Explore the OECD's reports or draw from a wide variety of education indicators and data to construct your own, customised country reports, highlighting the facts, developments and outcomes of your choice.

Country

Data profiles:



Diagram of the education system

Click on the diagram to get a PDF version
Key

  • Diagram of education system in country language


  • General methodological notes for ISCED diagrams


  • Education system in Japan

    Japan
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2020)
  • On average, 22% of all upper secondary students enrol in VET programmes in Japan, a lower proportion than the OECD average of 42%.
  • In 2019, 62% of 25-34 year-olds had a tertiary degree in Japan compared to 45% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2017, Japan invested a total of USD 11 896 per student on primary to tertiary institutions compared to USD 11 231 on average across OECD countries. This represents 4% of GDP, compared to 4.9% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2018, 92% of 3-5 year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education and care programmes and primary education in Japan, compared to 88% on average across OECD countries.
  • Profile View

    Select first some countries to compare, choose the charts you wish to display and customise them.

    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

    Show indicators for which your country ranks among the top or bottom: Sort by:

    Educational outcomes

    In Japan, the percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (31.3 %, rank 3/46 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at upper secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.5 %, rank 28/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.6 %, rank 4/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.2 %, rank 4/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    In Japan, the share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (39.6 %, rank 1/46 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The proportion of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.2 %, rank 36/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering doctoral or equivalent programmes in Japan is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (32.2 %, rank 42/42 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the average age of new entrants in master's long first degree (LFD) programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19 Years, rank 24/24 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of new female entrants in master's long first degree (LFD) programmes is relatively low. (49.4 %, rank 22/24 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of young people expected to enter into tertiary education before the age of 25 is relatively high. (72.6 %, rank 1/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes younger than 25 is relatively high. (99.5 %, rank 1/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of first-time entrants into tertiary education younger than 25 is relatively high. (99.4 %, rank 1/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98.4 %, rank 10/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation expectancy

    In Japan, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from a doctoral or equivalent programme before the age of 35 ranks as one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.3 %, rank 9/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Japan has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree before the age of 30. (45.2 %, rank 3/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree before the age of 35 is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (8.1 %, rank 26/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Japan has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree before the age of 30. (7.2 %, rank 23/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Japan has one of the smallest shares of women graduates from tertiary programmes. (51.7 %, rank 35/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively low. (20.6 %, rank 43/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law is relatively low. (33.8 %, rank 38/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively low. (15.5 %, rank 41/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.1 %, rank 5/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.4 %, rank 7/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of sciences, journalism and information in Japan is relatively small. (2.9 %, rank 44/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law in Japan is relatively small. (4.2 %, rank 39/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Japan is relatively small. (14.2 %, rank 37/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Japan is relatively large. (22.6 %, rank 9/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30.3 %, rank 4/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (42.5 %, rank 8/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.6 %, rank 30/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Adult learning

    In Japan, the proportion of employed adults participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (49.4 %, rank 28/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (36.2 %, rank 29/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (62.8 %, rank 28/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (39.8 %, rank 28/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over of 249 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (53.3 %, rank 30/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is is relatively low in Japan. (2 %, rank 11/15 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low in Japan. (3.5 %, rank 32/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Japan had one of the smallest share of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer. (4.1 %, rank 30/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Japan had one of the smallest share of adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer. (3.3 %, rank 27/31 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Japan had one of the smallest share of adults employed in the public sector and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer. (4.2 %, rank 30/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the number of annual hours of participation of adults with upper secondary or post-secondary education in non-formal education and training is comparatively high (141.9 %, rank 4/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Japan, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively low. (7.3 %, rank 29/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively low. (3 %, rank 32/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (71.1 %, rank 30/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46.2 %, rank 35/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (36.9 %, rank 35/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26.1 %, rank 35/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.2 %, rank 35/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (65.8 %, rank 35/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of education is relatively small. (43.6 %, rank 34/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively small. (18.9 %, rank 35/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Japan is relatively small. (16.5 %, rank 33/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of health and welfare is relatively small. (33.7 %, rank 34/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively small. (7.3 %, rank 29/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively small. (3 %, rank 32/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Japan is one of the most attractive destinations to foreign students compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.2 %, rank 8/81 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the number of international or foreign students per national student abroad is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 Students, rank 6/46 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of international graduates among bachelor's first-time graduates is relatively low. (1.9 %, rank 26/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    In Japan, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.3 %, rank 30/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    In Japan, the share of current expediture on primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (87.4 %, rank 30/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of capital expediture on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.5 %, rank 4/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of current expediture on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (88.5 %, rank 29/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of capital expediture on primary through tertiary is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.6 %, rank 5/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of current expediture on primary through tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (88.4 %, rank 25/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of current expediture on secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (89.3 %, rank 29/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of current expediture on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (88.2 %, rank 26/31 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Japan, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies. (4 %, rank 27/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Japan, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (2.4 %, rank 38/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Japan, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (0.4 %, rank 41/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Japan, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (2.9 %, rank 40/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Japan, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (1.2 %, rank 9/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The total expenditure on early childhood and care educational institutions, as a percentage of GDP, is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.2 %, rank 28/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (68.8 %, rank 2/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.6 %, rank 39/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Japan has one of the largest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (28.7 %, rank 6/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Japan, total public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (7.8 %, rank 38/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Japan, total public expenditure on secondary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (3.4 %, rank 38/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Japan, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of total expenditure on tertiary education is relatively low. (0 %, rank 26/31 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Japan, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of total expenditure on primary to tertiary education is relatively low. (0 %, rank 25/30 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for tertiary education is comparatively small. (31.2 %, rank 36/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively small. (71.3 %, rank 31/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Total public expenditure on education as a percentage of total government expenditure, for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in Japan compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.2 %, rank 38/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Japan, public expenditure on early childhood and care educational institutions from final source of funds is relatively low. (50.9 %, rank 28/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of private expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (49.1 %, rank 2/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of international expenditure on primary through tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 24/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of international expenditure on tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 25/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary school is especially high. (203 Days, rank 2/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43 %, rank 40/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education (bachelor's, master's, doctorate or equivalent education) is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.8 %, rank 32/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.4 %, rank 39/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers younger than 30 is especially high. (19.4 %, rank 4/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially high. (17.6 %, rank 5/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially high. (13 %, rank 4/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially high. (17.1 %, rank 4/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially low. (48.4 %, rank 26/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially low. (50.5 %, rank 27/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the most rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.06 Ratio, rank 4/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers longer to progress through the salary scale in Japan compared to other OECD and partner countries. (36 Years, rank 5/26 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively high. (2.06 Ratio, rank 10/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    Classes in lower secondary public institutions are comparatively large in Japan. (32 Students, rank 2/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively large in Japan. (33 Students, rank 1/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (88.8 %, rank 9/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education is comparatively . (83.9 %, rank 30/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education degree is one the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (2.1 %, rank 31/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (1.7 %, rank 40/44 , 2019) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
                            
    • While 37% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are in vocational programmes, the share increases to 61% among students over 25.
    • The most popular fields of study among vocational graduates vary at different levels of education. While engineering, manufacturing and construction is the most common broad field at upper secondary level, at short-cycle tertiary level, most students graduate from business, administration and law, or health and welfare.
    • Combined school and work-based learning can help students transition smootly into the labor market. However, only one -third of all upper secondary vocational students are enrolled in school and work-based programmes on average across OECD countries.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    
                            
    • Between the age of 3 to 5, 88% of children are enrolled in pre-primary and primary education, on average across OECD countries.
    • The estimated expenditure on all children aged 3 to 5 enrolled in ECEC and primary education amounts to an average of 0.6% of GDP. Only in Iceland and Norway does it equal or exceed 1.0%.
    • The ECEC workforce is at the heart of high-quality education. On average across OECD countries, there are 14 children for every teacher working in pre-primary education (ISCED 02).
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    
                            
    • In 2019, 45% of 25-34 year-olds held a tertiary degree, compared to 28% among 55-64 year-olds, on average across OECD countries.
    • On average across OECD countries, 17% of first-time tertiary entrants enter short-cycle tertiary programmes. The employment rate of adults with a short-cycle tertiary degree is 4 percentage points higher than those with an upper secondary vocational attainment and they earn 16% more, on average across OECD countries.
    • Based on current patterns, it is estimated that 38% of young adults across OECD countries will graduate from tertiary education for the first time before the age of 30 (excluding international students).
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    
                            
    • In 2017, total expenditure amounted to approximately USD 9 100 per student in primary institutions and USD 10 500 in secondary institutions on average across OECD countries.
    • After increasing between 2005 and 2012, total expenditure on primary to tertiary institutions as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) has fallen to 4.9% in 2017 on average, below its 2005 value of 5.1%. This is due to educational expenditure rising more slowly than GDP over this period, growing by 17% while GDP grew by 27%.
    • Private sources financed more than 30% of the expenditure, on average, at tertiary level compared to 10% at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    
                            
    • There are relatively few young teachers (under the age of 30), and the proportion decreases with the level of education. Young teachers make up 12% of the teaching population in primary education, 10% in lower secondary education and 8% in upper secondary education, on average across OECD countries.
    • While instruction time for students increases at higher educational levels, statutory teaching time in public institutions decreases: teachers in OECD countries and economies are required to teach on average 778 hours per year at primary level compared to 680 hours at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • Between 2005 and 2019, the statutory salaries of primary and secondary general teachers - with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications - increased by 2-3%, despite salaries falling after the 2008 economic crisis, on average across OECD countries and economies with available data.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click on the coverpage to see the full OECD iLibrary version
    Key
    Country Reviews for Japan

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Some countries may have provided data refering to another year, to know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.