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Diagram of the education system

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  • Diagram of education system in country language


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  • Education system in India

    India
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2019)
  • In India, 71% of adults do not have upper secondary education. Even among younger adults, 70% of women have not attained upper secondary education, compared to 58% of men.
  • The share of tertiary-educated adults is growing in India. By 2030, tertiary-educated adults from India are expected to make up more than one-fifth of the tertiary-educated population across OECD and G20 countries.
  • The majority of Indian students in tertiary education are enrolled in private institutions, where the ratio of students to teachers is much lower than in public institutions.
  • Although the share of doctorate holders among the adult population is very low, India accounted for one in every ten doctoral student graduating in the G20 countries in 2017.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment by gender

    India has one of the smallest shares of 25-64 year-old women whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (0.4 %, rank 36/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (7.4 %, rank 38/46 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    In India, the proportion of new female entrants into master's long first degree (LFD) programmes is relatively low. (35.9 %, rank 24/24 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Graduation expectancy

    In India, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from upper secondary education during their lifetimes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30.4 %, rank 38/38 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from a doctoral or equivalent programme in India ranks as one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 37/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    India has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime. (28.2 %, rank 31/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree during their lifetime is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (7 %, rank 31/38 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, India has one of the highest percentages of female graduates from tertiary programmes. (51.7 %, rank 6/6 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 %, rank 35/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19 %, rank 38/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.4 %, rank 1/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.1 %, rank 10/43 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.3 %, rank 44/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 41/44 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    India has one of the smallest proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 45/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In India, the number of international or foreign students per national student abroad is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 Students, rank 38/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In India, international students from North America are most represented among all international students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.2 %, rank 9/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In India, international students from Latin America and the Caribbean are least represented among all international students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 42/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In India, international students from Asia are most represented among all international students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (67.9 %, rank 8/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In India, international students from Europe are least represented among all international students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.5 %, rank 45/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In India, international students from Oceania are most represented among all international students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.1 %, rank 5/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In India, international students from Africa are highest represented among all international students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (25 %, rank 5/45 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24.4 Ratio, rank 5/30 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (32.7 Ratio, rank 1/41 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in secondary schools is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27.4 Ratio, rank 2/38 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51.2 %, rank 40/40 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (45.6 %, rank 38/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (42.4 %, rank 38/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (40.6 %, rank 27/36 , 2017) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • In 2018, 44% of 25-34 year-olds held a tertiary degree, compared to 35% in 2008, on average across OECD countries.
    • Tertiary-educated adults also reap higher earnings, although this varies by field of study. Their advantage increases with age too: 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education earn 38% more than their peers with upper secondary education while 45-54 year-olds earn 70% more.
    • While engineering, manufacturing and construction, and information and communication technologies are two fields most commonly associated with the best labour market outcomes, only 14% of graduates earned a degree in the former and 4% earned a degree in the latter in 2017.
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    • Although graduation from upper secondary education increased by 6 percentage points between 2005 and 2017, 15% of 25-34 year-olds did not attain upper secondary education in 2018, on average across OECD countries.
    • In some countries, vocational programmes are prominent at the upper secondary level. On average across OECD countries, 40% of first-time upper secondary graduates earned a vocational qualification in 2017; in Austria, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia, more than 66% of this population did.
    • At the lower secondary level, the average class shrank by 6% while teachers' statutory salaries increased by 8% between 2005 and 2017, on average across OECD countries.
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    • In 2017, more than one in three children under the age of three were enrolled in early childhood education and care services, on average across OECD countries - an increase of 7 percentage points compared to 2010.
    • Between the age of 3 to 5, on average across OECD countries, 87% of children are enrolled in pre-primary and primary education.
    • Annual expenditure per child in early childhood development programmes was greater than in pre-primary education in 2016 on average across OECD countries. However, as a share of GDP, expenditure on early childhood development is lower.
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    • In 2016, expenditure per tertiary student amounted to USD 15 556, approximately one-third of which was devoted to research and development.
    • Private sources financed more than 30% of the expenditure, on average, at the tertiary level compared to 10% at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level.
    • OECD countries spent an average of 3.5% of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary institutions in 2016, and public expenditure at this level increased by 18% since 2005.
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    • About 10% of primary and secondary teachers are under the age of 30, on average across OECD countries.
    • While the teaching profession is dominated by women, the share of female teachers decreases with the level of education taught: almost all teachers at the pre-primary level are women, however they make up less than half of the teaching force at tertiary level.
    • Salaries tend to increase with the level of education taught, but teachers' earnings remain between 78% and 93% of the earnings of other tertiary-educated adults.
    Visualisations
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    Key
    Country Reviews for India

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.