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Diagram of the education system

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  • Diagram of education system in country language


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  • Education system in United Kingdom

    United Kingdom
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2020)
  • On average, 44% of all upper secondary students enrol in VET programmes in the United Kingdom, a higher proportion than the OECD average of 42%.
  • In 2019, 52% of 25-34 year-olds had a tertiary degree in the United Kingdom compared to 45% on average across OECD countries.
  • In the United Kingdom, in 2018, 25-64 year-olds with a tertiary degree with income from full-time, full-year employment earned 37% more than full-time, full-year workers with upper secondary education compared to 54% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2017, the United Kingdom invested a total of USD 14 209 per student on primary to tertiary institutions compared to USD 11 231 on average across OECD countries. This represents 6.3% of GDP, compared to 4.9% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2018, all 3-5 year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education and care programmes and primary education in the United Kingdom, compared to 88% on average across OECD countries.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

    Show indicators for which your country ranks among the top or bottom: Sort by:

    Educational outcomes

    In United Kingdom, the percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (23.6 %, rank 10/46 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (1.3 %, rank 10/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at upper secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (62.7 %, rank 6/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.4 %, rank 25/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.9 %, rank 9/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from general programmes in United Kingdom is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (15.7 Years, rank 38/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the average age of first-time tertiary graduates is relatively low. (23.4 Years, rank 28/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates younger than 30 is relatively high. (91.6 %, rank 6/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the percentage of first-time doctorate graduates younger than 35 is relatively high. (70.9 %, rank 10/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    United Kingdom has one of the largest share of women among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (47.6 %, rank 6/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    United Kingdom has one of the smallest share of women among 55-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (40.3 %, rank 29/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of educaton is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (5 %, rank 30/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of humanities (except languages), social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (3.6 %, rank 29/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (12.9 %, rank 28/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (2.7 %, rank 29/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (19.3 %, rank 10/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in United Kingdom is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in United Kingdom is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the percentage of young people expected to enter into tertiary education before the age of 25 is relatively high. (62.7 %, rank 10/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 20-24-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52.3 %, rank 28/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation expectancy

    In United Kingdom, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from upper secondary education before turning 25 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (70.5 %, rank 30/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from a doctoral or equivalent programme before the age of 35 ranks as one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.3 %, rank 2/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    United Kingdom has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree before the age of 30. (44.8 %, rank 4/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree before the age of 35 is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (20.9 %, rank 8/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (53.2 %, rank 7/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.7 %, rank 6/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.8 %, rank 2/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 42/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humaties in United Kingdom is relatively large. (15.9 %, rank 6/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in United Kingdom is relatively large. (29.1 %, rank 8/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.5 %, rank 29/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.5 %, rank 34/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Adult learning

    The percentage adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (4 %, rank 31/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of adults employed in the private sector and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (3 %, rank 31/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is is relatively low in United Kingdom. (0.8 %, rank 17/19 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is is relatively low in United Kingdom. (1.6 %, rank 12/15 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the number of annual hours of participation of adults in formal education and training is comparatively low (169 %, rank 26/26 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the number of annual hours of participation of adults without an upper secondary education in formal and/or non-formal education and training is comparatively low (51 %, rank 23/24 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the number of annual hours of participation of adults without an upper secondary education in formal education and training is comparatively high (55 %, rank 10/10 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the number of annual hours of participation of adults without an upper secondary education in non-formal education and training is comparatively low (48 %, rank 30/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the number of annual hours of participation of adults with upper secondary or post-secondary education in formal education and training is comparatively low (171 %, rank 24/24 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the number of annual hours of participation of adults with tertiary education in formal education and training is comparatively low (185 %, rank 26/26 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The annual training costs per participant are one of the lowest across OECD countries and partner countries. (985.5 %, rank 20/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In enterprises of over 249 employed persons, the annual training costs per participant are relatively low in United Kingdom. (842.9 %, rank 23/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the annual training costs as a share of total labour costs is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner countries. (1.8 %, rank 8/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In enterprises of 10-49 employed persons, the annual training costs as a share of total labour costs is relatively high. (2.4 %, rank 1/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In enterprises of ver 249 employed persons, the annual training costs as a share of total labour costs is relatively low. (1.5 %, rank 18/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In United Kingdom, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively low. (9.2 %, rank 35/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all national tertiary students in United Kingdom is relatively low. (17.6 %, rank 31/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all national tertiary students in United Kingdom is relatively low. (8.1 %, rank 34/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of services among all national tertiary students in United Kingdom is relatively low. (0.1 %, rank 33/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively small. (9.2 %, rank 35/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    United Kingdom has one of the largest proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.3 %, rank 4/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    United Kingdom is one of the most attractive destinations to foreign students compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (8 %, rank 2/81 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the number of international or foreign students per national student abroad is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11 Students, rank 3/46 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of international graduates among bachelor's first-time graduates is relatively high. (17.1 %, rank 5/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of international graduates among first-time doctorate graduates is relatively high. (46.5 %, rank 4/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all international or foreign tertiary students in United Kingdom is relatively high. (33.1 %, rank 5/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics among all international or foreign tertiary students in United Kingdom is relatively high. (11.7 %, rank 7/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of services among all international or foreign tertiary students in United Kingdom is relatively low. (0 %, rank 33/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of services is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (0 %, rank 33/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    In United Kingdom, the share of capital expediture on primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.3 %, rank 27/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of capital expediture on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.7 %, rank 29/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of current expediture on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96.3 %, rank 3/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of capital expediture on primary through tertiary is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.6 %, rank 20/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Between 2012 and 2017, the average annual growth rate in total expenditure on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.4 %, rank 9/31 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of current expediture on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (87.1 %, rank 27/31 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average annual growth rate of total expenditure on tertiary educational institutions between 2012 and 2017 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.2 %, rank 4/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28144 USD Equivalent, rank 3/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14209 USD Equivalent, rank 8/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7150 USD Equivalent, rank 21/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11604 USD Equivalent, rank 9/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22291 USD Equivalent, rank 3/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the total annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student in primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10985 USD Equivalent, rank 9/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent students from primary to tertiary education between 2012 and 2017 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.1 %, rank 10/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average annual growth of the number of full-time equivalent students in tertiary education between 2012 and 2017 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.3 %, rank 6/38 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In United Kingdom, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies. (6.3 %, rank 2/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, expenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (2 %, rank 4/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (0.5 %, rank 40/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (2.1 %, rank 2/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The total expenditure on early childhood and care educational institutions, as a percentage of GDP, is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 26/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.5 %, rank 6/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (71 %, rank 1/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    United Kingdom has one of the largest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (32.8 %, rank 3/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively small. (84.5 %, rank 31/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for tertiary education is comparatively small. (25.3 %, rank 37/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively small. (66 %, rank 35/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, public expenditure on early childhood and care educational institutions from final source of funds is relatively low. (56.4 %, rank 27/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of private expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43.6 %, rank 3/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of public expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (85.9 %, rank 23/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of public expenditure on primary through tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (75.1 %, rank 24/26 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of public expenditure on tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51.3 %, rank 26/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially high. (23.5 %, rank 1/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (20.3 %, rank 35/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (19.9 Ratio, rank 5/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in secondary schools is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.1 Ratio, rank 7/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (90.2 %, rank 31/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (80.5 %, rank 5/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (84.7 %, rank 1/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (2 %, rank 39/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (2.5 %, rank 36/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the largest in United Kingdom, compared to other OECD countries. (46 %, rank 7/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with tertiary education is low in United Kingdom. (7.3 %, rank 37/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (3.2 %, rank 26/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (3.3 %, rank 35/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively United Kingdom. (12.4 %, rank 36/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (3 %, rank 24/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (3.5 %, rank 26/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (75.2 %, rank 7/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (56.6 %, rank 24/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (33.5 %, rank 24/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (137 Index, rank 28/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary education or post-secondary non-tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (72.5 %, rank 30/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full and part-time workers with tertiary education are comparatively low. (140 Index, rank 29/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings by field of education

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of education are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in United Kingdom. (75.3 %, rank 11/15 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in United Kingdom. (69.4 %, rank 12/14 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in United Kingdom. (146 %, rank 1/14 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT) are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in United Kingdom. (105.1 %, rank 13/15 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in United Kingdom. (129.4 %, rank 1/15 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of health and welfare are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in United Kingdom. (80.7 %, rank 15/15 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    (8.6 %, rank 10/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    (10.3 %, rank 8/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of adults without an upper secondary education who reported being interested in politics is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (34 %, rank 18/25 , 2018) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
                            
    • While 37% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are in vocational programmes, the share increases to 61% among students over 25.
    • The most popular fields of study among vocational graduates vary at different levels of education. While engineering, manufacturing and construction is the most common broad field at upper secondary level, at short-cycle tertiary level, most students graduate from business, administration and law, or health and welfare.
    • Combined school and work-based learning can help students transition smootly into the labor market. However, only one -third of all upper secondary vocational students are enrolled in school and work-based programmes on average across OECD countries.
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    • Between the age of 3 to 5, 88% of children are enrolled in pre-primary and primary education, on average across OECD countries.
    • The estimated expenditure on all children aged 3 to 5 enrolled in ECEC and primary education amounts to an average of 0.6% of GDP. Only in Iceland and Norway does it equal or exceed 1.0%.
    • The ECEC workforce is at the heart of high-quality education. On average across OECD countries, there are 14 children for every teacher working in pre-primary education (ISCED 02).
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    • In 2019, 45% of 25-34 year-olds held a tertiary degree, compared to 28% among 55-64 year-olds, on average across OECD countries.
    • On average across OECD countries, 17% of first-time tertiary entrants enter short-cycle tertiary programmes. The employment rate of adults with a short-cycle tertiary degree is 4 percentage points higher than those with an upper secondary vocational attainment and they earn 16% more, on average across OECD countries.
    • Based on current patterns, it is estimated that 38% of young adults across OECD countries will graduate from tertiary education for the first time before the age of 30 (excluding international students).
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    • In 2017, total expenditure amounted to approximately USD 9 100 per student in primary institutions and USD 10 500 in secondary institutions on average across OECD countries.
    • After increasing between 2005 and 2012, total expenditure on primary to tertiary institutions as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) has fallen to 4.9% in 2017 on average, below its 2005 value of 5.1%. This is due to educational expenditure rising more slowly than GDP over this period, growing by 17% while GDP grew by 27%.
    • Private sources financed more than 30% of the expenditure, on average, at tertiary level compared to 10% at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level.
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    • There are relatively few young teachers (under the age of 30), and the proportion decreases with the level of education. Young teachers make up 12% of the teaching population in primary education, 10% in lower secondary education and 8% in upper secondary education, on average across OECD countries.
    • While instruction time for students increases at higher educational levels, statutory teaching time in public institutions decreases: teachers in OECD countries and economies are required to teach on average 778 hours per year at primary level compared to 680 hours at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • Between 2005 and 2019, the statutory salaries of primary and secondary general teachers - with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications - increased by 2-3%, despite salaries falling after the 2008 economic crisis, on average across OECD countries and economies with available data.
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    Key
    Country Reviews for United Kingdom

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Some countries may have provided data refering to another year, to know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.