low in Japan. (2 %, rank 11/15 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low in Japan. (3.5 %, rank 32/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Japan had one of the smallest share of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer. (4.1 %, rank 30/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Japan had one of the smallest share of adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer. (3.3 %, rank 27/31 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Japan had one of the smallest share of adults employed in the public sector and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer. (4.2 %, rank 30/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the number of annual hours of participation of adults with upper secondary or post-secondary education in non-formal education and training is comparatively high (141.9 %, rank 4/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    In Japan, the total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19364 USD Equivalent 2015, rank 7/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Japan, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies. (4 %, rank 30/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, public and private expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (2.6 %, rank 34/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (2.4 %, rank 37/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (0.4 %, rank 40/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (2.8 %, rank 39/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, total expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to 2010. (93 Index, rank 28/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on educational institutions at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is relatively low in Japan. (-0.5 %, rank 29/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the international expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to tertiary education is high. (0 USD Equivalent, rank 2/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent student from primary to tertiary education is one of the smallest in Japan among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-0.7 %, rank 28/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Japan is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-0.3 %, rank 26/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education in Japan is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 24/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on tertiary education in Japan is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 21/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (67.9 %, rank 2/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.6 %, rank 38/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Japan has one of the largest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (28.7 %, rank 5/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, total public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (7.8 %, rank 37/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, total public expenditure on secondary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (3.3 %, rank 38/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of total expenditure on tertiary education is relatively low. (0 %, rank 27/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of total expenditure on primary to tertiary education is relatively low. (0 %, rank 27/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for tertiary education is comparatively small. (32.1 %, rank 36/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively small. (71.3 %, rank 33/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Total public expenditure on education as a percentage of total government expenditure, for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in Japan compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.1 %, rank 38/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The relative share of international expenditure on primary to tertiary education from initial source of funds is relatively small in Japan. (0 %, rank 26/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2015, the share of total public expenditure from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is comparatively small in Japan. (99 Index, rank 29/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The relative share of international expenditure on tertiary education from initial source of funds in Japan is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 26/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In Japan, the share of capital expenditure on primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12 %, rank 7/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of current expenditure on primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (88 %, rank 27/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of capital expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively in Japan. (10.9 %, rank 7/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of current expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (89.1 %, rank 28/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of capital expenditure for primary to tertiary education in Japan is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.8 %, rank 8/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of current expenditure for primary to tertiary education in Japan is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (89.2 %, rank 24/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of capital expenditure on secondary education is relatively in Japan. (10.1 %, rank 9/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of current expenditure on secondary education is relatively in Japan. (89.9 %, rank 26/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of capital expenditure on tertiary education is relatively in Japan. (10.6 %, rank 10/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively low in Japan. (615 Hours, rank 25/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively low in Japan. (511 Hours, rank 29/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary school is especially high. (203 Days, rank 2/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64.4 %, rank 41/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43 %, rank 40/40 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30.8 %, rank 42/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education (bachelor's, master's, doctorate or equivalent education) is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.8 %, rank 32/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.4 %, rank 39/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48.2 %, rank 34/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially high. (17.1 %, rank 4/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers younger than 30 in primary education is especially low in Japan. (64.6 %, rank 37/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers under 30 in lower secondary education is especially low in Japan. (45 %, rank 35/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Females under 30 represent a small proportion of teachers in upper secondary education in Japan. (38.5 %, rank 37/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Females aged 50 or more represent a small proportion of teachers in primary education in Japan. (67.6 %, rank 36/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in lower secondary education is especially low in Japan. (39.7 %, rank 35/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in upper secondary education is especially low in Japan. (22.9 %, rank 37/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in tertiary education is especially low in Japan. (24.7 %, rank 32/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the most rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.05 Ratio, rank 4/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers longer to progress through the salary scale in Japan compared to other OECD and partner countries. (36 Years, rank 5/27 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively high. (2.05 Ratio, rank 10/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Japan, total intended instruction time for primary and lower secondary students is relatively short. (7338 Hours, rank 21/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, total intended instruction time for lower secondary students is relatively short. (2669 Hours, rank 22/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Class size

    Classes in lower secondary public institutions are comparatively large in Japan. (32 Students, rank 2/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively large in Japan. (33 Students, rank 1/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In independent private institutions at primary education level, classes are one of the largest in Japan among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28 Students, rank 1/20 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In independent private institutions at lower secondary level, classes are one of the largest in Japan among OECD and partner countries with available data. (33 Students, rank 1/20 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (88.8 %, rank 5/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is compartively high in Japan. (94.2 %, rank 3/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (2.6 %, rank 42/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Participation in education by gender

    The share of women among tertiary education new entrants is one of the smallest compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (51.2 %, rank 32/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering bachelor's programmes in Japan is relatively small. (45.9 %, rank 44/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes in Japan is comparatively large. (60.8 %, rank 7/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering doctoral or equivalent programmes in Japan is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (31.8 %, rank 41/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    In Japan, the average age of new entrants in bachelor's programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.6 Years, rank 37/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the average age of new entrants in master's long first degree (LFD) programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.1 Years, rank 23/24 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of young people expected to enter into tertiary education before the age of 25 is relatively high. (72.3 %, rank 1/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of first-time entrants into tertiary education younger than 25 is relatively high. (98.7 %, rank 1/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The average age of new entrants in tertiary education in Japan is comparatively young. (18.5 Years, rank 32/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of first-time entrants into bachelor's or equivalent programmes before the age of 25 is relatively high. (98.6 %, rank 1/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of first-time entrants into master's or equivalent programmes before the age of 30 is relatively high. (90.4 %, rank 4/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of young people expected to enter master's programmes before the age of 30 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.6 %, rank 32/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Excluding international students, Japan has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to enter master's programmes before turning 25. (0.7 %, rank 30/35 , 2019) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
                            
    • One in five adults across the OECD has not attained upper secondary education.
    • In 2020, the unemployment rate of adults that had not completed upper secondary education was almost twice as high as those with higher qualifications, and 27% of these adults earn only at or below half the median on average across OECD countries.
    • In 2019, at least 10% of school-aged youth were not in school in about a quarter of OECD countries.
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    • In 2019, women made up 55% of new entrants to tertiary education on average. If current patterns continue, it is expected that 46% of young women will graduate with a tertiary degree for the first time before they turn 30, 15 percentage points more than men.
    • Women also earn on average about 76-78% of men’s salaries regardless of educational attainment, although the gender gap narrowed by 2 percentage points between 2013 and 2019.
    • Women are less likely than men to enter a STEM field of study, and the average share remained generally stable between 2013 and 2019.
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    • On average across countries, expenditure on educational institutions amounted to approximately USD 9 300 per student at pre-primary level; USD 10 500 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non tertiary level; and USD 17 100 at tertiary level.
    • The public sector funds 90% of total expenditure on primary and secondary institutions on average, often compulsory in most OECD countries, compared to 83% at pre-primary level and 66% at tertiary level.
    • In 2018, the OECD countries spent on average 4.9% of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on primary to tertiary educational institutions.
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    • In 2019, less than 5% of pre-primary teachers were men, compared to 18% at primary level, 40% at upper secondary level and more than 50% at tertiary level on average.
    • Between 2005 and 2020, on average across OECD countries and economies with available data for all reference years, the statutory salaries of teachers with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications increased by 3% at primary level, 4% at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 2% at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • In most countries, teachers above 50 years of age make up more than a third of the teaching force.
    • Attracting male teachers to the profession can be difficult: While the average actual salary of female teachers is equal to or higher than the average salary of other full-time, tertiary-educated women, primary and secondary male teachers earn between 76% and 85% of the average earnings of other full-time, tertiary-educated men.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    
                            
    • On average across OECD countries, 87% of children aged 3-5 are enrolled in education on average across OECD countries compared to 25% for children below the age of 3.
    • There are 15 children for every teacher at pre-primary level on average across OECD countries.
    • Half of children enrolled in early childhood development services and a two-thirds of pre-primary children attend public institutions on average across OECD countries
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Japan

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Japan

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.