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Hungary
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Hungary
Student performance (PISA 2022)
  • In mathematics, the main topic of PISA 2022, 15-year-olds in score 473 points compared to an average of 472 points in OECD countries.
  • On average, 15-year-olds score 473 points in reading compared to an average of 476 points in OECD countries.
  • In Hungary, the average performance in science of 15-year-olds is 486 points, compared to an average of 485 points in OECD countries.
  • A smaller proportion of students in Hungary, than on average across OECD countries, were top performers (Level 5 or 6) in at least one subject. At the same time a larger proportion of students than on average across OECD countries achieved a minimum level of proficiency (Level 2 or higher) in all three subjects.
  • In Hungary, 36% of students (the largest share) were in the top international quintile of the socio-economic scale, meaning that they were among the most advantaged students who took the PISA test in 2022. Their average score in mathematics was 525 score points; one of the highest for students of similar socio-economic background.
  • In Hungary socio-economically advantaged students (the top 25% in terms of socio-economic status) outperformed disadvantaged students (the bottom 25%) by 121 score points in mathematics. This is larger than the average difference between the two groups (93 score points) across OECD countries.
  • As in other PISA participating countries and economies, socio-economic status was a predictor of performance in mathematics, it accounted for 25% of the variation in mathematics performance in PISA 2022 in Hungary (compared to 15% on average across OECD countries).
  • Boys outperformed girls in mathematics by 15 score points; girls outperformed boys in reading by 17 score points in Hungary. Globally, in mathematics, boys outperformed girls in 40 countries and economies, girls outperformed boys in another 17 countries or economies. In reading, girls, on average, scored above boys in all but two countries and economies that participated in PISA 2022 (79 out of 81).
  • In Hungary, 52% of students reported that their school building was closed for more than three months due to COVID-19. On average across OECD countries, 51% of students experienced similarly long school closures. In education systems where performance remained high and students' sense of belonging improved, fewer students experienced longer school closures.
  • In Hungary, 99% reported that they had attended pre-primary education for one year or more (OECD average: 94%).
  • Some 6% of students in Hungary reported that they had repeated a grade at least once (OECD average: 9%) after entering primary school. Grade repetition tends to be less prevalent in high performing systems.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Student performance in mathematics

    The difference between girls' and boys' in mathematics performance is among the highest compared to other countries and economies participating in PISA. (15 PISA Score, rank 4/56 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The change in maths performance between 2015 and 2018 shows one of the strongest increases among PISA-participating countries and economies. (-8 PISA Score, rank 10/48 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Student performance in reading

    The difference between girls and boys in reading performance is one of the largest among PISA-participating countries and economies in favour of girls. (-17 PISA Score, rank 10/78 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Educational outcomes

    The percentage of students who had attended pre-primary education (ISCED 0) for one year or less is one of the lowest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0.8 %, rank 79/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    School climate

    Hungary has a relatively small difference in mathematics performance between students having missed school for more than three consecutive months at least once at any education level and those who did not (before accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile). (-78 PISA Score points, rank 66/71 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Classroom environment

    Hungary has one of the smallest share of students in schools that group students by abillity for all subjects. (0.3 %, rank 80/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Hungary has one of the largest share of students in schools that group students by abillity for some subjects. (80.7 %, rank 1/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Student well-being

    In Hungary, the percentage of students who did not eat because there was not enough money to buy food is particularly small compared to the other OECD or partner countries/economies. (4.6 %, rank 60/66 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Hungary has one of the lowest index of mathematics anxiety. (-0.21 PISA Index, rank 74/76 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Performance and socio-economic status

    The variance of results in mathematics is strongly associated with the socio-economic status of students, as measured by the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS). (25.1 %, rank 3/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The difference in mathematics performance associated with a one-unit increase in the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) is one of the largest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (49 PISA Score, rank 5/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of low performers in maths among advantaged students in Hungary is among the lowest compared to countries and economies participating in PISA. (7.6 %, rank 70/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to the share non-disadvantaged low performers in maths, the share of disadvantaged low performers in maths is one of the highest among countries and economies participating in PISA. (4.69 Ratio, rank 8/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Hungary, the variation between schools of the mathematics performance is among the largest, when compared to average total variation across OECD countries. (56.8 %, rank 7/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Hungary has one of the highest differences in mathematics performance between students in the top quarter and students in the bottom quarter of the economic, social and cultural status index (ESCS). (121 PISA Score, rank 4/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Hungary is one of the countries where the relationship between reading performance and socio-economics status (ESCS) is the strongest. (22.4 %, rank 1/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Hungary has one of the smallest differences in mathematics score associated with repeating a grade among OECD and partner countries/economies, before accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile. (-112 PISA Score points, rank 69/76 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The difference in science performance associated with a one-unit increase in the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) is one of the largest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (51 PISA Score, rank 3/79 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Hungary has one of the smallest differences in mathematics performance associated with a one-hour increase in the time spent per day on digital devices for learning at school, after accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile. (-10 PISA Score points, rank 57/60 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Hungary, the students were relatively less agree with various statements about regulation of ICT use at school than in other the OECD and partner countries/economies. (-0.13 PISA Index, rank 45/52 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    Between 2018 and 2022, Hungary recorded a particularly small change in the percentage of teachers working full time in schools attended by 15-years-olds, compared to the other OECD and partner countries/economies. (-1.4 %, rank 22/27 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Between 2018 and 2022, Hungary recorded a particularly significant change in the percentage of teachers working part time in schools attended by 15-years-olds, compared to the other OECD and partner countries/economies. (1.4 %, rank 6/27 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Governance

    The percentage of students attending government-dependent private schools is one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (25.5 %, rank 9/78 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Hungary has a school system where school selectivity is more intense than in the other OECD and partner countries/economies. (2.85 PISA Index, rank 9/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Hungary, the educational leadership is particularly limited compared to the other OECD and partner countries/economies. (-0.29 PISA Index, rank 66/75 , 2022) Download Indicator

    COVID-19 effects on education

    Hungary is one of the OECD and partner countries/economies with the lowest level of assertiveness, as measured by the PISA index of assertiveness. (-0.14 PISA Index, rank 40/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Hungary is one of the OECD and partner countries/economies with the highest level of stress resistance, as measured by the PISA index of student's stress resistance. (0.13 PISA Index, rank 7/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other OECD and partner countries/economies, students in Hungary had few problems with remote learning. (-0.27 PISA Index, rank 72/77 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The difference between advantaged and disadvantaged students in the confidence they have on their capacity to drive self-directed learning is one of the largest among countries participating in PISA (0.48 PISA Index, rank 8/73 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The difference between boys and girls in the confidence they have on their capacity to drive self-directed learning is one of the largest among countries participating in PISA (0.1 PISA Index, rank 5/30 , 2022) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
    
    • Singapore scored significantly higher than all other countries/economies in mathematics (575 points) and, along with Hong Kong (China), Japan, Korea, Macao (China), and Chinese Taipei, outperformed all other countries and economies in mathematics. Another 17 countries also performed above the OECD average (472 points), ranging from Estonia (510 points) to New Zealand (479 points).
    • Boys outperformed girls in mathematics by nine score points and girls outperformed boys in reading by 24 score points on average across OECD countries. In science, the performance difference between boys and girls is not significant.
    • An average of 69% of students are at least basically proficient in mathematics in OECD countries. This means they are beginning to demonstrate the ability and initiative to use mathematics in simple real-life situations.
    • In 16 out of 81 countries/economies participating in PISA 2022, more than 10% of students attained Level 5 or 6 proficiency, meaning they are high-performing: they understand that a problem is quantitative in nature and can formulate complex mathematical models to solve it. By contrast, less than 5% of students are high-performing in 42 countries/economies.
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    • Singapore scored significantly higher than all other countries/economies in reading (543 points) and science (561 points). Behind Singapore, Ireland performed as well as Estonia, Japan, Korea and Chinese Taipei while another 14 education systems performed above the OECD average in reading (476 points), ranging from Macao (China) (510 points) to Italy (482 points).
    • About three out of four students have achieved basic proficiency in reading in OECD countries.
    • In reading, an OECD average of 7% of students attained the highest proficiency levels of 5 or 6. In 13 countries/economies, more than 10% of students are top performers in reading.
    • No change in the OECD average over consecutive PISA assessments up to 2018 has ever exceeded five points in reading: in PISA 2022, however, the OECD average dropped by about 10 score points in reading compared to PISA 2018.. The unprecedented drops reading point to the shock effect of COVID-19 on most countries.
    • Only four countries and economies improved their performance between PISA 2018 and 2022 in all three subjects: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, the Dominican Republic and Chinese Taipei.
    • Trend analysis of PISA results reveals a decades-long decline that began well before the pandemic. In reading, performances peaked in 2012 and 2009, respectively, before dipping while performance began a downward descent in mathematics before 2018 in Australia, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Iceland, Korea, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Slovak Republic and Switzerland.
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    • Mean performance in science remained stable.
    • In science, the highest-performing education systems are Singapore, Japan, Macao (China), Chinese Taipei, Korea, Estonia, Hong Kong (China) and Canada. Finland performed as well as Canada in science. In addition to these nine countries and economies, another 15 education systems also performed above the OECD average in science (485 points), ranging from Australia (507 points) to Belgium (491 points).
    • About three out of four students have achieved basic proficiency science in OECD countries.
    • In science, an OECD average of 7% of students attained the highest proficiency levels of 5 or 6. In 14 countries/economies, more than 10% of students are top performers in science.
    • Only four countries and economies improved their performance between PISA 2018 and 2022 in all three subjects: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, the Dominican Republic and Chinese Taipei.
    • Trend analysis of PISA results reveals a decades-long decline that began well before the pandemic. In science, performances peaked in 2012 and 2009, respectively, before dipping. while performance began a downward descent in mathematics before 2018 in Australia, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Iceland, Korea, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Slovak Republic and Switzerland.
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    • Socio-economically advantaged students scored 93 points more in mathematics than disadvantaged students on average across OECD countries. The performance gap attributed to students' socio-economic status is greater than 93 score points in 22 countries or economies and 50 points or fewer in 13 countries or economies.
    • Boys outperformed girls in mathematics by nine score points and girls outperformed boys in reading by 24 score points on average across OECD countries. In science, the performance difference between boys and girls is not significant.
    • Non-immigrant students scored 29 points more than immigrant students in mathematics on average across OECD countries but non-immigrant students scored only five points more than immigrant students once socio-economic status and language spoken at home had been accounted for.
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    • Between 2018 and 2022 trends in students' sense of belonging at school were mixed, with equal proportions of countries/economies showing stable, improving or deteriorating trends. Of the 47 education systems with improving or stable trends, only 20 maintained or attained a level of students' sense of belonging at school that was at or above the OECD average. 
    • Around 10% of students reported feeling unsafe on their way to or from school, or in places outside of the classroom, on average across OECD countries. Some 20% of students reported that they are bullied at least a few times a month.
    • Overall, students felt more confident about using digital technology for learning remotely during future school closures than they felt about taking responsibility for their own learning. For instance, on average across OECD countries, about three out of four students reported that they feel confident or very confident about using a learning-management system, a school learning platform or a video communication program, as well as about finding learning resources online on their own.
    • Students' experience with learning at home was more positive in systems that were better prepared for remote learning. However, when learning remotely, 40% of all students reported feeling lonely and 50% of all students reported feeling anxious about schoolwork and that they fell behind in their studies; and three in ten students reported that teachers were not available when needed, on average across OECD countries. 
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Hungary

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Hungary

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.