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United Kingdom
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United Kingdom
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In the United Kingdom, 38% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education and 21% in vocational upper secondary education. A further 5% are enrolled in lower secondary programmes and 18% in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 23% in vocational upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • In the United Kingdom,22% of 25-34 year-olds have a vocational education and training (VET) qualification as their highest level of attainment: 16% at upper secondary level and 6% at short-cycle tertiary level.
  • Workers in the United Kingdom aged 25-34 with vocational upper secondary attainment earn 54% more than those without upper secondary attainment, whereas the earning advantage for workers with general upper secondary attainment is 80%.
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, the United Kingdom spends USD 16 052 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647. Expenditure per student is equivalent to 33% of per capita GDP, which is above the OECD average of 27%.
  • In the United Kingdom, in full-time equivalent terms, there are 16 students per staff member in general upper secondary programmes (OECD average: 14 students per staff member) and 25 students for every teaching staff member in vocational upper secondary programmes (OECD average: 15 students per staff member).
  • In the United Kingdom,18% of teachers in general upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or older, compared to the OECD average of 39%.Teachers in vocational programmes are on average older than their general programme peers, with 46% aged 50 or above (43% on average across the OECD).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained only pre-primary or primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 42/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29.6 %, rank 36/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30.1 %, rank 36/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51.3 %, rank 7/46 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (57.7 %, rank 7/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (39.8 %, rank 6/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    United Kingdom has one of the lowest percentages of 25-64 year-old adults with less than primary education. (0 %, rank 34/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (26.4 %, rank 8/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (1.7 %, rank 9/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (34.4 %, rank 5/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (1.5 %, rank 4/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a general degree at the tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (49.5 %, rank 6/46 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54.8 %, rank 6/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (60.7 %, rank 10/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (25.8 %, rank 4/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    United Kingdom has one of the largest share of women among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (46.5 %, rank 7/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    United Kingdom has one of the smallest share of women among 55-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (42.1 %, rank 28/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in United Kingdom is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (16.6 %, rank 27/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of educaton is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (5 %, rank 29/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of humanities (except languages), social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (3.6 %, rank 29/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (12.9 %, rank 28/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (2.7 %, rank 28/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Education expectancy

    In United Kingdom, the expected years in education between ages 15 and 29 are comparatively short . (5.8 Years, rank 37/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the expected years in education between ages 15 and 29 are comparatively short for men. (5.5 Years, rank 38/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    For women, the expected years in education between ages 15 and 29 are relatively short in United Kingdom. (6.1 Years, rank 36/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    The share of women among tertiary education new entrants is one of the largest compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (56.8 %, rank 5/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the percentage of first-time entrants into tertiary education younger than 25 is relatively low. (73.7 %, rank 29/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of new entrants in tertiary education in United Kingdom is comparatively old. (23.4 Years, rank 7/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of first-time entrants in master's programmes is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (1.4 %, rank 22/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance by field of education and gender

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (47 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes in information and communication technologies in United Kingdom is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (70.2 %, rank 24/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in United Kingdom is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/82 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in United Kingdom is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/82 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in government-dependent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 20-24 year-olds in United Kingdom is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (35.8 %, rank 33/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 3-5 year-old children in early childhood and primary education in United Kingdom is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (60.4 %, rank 30/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 17 in tertiary programmes in United Kingdom is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.7 %, rank 5/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 in general upper secondary programmes in United Kingdom is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.8 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 in general upper secondary programmes in United Kingdom is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 43/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in general upper secondary programmes in United Kingdom is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 41/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the percentage of students enrolled in private institutions at early childhood educational and development level is comparatively high. (82.4 %, rank 10/47 , 2021) Download Indicator

    United Kingdom has one of the largest shares of lower secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes. (11.9 %, rank 4/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of lower secondary vocational students among vocational students is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (16.4 %, rank 2/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of upper secondary students enrolled in programmes giving partial completion or insufficient for completion is relatively high compared to the other countries. (39.6 %, rank 3/16 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of vocational students as a share of short-cycle tertiary students is among the smallest in all OECD and partner countries. (63 %, rank 32/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in vocational programmes is comparativele high. (31.3 %, rank 6/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    United Kingdom has a share of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion with access to tertiary education that is higher than other OECD and partner countries; (100 %, rank 1/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary general programmes in United Kingdom is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 39/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (0.6 %, rank 1/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in pre-primary education in United Kingdom is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/81 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in pre-primary in United Kingdom is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/81 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in primary education in United Kingdom is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.9 %, rank 2/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of five-year-olds in ECEC in United Kingdom is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 82/83 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of five-year-olds in pre-primary education in United Kingdom is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 82/83 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of five-year-olds in primary education in United Kingdom is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98.9 %, rank 2/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of six-year-olds in ECEC in United Kingdom is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 74/83 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of six-year-olds in primary education in United Kingdom is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The average age of graduates from general programmes at the upper secondary level in United Kingdom is comparatively low. (15.6 Years, rank 40/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at upper secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66.4 %, rank 7/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the average age of first-time tertiary graduates is relatively low. (23.9 Years, rank 28/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time master's graduates is relatively low in United Kingdom. (1.5 %, rank 24/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of bachelor's or equivalent graduates in United Kingdom is among the youngest. (22.5 Years, rank 33/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of master's or equivalent graduates in United Kingdom is among the oldest. (30.5 Years, rank 2/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (54.2 %, rank 5/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of female first-time master's graduates is relatively smallest, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (52.1 %, rank 22/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.2 %, rank 6/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.7 %, rank 3/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.2 %, rank 36/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 43/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.9 %, rank 35/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary is relatively low. (0.7 %, rank 39/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.9 %, rank 3/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.1 %, rank 30/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of STEM is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27.5 %, rank 30/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of business, administration and law is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (31.6 %, rank 10/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (23.5 %, rank 8/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of services is relatively low compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (1 %, rank 31/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15 %, rank 5/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 43/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in the humanities and arts is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (15.4 %, rank 6/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of female tertiary graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.1 %, rank 7/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of male tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is relatively large. (12.5 %, rank 2/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of male tertiary graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively large. (10.8 %, rank 7/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries. (6.7 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (47.1 %, rank 38/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In United Kingdom, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively low. (8.4 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all national tertiary students in United Kingdom is relatively low. (8.1 %, rank 38/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of services among all national tertiary students in United Kingdom is relatively low. (0.2 %, rank 38/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively small. (7.2 %, rank 30/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of services is comparatively small. (0.2 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.7 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (0.7 %, rank 33/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of arts and humanities is relatively high, compared to other countries with available data. (13.9 %, rank 7/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of new entrants in education bachelor's programmes is comparatively smallest, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.8 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of new entrants in engineering, manufacturing and construction bachelor's programmes is relatively low in United Kingdom among countries with available data. (8.1 %, rank 34/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of new entrants in services bachelor's programmes is especially low, compared to the other countries with other data. (0 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of new entrants in agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary master's programmes is especially low. (0.6 %, rank 34/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the percentage of new entrants in Services master's programmes is comparatively low among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    United Kingdom has a large share of international students graduate from tertiary programmes compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (13.4 %, rank 7/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    United Kingdom has one of the largest proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.1 %, rank 3/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of international and foreign students enrolled in doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (40.9 %, rank 5/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, international or foreign students from North America are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.4 %, rank 7/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, international or foreign students from Oceania are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 10/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of international graduates among bachelor's first-time graduates is relatively high. (17.8 %, rank 5/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of international graduates among first-time doctorate graduates is relatively high. (44.7 %, rank 5/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of international students among the new entrants in master's programmes in United Kingdom is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (44.4 %, rank 2/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in bachelor's programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16 %, rank 3/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in master's programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (39 %, rank 2/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the percentage of international or foreign students coming from neighbouring countries is comparatively low . (8 Students, rank 37/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (20.1 %, rank 2/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (18.7 %, rank 3/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all international or foreign tertiary students in United Kingdom is relatively high. (34 %, rank 5/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of services among all international or foreign tertiary students in United Kingdom is relatively low. (0.2 %, rank 38/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of services is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 36/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.8 %, rank 9/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of Information and communication technologies is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.7 %, rank 10/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of students enrolled in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary among all international or foreign tertiary students is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (0.6 %, rank 33/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29534 USD Equivalent, rank 3/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16052 USD Equivalent, rank 7/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6750 USD Equivalent, rank 26/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23814 USD Equivalent, rank 3/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on tertiary education in United Kingdom is comparatively high. (22861 USD Equivalent, rank 4/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary to tertiary education in United Kingdom is comparatively high. (13837 USD Equivalent, rank 8/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on tertiary education in United Kingdom is comparatively high. (953 USD Equivalent, rank 7/27 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student in primary to tertiary education is one the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13923 USD Equivalent, rank 5/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the total annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25617 USD Equivalent 2015, rank 2/22 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In United Kingdom, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies. (6.3 %, rank 5/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, expenditure on primary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (1.9 %, rank 9/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, expenditure on secondary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (2.4 %, rank 5/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, expenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (2.1 %, rank 4/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, public and private expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (4.2 %, rank 7/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (3.7 %, rank 10/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0.5 %, rank 5/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0 %, rank 3/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (0.5 %, rank 41/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (2 %, rank 2/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, total expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to 2015. (96 Index, rank 32/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP for tertiary education is high compared to 2015. (109 Index, rank 10/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the private expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary level is high. (0.4 %, rank 5/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds at primary to tertiary education is relatively high in United Kingdom. (4.9 %, rank 7/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of private expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is comparatively high in United Kingdom. (1.4 %, rank 3/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, international expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on tertiary education is relatively large. (0.1 %, rank 5/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Government and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.9 %, rank 7/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (71.9 %, rank 1/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    United Kingdom has one of the largest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (32.1 %, rank 2/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for tertiary education is comparatively small in United Kingdom. (24.7 %, rank 40/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively small. (66.7 %, rank 38/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of private expenditure from primary to tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.9 %, rank 4/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the relative share of public expenditure from initial sources of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (89.4 %, rank 21/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the relative share of public expenditure from initial source of funds at primary to tertiary education is relatively small. (76.9 %, rank 26/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51.2 %, rank 29/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In United Kingdom, the share of capital expenditure on primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.9 %, rank 34/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of capital expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.9 %, rank 32/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of current expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96.1 %, rank 5/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of capital expenditure on primary through tertiary is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.8 %, rank 25/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of current expenditure on primary through tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94.2 %, rank 10/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (92 %, rank 39/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially high. (22.1 %, rank 1/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (15.9 %, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (18.5 %, rank 35/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (27.5 %, rank 34/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (20.2 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in lower secondary education is especially low in United Kingdom. (61.2 %, rank 28/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of tertiary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is relatively high, compared to other countries with data available. (57.6 %, rank 7/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of teachers under 30 in early childhood educational development is especially high in United Kingdom. (26.7 %, rank 3/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of women among teaching staff in early childhood educational development is one of the lowest, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (95 %, rank 16/22 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of teachers aged 50 or more in pre-primary education is especially low in United Kingdom (20.2 %, rank 30/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the percentage of teachers under 30 in pre-primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.9 %, rank 8/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of male teachers in pre-primary education is especially high in United Kingdom. (8 %, rank 4/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In upper secondary education, the percentage of teachers aged 50 or more is particularly low in United Kingdom. (18.5 %, rank 31/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of teachers under 30 in United Kingdom is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.8 %, rank 1/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the percentage of upper secondary general education teachers aged between 30 and 49 is relatively high, compared to the other countries with available data. (59.7 %, rank 9/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (36.3 Ratio, rank 2/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (19.2 Ratio, rank 5/46 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level is especially high. (16.6 Ratio, rank 6/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the upper secondary level is especially high. (18.4 Ratio, rank 6/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the ratio of children to contact staff in pre-primary education is one of the lowest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.5 Ratio, rank 26/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the number of students per teacher in general upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.1 Ratio, rank 5/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the vocational upper secondary level is especially high in United Kingdom. (24.7 Ratio, rank 2/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the number of students per teacher in public lower secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.7 Ratio, rank 5/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in private institutions is especially high in United Kingdom. (16.6 Ratio, rank 4/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the number of students per teacher in all public secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.7 Ratio, rank 4/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the number of students per teacher in all private secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.9 Ratio, rank 5/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the number of students per teacher in private institutions tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (13.7 Ratio, rank 27/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the number of students per teacher in government-dependent private institutions tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (13.7 Ratio, rank 11/14 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the ratio of children to teaching staff in early childhood educational development is one of the highest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (29.3 Ratio, rank 1/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom the ratio of children to contact staff in early childhood educational development is one of the lowest compared to the other OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.6 Ratio, rank 15/16 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of teachers' aides among contact staff in early childhood educational development is one of the highest of OECD and partner countries with available data. (91.3 Ratio, rank 1/12 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of teachers' aides among contact staff in pre-primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (87.6 Ratio, rank 1/17 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    Classes in public primary institutions are comparatively large in United Kingdom. (27 Students, rank 2/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Classes in in private primary institutions are comparatively large in United Kingdom. (24 Students, rank 8/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary public institutions are comparatively large in United Kingdom. (25 Students, rank 9/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively large in United Kingdom. (23 Students, rank 8/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In independent private institutions at primary education level, the average class size is relatively smallest in United Kingdom among OECD and other partner countries with available data. (13 Students, rank 17/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In independent private institutions at lower secondary level, classes are one of the smallest in United Kingdom among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12 Students, rank 18/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (90.2 %, rank 32/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is compartively high in United Kingdom. (91.1 %, rank 6/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively high in United Kingdom. (84.5 %, rank 9/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (83.7 %, rank 3/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education is comparatively high. (87.9 %, rank 9/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively high in United Kingdom. (91.4 %, rank 5/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively high in United Kingdom. (97.2 %, rank 3/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is compartively high in United Kingdom. (93.1 %, rank 7/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is compartively high in United Kingdom. (89.3 %, rank 4/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of employed 25-64 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (85.9 %, rank 8/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high in United Kingdom compared to other countries with available data. (76.7 %, rank 6/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high in United Kingdom. (90.1 %, rank 4/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by field of education

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of educaton is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (79.3 %, rank 26/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (80.4 %, rank 25/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of information and communication technologies is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (86.6 %, rank 25/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health and welfare is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (83.5 %, rank 25/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (3.6 %, rank 37/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (2.5 %, rank 37/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (4.9 %, rank 35/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education degree is one the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (2 %, rank 27/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (2.1 %, rank 36/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (1.5 %, rank 16/21 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (2.8 %, rank 26/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (2.6 %, rank 34/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the largest in United Kingdom, compared to other OECD countries. (38.6 %, rank 8/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the smallest in United Kingdom, compared to OECD countries. (22.6 %, rank 31/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (3.6 %, rank 28/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (3.8 %, rank 34/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively low in United Kingdom. (2.5 %, rank 37/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old with a short cycle tertiary education degree is relatively low in United Kingdom. (1.7 %, rank 26/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment by gender and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (2.4 %, rank 38/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old men with below upper secondary education is compartively low in United Kingdom. (6.8 %, rank 32/41 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is compartively low in United Kingdom. (2.6 %, rank 38/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in United Kingdom. (3 %, rank 41/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is compartively low in United Kingdom. (2.3 %, rank 37/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively low in United Kingdom. (3.1 %, rank 35/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (3.3 %, rank 25/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (3.9 %, rank 27/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (3 %, rank 33/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.2 %, rank 35/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.1 %, rank 26/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.5 %, rank 28/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in United Kingdom. (5.2 %, rank 27/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in United Kingdom. (2.6 %, rank 32/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with tertiary education is low in United Kingdom. (6.6 %, rank 40/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (13 %, rank 35/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (6.3 %, rank 40/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (8.5 %, rank 4/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a short cycle tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (17.2 %, rank 10/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity by gender and educational attainment

    In United Kingdom, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men without an upper secondary education is relatively high compared to other countries with available data. (25.6 %, rank 10/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (19.1 %, rank 34/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (7.5 %, rank 29/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (14.6 %, rank 6/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is relatively low. (8.6 %, rank 36/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is relatively high. (8.5 %, rank 9/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The earnings of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low compared to those of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education. (73 Index, rank 35/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of worker earning more than twice the median among those with a master's or doctoral or equivalent education degree is comparatively low. (19.9 %, rank 31/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers without an upper secondary education earning at or below half the overall median in United Kingdom is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (20.9 %, rank 33/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in United Kingdom. (180 Index, rank 1/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in United Kingdom. (150 Index, rank 2/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in United Kingdom. (142 Index, rank 5/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in United Kingdom. (154 Index, rank 2/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education earning at or below half the overall median in United Kingdom is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (14.1 %, rank 31/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in United Kingdom. (233 Index, rank 4/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with tertiary education earning at or below half the overall median in United Kingdom is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (6.3 %, rank 29/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with bachelor's or equivalent attainment compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in United Kingdom. (229 Index, rank 2/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with bachelor's or equivalent attainment compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in United Kingdom. (192 Index, rank 9/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    The earnings of men without an upper secondary education are relatively low compared to those of men with an upper secondary education. (70 Index, rank 35/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary education or post-secondary non-tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (73 %, rank 34/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (81.1 %, rank 32/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women (as a percentage of men's earnings) among full- and part-time 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (59.7 %, rank 38/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds without an upper secondary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (74.5 %, rank 25/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (91.6 %, rank 4/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (77.6 %, rank 21/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (64.7 %, rank 27/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (66.4 %, rank 27/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (64.1 %, rank 27/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (70.3 %, rank 34/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings by field of education

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of education are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in United Kingdom. (77.5 %, rank 12/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in United Kingdom. (96.7 %, rank 14/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in United Kingdom. (133.6 %, rank 2/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of health and welfare are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in United Kingdom. (81.4 %, rank 17/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in United Kingdom who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (76.5 %, rank 12/14 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in United Kingdom who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction, are high, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (121.9 %, rank 3/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in United Kingdom who studied in the field of health and welfare, are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (86.1 %, rank 15/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in United Kingdom who studied in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT), are high, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (117.3 %, rank 3/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in United Kingdom who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics, are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (91.9 %, rank 14/15 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of women without an upper secondary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in United Kingdom is relatively low (45.3 %, rank 30/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in United Kingdom is relatively low (15.8 %, rank 25/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in United Kingdom is relatively low (8.9 %, rank 20/29 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in United Kingdom is relatively low (12.2 %, rank 26/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in United Kingdom is relatively low (7 %, rank 20/29 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in United Kingdom is relatively low. (12.6 %, rank 23/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women with tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in United Kingdom is relatively low. (4.9 %, rank 37/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in United Kingdom is relatively low. (4.5 %, rank 28/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with tertiary education in United Kingdom is relatively low. (4.7 %, rank 34/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women who are unemployed NEET (15-29 year-olds) in United Kingdom is relatively low. (2 %, rank 35/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women who are unemployed NEET (18-24 year-olds) in United Kingdom is relatively low. (2.4 %, rank 29/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of youth neither employed nor in education or training among 25-29 year-olds in United Kingdom is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11 %, rank 33/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among 15-29 year-olds, the share of youth without an upper secondary or post-secondary non tertiary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training in United Kingdom is relatively low. (8.5 %, rank 34/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the proportion of youth with a tertiary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training among 15-29 year-olds is comparatively small. (5.8 %, rank 31/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of young women neither employed nor in education or training (25-29 year-olds) in United Kingdom is comparatively low . (12.4 %, rank 36/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In United Kingdom, tertiary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.5 Average score, rank 17/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of adults with below upper secondary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (1 %, rank 21/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In United Kingdom, the share of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (3 %, rank 21/24 , 2020) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
    Visualisations
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - United Kingdom

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    Key
    Country Reviews for United Kingdom

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.