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India
Overview of the education system (EAG 2021)
  • In India, 17% of 25-34 year-old women had a tertiary qualification in 2019 compared to 22% of their male peers.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (67.2 %, rank 1/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.3 %, rank 44/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (78.5 %, rank 1/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.1 %, rank 45/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.4 %, rank 45/46 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.5 %, rank 42/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.6 %, rank 44/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (3.4 %, rank 2/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (88.8 %, rank 1/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.6 %, rank 44/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22 %, rank 41/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.1 %, rank 44/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men who attained below upper secondary education in India is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (62.7 %, rank 1/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women who attained below upper secondary education in India is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (71.6 %, rank 1/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men who attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in India is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.4 %, rank 44/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women who attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in India is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.3 %, rank 44/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The proportion of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.6 %, rank 43/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in public tertiary educational institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (42.2 %, rank 36/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, India has one of the smallest shares of women graduates from tertiary programmes. (53.4 %, rank 31/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In India, the share of female tertiary graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30.5 %, rank 1/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of education is relatively high in India. (7.2 %, rank 10/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In India, the proportion of male tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is relatively small. (5 %, rank 38/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In India, the proportion of male tertiary graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively large. (25.8 %, rank 1/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively low in India. (3.1 %, rank 42/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (4.8 %, rank 43/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.9 %, rank 36/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.2 %, rank 35/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16 %, rank 1/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4 %, rank 44/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 42/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of health and welfare in India is relatively small. (4.2 %, rank 40/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of services among all national tertiary students in India is relatively low. (0.3 %, rank 38/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    India has one of the smallest proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 43/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In India, the number of international or foreign students per national student abroad is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 Students, rank 37/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In India, international or foreign students from Europe are least represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.1 %, rank 68/75 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In India, international or foreign students from Africa are highest represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.8 %, rank 8/75 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of services among all international or foreign tertiary students in India is relatively low. (0.3 %, rank 38/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent student in tertiary education is one of the largest in India. (3.5 %, rank 4/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    Compared to 2015, the share of total government expenditure is comparatively high in India. (120 Index, rank 4/46 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54.4 %, rank 43/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48.3 %, rank 39/40 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43.3 %, rank 41/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24.8 Ratio, rank 2/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31 Ratio, rank 3/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (27.7 Ratio, rank 1/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in secondary schools is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.5 Ratio, rank 4/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In India, the number of students per teacher in public lower secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.1 Ratio, rank 4/40 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in private institutions is especially high in India. (17.1 Ratio, rank 5/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In India, the number of students per teacher in public upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.2 Ratio, rank 4/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In India, the number of students per teacher in private upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25.2 Ratio, rank 2/40 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In India, the number of students per teacher in all public secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22 Ratio, rank 4/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In India, the number of students per teacher in all private secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21 Ratio, rank 3/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (61.9 %, rank 45/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (62.9 %, rank 41/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (61 %, rank 45/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (64.2 %, rank 35/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is compartively low in India. (53.5 %, rank 44/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in India. (56.3 %, rank 42/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (73.1 %, rank 44/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (75.9 %, rank 44/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (68.9 %, rank 42/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with below upper secondary education is compartively high in India. (94 %, rank 1/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is compartively low in India. (76.6 %, rank 41/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively low in India. (22.4 %, rank 43/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is compartively low in India. (25 %, rank 44/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in India. (17 %, rank 43/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively low. (2.7 %, rank 42/42 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (16.9 %, rank 5/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with below upper secondary education is high in India. (43.3 %, rank 5/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with tertiary education is high in India. (35.6 %, rank 1/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who believe they have a say in government is among the lowest across OECD and partner countries. (15.8 %, rank 25/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In India, the proportion of adults who reported being interested in politics is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (75.2 %, rank 3/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In India, the proportion of adults without an upper secondary education who reported being interested in politics is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (74.4 %, rank 2/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In India, the proportion of adults with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who reported being interested in politics is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (79.7 %, rank 2/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In India, the proportion of adults who reported that the political system allows people like them to have a say in what the government does is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (16.2 %, rank 26/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In India, the proportion of adults without an upper secondary education who reported that the political system allows people like them to have a say in what the government does relatively is low. (15.9 %, rank 22/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In India, the proportion of adults with a tertiary education who reported that the political system allows people like them to have a say in what the government does relatively is low. (20.2 %, rank 27/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Participation in education by gender

    The share of women among tertiary education new entrants is one of the smallest compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (48.8 %, rank 38/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering bachelor's programmes in India is relatively small. (49.1 %, rank 42/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In India, the proportion of new female entrants in master's long first degree (LFD) programmes is relatively high. (42.2 %, rank 3/3 , 2019) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
                            
    • One in five adults across the OECD has not attained upper secondary education.
    • In 2020, the unemployment rate of adults that had not completed upper secondary education was almost twice as high as those with higher qualifications, and 27% of these adults earn only at or below half the median on average across OECD countries.
    • In 2019, at least 10% of school-aged youth were not in school in about a quarter of OECD countries.
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    • In 2019, women made up 55% of new entrants to tertiary education on average. If current patterns continue, it is expected that 46% of young women will graduate with a tertiary degree for the first time before they turn 30, 15 percentage points more than men.
    • Women also earn on average about 76-78% of men’s salaries regardless of educational attainment, although the gender gap narrowed by 2 percentage points between 2013 and 2019.
    • Women are less likely than men to enter a STEM field of study, and the average share remained generally stable between 2013 and 2019.
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    • On average across countries, expenditure on educational institutions amounted to approximately USD 9 300 per student at pre-primary level; USD 10 500 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non tertiary level; and USD 17 100 at tertiary level.
    • The public sector funds 90% of total expenditure on primary and secondary institutions on average, often compulsory in most OECD countries, compared to 83% at pre-primary level and 66% at tertiary level.
    • In 2018, the OECD countries spent on average 4.9% of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on primary to tertiary educational institutions.
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    • In 2019, less than 5% of pre-primary teachers were men, compared to 18% at primary level, 40% at upper secondary level and more than 50% at tertiary level on average.
    • Between 2005 and 2020, on average across OECD countries and economies with available data for all reference years, the statutory salaries of teachers with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications increased by 3% at primary level, 4% at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 2% at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • In most countries, teachers above 50 years of age make up more than a third of the teaching force.
    • Attracting male teachers to the profession can be difficult: While the average actual salary of female teachers is equal to or higher than the average salary of other full-time, tertiary-educated women, primary and secondary male teachers earn between 76% and 85% of the average earnings of other full-time, tertiary-educated men.
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    • On average across OECD countries, 87% of children aged 3-5 are enrolled in education on average across OECD countries compared to 25% for children below the age of 3.
    • There are 15 children for every teacher at pre-primary level on average across OECD countries.
    • Half of children enrolled in early childhood development services and a two-thirds of pre-primary children attend public institutions on average across OECD countries
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - India

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    Key
    Country Reviews for India

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.