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Diagram of the education system

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  • Diagram of education system in country language


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  • Education system in Spain

    Spain
    Student performance (PISA 2018)
  • On average, 15-year-olds score 481 points in mathematics compared to an average of 489 points in OECD countries. Boys perform better than girls with a statistically significant difference of 6 points (OECD average: 5 points higher for boys).
  • In Spain, the average performance in science of 15-year-olds is 483 points, compared to an average of 489 points in OECD countries. Boys perform better than girls with a non statistically significant difference of 2 points (OECD average: 2 points higher for girls).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Participation in education

    A large share of advantaged students in Spain have repeated a grade, compared to other countries and economies participating in PISA. (14.7 %, rank 5/75 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The difference in attendance to pre-primary school between advantaged students and disadvantaged students is one of the smallest among 15-year-old students. (-2.6 % points, rank 7/66 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Financial literacy

    The variation in financial literacy scores is weakly associated with the socio-economic status of students, as measured by the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS). (7.9 %, rank 16/20 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The performance difference in financial literacy between non-immigrant and immigrant students, after accounting for student socio-economic status is one of the largest among the countries/economies participating in the PISA financial literacy assessment. (-13 PISA Score, rank 3/13 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students who have a bank account and/or a prepaid debit card is one of the lowest among the countries/economies participating in the PISA financial literacy assessment. (18.9 %, rank 17/20 , 2018) Download Indicator

    There are no significant differences in students performance in financial literacy between 2015 and 2018 among the countries/economies participating in the PISA financial literacy assessment, except in Brazil, Spain and Lithuania where students average financial literacy scores significantly increased. (24 PISA Score, rank 5/5 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Spain has one of the lowest standard deviation in performance in financial literacy among the countries and economies participating in the PISA financial literacy assessment. (88 PISA Score, rank 16/20 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the performance difference in financial literacy between advantaged and disadvantaged students is one of the smallest among the countries/economies participating in the PISA financial literacy assessment. (63 PISA Score, rank 17/20 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the percentage of students who hold an account with a bank, building society, post office or credit union is relatively high compared to the other countries/economies participating in the PISA financial literacy assessment. (55.1 %, rank 6/20 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The change between 2012 and 2018 in the percentage of students who hold a payment or debit card is one of the largest among the countries/economies participating in the PISA financial literacy assessment. (6.4 %, rank 9/9 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the share of students who made a payment using a mobile phone in the 12 months previous to the assessment is relatively small compared to the other countries/economies participating in the PISA financial literacy assessment. (33 %, rank 16/20 , 2018) Download Indicator

    School climate

    In 2015, the index of sense of belonging was one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0.46 PISA Index, rank 1/75 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The disciplinary climate in language-of-instruction lessons is one of the worse compared to other countries and economies. (-0.22 PISA Index, rank 72/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student well-being

    A small proportion of students reported always feeling sad in Spain, compared to other PISA-participating countries and economies. (3.6 %, rank 68/72 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Students' engagement, drive and self-beliefs

    The difference in enjoyment of learning reading between girls and boys, is comparatively strong. (0.73 PISA Index, rank 9/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Bullying

    Compared to other PISA-participating countries and economies, the percentage of students who reported being bullied (includes any type of bullying act) at least a few times a month is one of the lowest. (17.3 %, rank 69/75 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Spain, a large percentage of students strongly agreed that it is a good thing to help students who can't defend themselves. (47.1 %, rank 4/76 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Students' global competence

    In 2018, the index of students' perspective-taking in Spain was one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0.19 PISA Index, rank 9/64 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In 2018, the index of students' respect for people from other cultures in Spain was one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0.38 PISA Index, rank 1/63 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In 2018, the index of students' attitudes towards immigrants in Spain was one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0.39 PISA Index, rank 5/58 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In 2018, the index of students' cognitive adaptability in Spain was one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0.28 PISA Index, rank 3/64 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In 2018, the index of students' agency regarding global issues in Spain was one of the highest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0.24 PISA Index, rank 8/62 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In 2018, student's relative performance on the global competence test in Spain was one of the best among PISA-participating countries and economies. (12.71 PISA Index, rank 3/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    In Spain, a large share of students attend schools whose principal reported that the school's capacity to provide instruction is hindered to some extent or a lot by a lack of teaching staff. (42.7 %, rank 10/78 , 2018) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
                            
      Reading literacy is defined as students' capacity to understand, use, evaluate, reflect on and engage with texts in order to achieve one's goals, develop one's knowledge and potential, and participate in society.

    • Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang (China) and Singapore scored significantly higher in reading than all other countries/economies that participated in PISA 2018. Estonia, Canada, Finland and Ireland were the highest-performing OECD countries in reading.
    • Some 77% of students, on average across OECD countries, attained at least Level 2 proficiency in reading. At a minimum, these students are able to identify the main idea in a text of moderate length, find information based on explicit, though sometimes complex, criteria, and reflect on the purpose and form of texts when explicitly directed to do so. Over 85% of students in Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang (China), Canada, Estonia, Finland, Hong Kong (China), Ireland, Macao (China), Poland and Singapore performed at this level or above.
    • Around 8.7% of students, on average across OECD countries, were top performers in reading, meaning that they attained Level 5 or 6 in the PISA reading test. At these levels, students are able to comprehend lengthy texts, deal with concepts that are abstract or counterintuitive, and establish distinctions between fact and opinion, based on implicit cues pertaining to the content or source of the information. In 20 education systems, including those of 15 OECD countries, over 10% of 15-year-old students were top performers.
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      Mathematics literacy is defined as students' capacity to formulate, employ and interpret mathematics in a variety of contexts. It includes reasoning mathematically and using mathematical concepts, procedures, facts and tools to describe, explain and predict phenomena.

    • On average across OECD countries, 76% of students attained Level 2 or higher in mathematics. At a minimum, these students can interpret and recognise, without direct instructions, how a (simple) situation can be represented mathematically (e.g. comparing the total distance across two alternative routes, or converting prices into a different currency). However, in 24 countries and economies, more than 50% of students scored below this level of proficiency.
    • Around one in six 15-year-old students in Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang (China) (16.5%), and about one in seven students in Singapore (13.8%), scored at Level 6 in mathematics, the highest level of proficiency that PISA describes. These students are capable of advanced mathematical thinking and reasoning. On average across OECD countries, only 2.4% of students scored at this level.
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      Science literacy is defined as the ability to engage with science-related issues, and with the ideas of science, as a reflective citizen. A scientifically literate person is willing to engage in reasoned discourse about science and technology, which requires the competencies to explain phenomena scientifically, evaluate and design scientific enquiry, and interpret data and evidence scientifically.

    • On average across OECD countries, 78% of students attained Level 2 or higher in science. At a minimum, these students can recognise the correct explanation for familiar scientific phenomena and can use such knowledge to identify, in simple cases, whether a conclusion is valid based on the data provided. More than 90% of students in Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang (China) (97.9%), Macao (China) (94.0%), Estonia (91.2%) and Singapore (91.0%) achieved this benchmark.
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    • In 11 countries and economies, including the OECD countries Australia, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Japan, Korea, Norway and the United Kingdom, average performance was higher than the OECD average while the relationship between socio-economic status and reading performance was weaker than the OECD average.
    • In spite of socio-economic disadvantage, some students attain high levels of academic proficiency. On average across OECD countries, one in ten disadvantaged students was able to score in the top quarter of reading performance in their countries (known as academic resilience), indicating that disadvantage is not destiny. In Australia, Canada, Estonia, Hong-Kong (China), Ireland, Macao (China) and the United Kingdom, all of which score above the OECD average, more than 13% of disadvantaged students were academically resilient.
    • In all countries and economies that participated in PISA 2018, girls significantly outperformed boys in reading - by 30 score points, on average across OECD countries. The narrowest gender gaps (less than 20 score points) were observed in Argentina, Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang (China), Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama and Peru; the widest (more than 50 score points) were observed in Finland, Jordan, the Republic of North Macedonia, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
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    • Co-operation amongst students was more prevalent than competition, on average across OECD countries in 2018. Some 62% of students reported that students co-operate with each other while only 50% of students reported that their schoolmates compete with each other.
    • Some 23% of students reported being bullied at least a few times a month, on average across OECD countries.
    • Some 88% of students across OECD countries agreed that it is a good thing to help students who cannot defend themselves and it is wrong to join in bullying. Girls and students who were not frequently bullied were more likely to report stronger anti-bullying attitudes than boys and frequently bullied students.
    • On average across OECD countries, 21% of students had skipped a day of school and 48% of students had arrived late for school in the two weeks prior to the PISA test. In Georgia, Montenegro, Saudi Arabia and Turkey, at least one in five students had skipped school at least three times during that period.
    • On average across OECD countries, 67% of students reported being satisfied with their lives (students who reported between 7 and 10 on the 10-point life-satisfaction scale). Between 2015 and 2018, the share of satisfied students shrank by 5 percentage points.
    • In a majority of school systems, students who expressed a greater fear of failure scored higher in reading, but reported less satisfaction with life, than students expressing less concern about failing, after accounting for the socio-economic profile of students and schools.
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      Financial literacy is defined as the knowledge and understanding of financial concepts and risks, and the skills, motivation and confidence to apply such knowledge and understanding in order to make effective decisions across a range of financial contexts, to improve the financial well-being of individuals and society, and to enable participation in economic life.

    • The highest average financial literacy performance is found in Estonia, followed by the Canadian provinces and Finland.
    • Some 85% of students, on average across OECD countries/economies, attained at least Level 2 proficiency in financial literacy. These students can apply their knowledge of common financial products and financial terms and can recognise the value of a simple budget. However, in five partner countries, more than one in three students did not attain Level 2 proficiency.
    • Some 10% of students attained the highest level (Level 5) of proficiency in financial literacy, on average across OECD countries/economies. These students can analyse complex financial products and documents. Almost one in five students in Estonia and Finland displayed Level 5 proficiency.
    • Boys scored a small but significant 2 points higher than girls in the PISA 2018 financial literacy assessment, on average across OECD countries/economies. After accounting for performance in mathematics and reading, boys outperformed girls by 10 points.
    • Socio-economically advantaged students performed better in financial literacy than disadvantaged students - by roughly one proficiency level, on average across OECD countries/economies.
    • Immigrant students scored 30 points lower than non-immigrant students, on average across OECD countries/economies. However, after accounting for performance in reading and maths, immigrant students scored only five points below non-immigrant students.
    • Some 94% of students reported obtaining information about money matters from parents, guardians and other adult relations, on average across OECD countries/economies.
    • On average across OECD countries/economies, 54% of students held an account at a bank, building society, post office or credit union, and 45% of students held a payment card or a debit card. Students in Australia, the Canadian provinces, Estonia and Finland were particularly likely to hold such products, the oposite was found in Brazil, Peru and Serbia.
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    • On average across OECD countries, 6% of students had not attended or had attended pre-primary education for less than one year. These students scored lower in reading at the age of 15 than students who had attended for between one and three years, before and after accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile.
    • A socio-economically disadvantaged 15-year-old student was about three times more likely than an advantaged student, on average across OECD countries, to have repeated a grade at least once, even if both students scored the same in the PISA reading test.
    • On average across OECD countries, students in schools that group students by ability in their classes for all subjects scored eight points lower in reading than students in schools that do not group students in this way, after accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile.
    • After accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile, students in public schools scored higher in reading than students in private schools, on average across OECD countries (by 14 score points) and in 19 education systems (ranging from 13 score points higher in Indonesia to 117 points higher in Serbia).
    • Some 28% of students were enrolled in schools whose principal reported that learning is hindered by a lack of teaching staff, and 33% were enrolled in schools whose principal reported that learning is hindered by a lack of assisting staff, on average across OECD countries.
    • Students attending schools whose principal reported fewer shortages of material resources scored higher in reading, on average across OECD countries and in 12 countries and economies, after accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile. At the system level, more shortages of educational materials were correlated with lower mean performance in reading, even after accounting for per capita GDP, across OECD countries, and across participating countries and economies in PISA 2018.
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      Global competence is defined as a multidimensional capacity that encompasses the ability to: 1) examine issues of local, global and cultural significance; 2) understand and appreciate the perspectives and worldviews of others; 3) engage in open, appropriate and effective interactions across cultures; and 4) take action for collective well-being and sustainable development.

    • Students in Albania, Greece, Lithuania, Malta and the United Arab Emirates reported the highest levels of awareness of global issues, while students in Argentina, Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Romania, Saudi Arabia and Viet Nam reported the lowest levels of awareness.
    • Students in Albania, Kosovo, Lebanon, North Macedonia and Turkey reported the greatest capacity for perspective taking, while those in Colombia, France, Italy, Lithuania and the Slovak Republic showed the least.
    • Students in Albania, the Dominican Republic, Kosovo, the Philippines and Turkey showed the greatest interest in learning about other cultures among the 64 countries and economies that had non-missing data.
    • Students in Albania, Canada, Korea, Portugal and Spain reported the most positive attitudes towards immigrants, with values in the index that were significantly higher than the OECD average. The least positive attitudes were observed in Bulgaria, Hungary, Latvia, Poland and the Slovak Republic.
    • On average across OECD countries, only 12% of students reported that they do not learn any foreign language at school, while 38% reported that they learn one foreign language and 50% reported that they learn two or more.
    • Students in Albania, Costa Rica, Korea, Portugal and Singapore reported the highest levels of agency regarding global issues. The lowest levels were observed in Germany, Hungary, Latvia, the Russian Federation and the Slovak Republic.
    • On average across OECD countries, students reported engaging in about five learning activities linked to global competences.
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    Key
    Country Reviews for Spain

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Some countries may have provided data refering to another year, to know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.