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France
Overview of the education system (EAG 2021)
  • In France, men are more likely than women to pursue a vocational track. In 2019, 53% of upper secondary vocational graduates were men, compared to 55% on average across OECD countries.
  • In France, 53% of 25-34 year-old women had a tertiary qualification in 2020 compared to 46% of their male peers.
  • In 2018, France invested a total of USD 11 201 per student on primary to tertiary institutions compared to USD 10 454 on average across OECD countries. This represents 5.2% of GDP, compared to 4.9% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2019, all 3-5 year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education and care programmes and primary education in France, compared to 88% on average across OECD countries.
  • Statutory salaries of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of their salary scales are 76% to 108% higher than those of teachers with the minimum qualifications at the start of their career at pre-primary (ISCED 02), primary and general lower and upper secondary levels in France compared to 86% - 91% on average.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30 %, rank 10/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.6 %, rank 36/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.4 %, rank 7/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.9 %, rank 9/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    France has one of the largest share of women among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (46.3 %, rank 9/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate of 6-14 year-olds in France is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in France is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in France is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in independent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.4 %, rank 10/30 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 25-29 year-olds in France is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.6 %, rank 37/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 30-39 year-olds in France is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.7 %, rank 37/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 40-64 year-olds in France is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 39/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 3-5 year-old children in early childhood and primary education in France is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In France, the enrolment rate of children under 3 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.1 %, rank 30/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 20-24-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96.3 %, rank 4/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (62.1 %, rank 26/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of education is relatively low in France. (2.1 %, rank 40/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In France, the share of male tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (32.3 %, rank 10/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In France, the percentage of female post-secondary non-tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively small. (71.7 %, rank 19/22 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In France, the percentage of female post-secondary non-tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is relatively small. (49.4 %, rank 22/24 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by age

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from general programmes in France is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (17.2 Years, rank 34/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (5.7 %, rank 43/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.1 %, rank 44/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (34.5 %, rank 5/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.2 %, rank 4/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of education in France is relatively small. (1.3 %, rank 39/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humaties in France is relatively large. (13.7 %, rank 10/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in France is relatively large. (33.9 %, rank 4/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In France, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.9 %, rank 8/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In France, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is relatively low. (5.6 %, rank 23/24 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In France, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively low. (0 %, rank 24/24 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In France, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively low. (6.6 %, rank 19/23 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In France, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of services is relatively low. (0 %, rank 24/24 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In France, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of education is relatively low. (3.4 %, rank 35/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In France, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is relatively low. (3.3 %, rank 33/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (44.6 %, rank 33/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of education among all national tertiary students in France is relatively low. (3.7 %, rank 33/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies among all national tertiary students in France is relatively low. (3.1 %, rank 39/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In France, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of education is relatively small. (60 %, rank 29/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In France, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively small. (38.8 %, rank 31/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In France,the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively small. (63.1 %, rank 31/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    In France, the proportion of young men who are neither employed nor in education or training among 15-19 year-olds is comparatively large. (4 %, rank 7/81 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In France, international or foreign students from Africa are highest represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.1 %, rank 4/75 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of arts and humanities among all international or foreign tertiary students in France is relatively high. (15.7 %, rank 6/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all international or foreign tertiary students in France is relatively high. (29.4 %, rank 9/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics among all international or foreign tertiary students in France is relatively high. (13.4 %, rank 5/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies among all international or foreign tertiary students in France is relatively low. (3.1 %, rank 39/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of health and welfare among all international or foreign tertiary students in France is relatively low. (6.3 %, rank 28/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Adult learning

    In France, the number of annual hours of participation of adults in formal and/or non-formal education and training is comparatively low (106 %, rank 19/26 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The annual training costs per participant are one of the highest across OECD countries and partner countries. (2895.6 %, rank 3/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In France, the annual training costs as a share of total labour costs is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner countries. (2.5 %, rank 2/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In enterprises of 10-49 employed persons, the annual training costs as a share of total labour costs is relatively high. (1.4 %, rank 8/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In enterprises of ver 249 employed persons, the annual training costs as a share of total labour costs is relatively high. (3.2 %, rank 2/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Adult participation in non-formal education

    In France, the proportion of adults employed in the private sector and participating in non-formal education and training is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (55.6 %, rank 10/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is is relatively low in France. (1 %, rank 14/19 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    The public expenditure on public educational institutions per full-time equivalent student at tertiary level is comparatively high in France. (15560 USD Equivalent, rank 10/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In France, the public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary level is high. (3.5 %, rank 7/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, the international expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to tertiary education is high. (0 USD Equivalent, rank 2/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds at primary to tertiary education is relatively high in France. (4.6 %, rank 7/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education in France is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 24/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    At tertiary level, the public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds is comparatively high in France. (1.2 %, rank 9/27 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on tertiary education in France is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-0.5 %, rank 23/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    In France, total public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (8.5 %, rank 35/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Total public expenditure on education as a percentage of total government expenditure, for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in France compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.3 %, rank 35/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, the relative share of public expenditure from initial sources of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (93.1 %, rank 8/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The relative share of international expenditure on primary to tertiary education from initial source of funds is relatively small in France. (0.5 %, rank 20/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, the relative share of public expenditure from initial source of funds at primary to tertiary education is relatively high . (89.2 %, rank 8/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively high in France. (900 Hours, rank 8/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in pre-primary school is especially low. (162 Days, rank 26/26 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in primary school is especially low. (162 Days, rank 32/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (91.1 %, rank 36/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (41 %, rank 18/20 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (53.8 %, rank 8/25 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially high. (60 %, rank 10/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers under 30 in lower secondary education is especially low in France. (60.6 %, rank 29/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In France, the share of female teachers younger than 30 in tertiary education is relatively large. (56.5 %, rank 7/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Females aged 50 or more represent a small proportion of teachers in primary education in France. (77 %, rank 31/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in lower secondary education is especially low in France. (57.4 %, rank 28/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.8 Ratio, rank 7/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary male teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year men workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.8 Ratio, rank 7/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 55-64 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in France. (0.77 Ratio, rank 15/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively high. (2.08 Ratio, rank 9/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Principals' salaries

    Pre-primary school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in France. (1.01 Ratio, rank 12/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Primary school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in France. (1.01 Ratio, rank 21/22 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In France, the average actual salaries of 25-34 year-old lower-secondary school heads is relatively low compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (51002 USD Equivalent, rank 13/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17 Ratio, rank 10/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.1 Ratio, rank 4/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (18.8 Ratio, rank 7/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the vocational upper secondary level is especially low in France. (8.4 Ratio, rank 27/30 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in private institutions is especially high in France. (16.5 Ratio, rank 6/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    The number of instruction days per year for lower secondary students is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (162 Days, rank 36/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for primary students is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (162 Days, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In France, total intended instruction time for primary and lower secondary students is relatively important. (9268 Hours, rank 5/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In France, total compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students is relatively long. (3832 Hours, rank 7/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In France, total intended instruction time for lower secondary students is relatively long. (4948 Hours, rank 2/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average hours per year dedicated to intended instruction time for lower secondary students in France is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1237 Hours, rank 1/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Class size

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively large in France. (26 Students, rank 4/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In government-dependent private institutions at primary education level, classes are relatively large in France. (25 Students, rank 3/19 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In government-dependent private institutions at lower secondary level, classes are one of the largest in France among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27 Students, rank 3/20 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In independent private institutions at lower secondary level, classes are one of the smallest in France among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12 Students, rank 17/20 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (90.5 %, rank 28/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is compartively low in France. (52.3 %, rank 34/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (75.8 %, rank 27/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (72.3 %, rank 28/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively high. (19.8 %, rank 10/42 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (10.8 %, rank 6/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (12.7 %, rank 10/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In France, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (15 %, rank 10/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (9.9 %, rank 6/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (12 %, rank 7/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The earnings of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education. (85 Index, rank 7/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (150 Index, rank 10/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (70.9 %, rank 9/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (23.8 %, rank 26/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (34.8 %, rank 27/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The earnings of men without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of men with an upper secondary education. (95 Index, rank 3/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The earnings of women without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of women with an upper secondary education. (93 Index, rank 3/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In France, the proportion of adults who reported being interested in politics is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (40.6 %, rank 22/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, the proportion of adults without an upper secondary education who reported being interested in politics is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (23.7 %, rank 20/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, the proportion of adults with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who reported being interested in politics is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (32 %, rank 23/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, the proportion of adults without an upper secondary education who reported that the political system allows people like them to have a say in what the government does relatively is low. (17.6 %, rank 21/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Participation in education by gender

    The share of female students entering bachelor's programmes in France is relatively large. (57.9 %, rank 5/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering doctoral or equivalent programmes in France is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (45.6 %, rank 34/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    In France, the average age of new entrants in short-cycle programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.9 Years, rank 30/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In France, the average age of new entrants in doctoral programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28 Years, rank 34/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In France, the percentage of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes younger than 25 is relatively high. (93.7 %, rank 2/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In France, the share of first-time entrants into bachelor's or equivalent programmes before the age of 25 is relatively high. (90.2 %, rank 8/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In France, the proportion of first-time entrants into doctorate's or equivalent programmes before the age of 30 is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (77 %, rank 2/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of young people expected to enter master's programmes before the age of 30 is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (38.6 %, rank 1/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Excluding international students, France has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to enter master's programmes before turning 25. (1.8 %, rank 10/35 , 2019) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
                            
    • One in five adults across the OECD has not attained upper secondary education.
    • In 2020, the unemployment rate of adults that had not completed upper secondary education was almost twice as high as those with higher qualifications, and 27% of these adults earn only at or below half the median on average across OECD countries.
    • In 2019, at least 10% of school-aged youth were not in school in about a quarter of OECD countries.
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    • In 2019, women made up 55% of new entrants to tertiary education on average. If current patterns continue, it is expected that 46% of young women will graduate with a tertiary degree for the first time before they turn 30, 15 percentage points more than men.
    • Women also earn on average about 76-78% of men’s salaries regardless of educational attainment, although the gender gap narrowed by 2 percentage points between 2013 and 2019.
    • Women are less likely than men to enter a STEM field of study, and the average share remained generally stable between 2013 and 2019.
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    • On average across countries, expenditure on educational institutions amounted to approximately USD 9 300 per student at pre-primary level; USD 10 500 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non tertiary level; and USD 17 100 at tertiary level.
    • The public sector funds 90% of total expenditure on primary and secondary institutions on average, often compulsory in most OECD countries, compared to 83% at pre-primary level and 66% at tertiary level.
    • In 2018, the OECD countries spent on average 4.9% of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on primary to tertiary educational institutions.
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    • In 2019, less than 5% of pre-primary teachers were men, compared to 18% at primary level, 40% at upper secondary level and more than 50% at tertiary level on average.
    • Between 2005 and 2020, on average across OECD countries and economies with available data for all reference years, the statutory salaries of teachers with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications increased by 3% at primary level, 4% at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 2% at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • In most countries, teachers above 50 years of age make up more than a third of the teaching force.
    • Attracting male teachers to the profession can be difficult: While the average actual salary of female teachers is equal to or higher than the average salary of other full-time, tertiary-educated women, primary and secondary male teachers earn between 76% and 85% of the average earnings of other full-time, tertiary-educated men.
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    • On average across OECD countries, 87% of children aged 3-5 are enrolled in education on average across OECD countries compared to 25% for children below the age of 3.
    • There are 15 children for every teacher at pre-primary level on average across OECD countries.
    • Half of children enrolled in early childhood development services and a two-thirds of pre-primary children attend public institutions on average across OECD countries
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - France

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    Key
    Country Reviews for France

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.