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Denmark
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Denmark
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In Denmark, the total compulsory instruction time over the course of primary and lower secondary education is higher than the OECD average, at 10 600 hours, distributed over 10 grades.
  • In Denmark, 43% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education and 10% in vocational upper secondary education. A further 33% are enrolled in lower secondary programmes and 1% in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 23% in vocational upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • In Denmark,26% of 25-34 year-olds have a vocational education and training (VET) qualification as their highest level of attainment: 22% at upper secondary level and 4% at short-cycle tertiary level.
  • Although an upper secondary qualification is often the minimum attainment needed for successful labour-market participation,17% of 25-34 year-olds in Denmark have not attained an upper secondary qualification, higher than the OECD average (14%).
  • Workers in Denmark aged 25-34 with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment earn 11% more than those without upper secondary attainment, whereas the earning advantage for workers with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment is 3%.
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, Denmark spends USD 16 312 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a general upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.4 %, rank 31/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (0.9 %, rank 10/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (20.2 %, rank 8/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    Denmark has one of the smallest share of women among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (35.9 %, rank 29/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (19.9 %, rank 25/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (19.2 %, rank 26/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    The share of female students entering bachelor's programmes in Denmark is relatively large. (57 %, rank 9/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of new entrants in tertiary education in Denmark is comparatively old. (24.6 Years, rank 2/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of women among the new entrants in master's programmes in Denmark is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (55.2 %, rank 33/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of first-time entrants in master's programmes is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (0 %, rank 24/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance by field of education and gender

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (65.3 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (62.4 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48.6 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively small. (41.5 %, rank 33/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (60.3 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in education in Denmark is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (63 %, rank 20/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiaryprogrammes in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Denmark is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (10 %, rank 21/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (58.2 %, rank 18/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (47.1 %, rank 27/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The percentage of students in public tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.6 %, rank 4/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in government-dependent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 18/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in independent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 31/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 20-24 year-olds in Denmark is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54 %, rank 4/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 3-5 year-old children in early childhood and primary education in Denmark is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (97 %, rank 5/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the enrolment rate of children under 3 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54.3 %, rank 3/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 15-19-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.1 %, rank 34/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in school- and work-based programmes among all upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 17 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Denmark is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.4 %, rank 33/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 in general upper secondary programmes in Denmark is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (72.7 %, rank 2/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 in general upper secondary programmes in Denmark is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (40.6 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in general upper secondary programmes in Denmark is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.6 %, rank 3/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Denmark is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14 %, rank 6/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of students enrolled in private institutions at early childhood educational and development level is comparatively low. (15 %, rank 38/47 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes in Denmark is relatively high compared to the other countries. (25.1 %, rank 9/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of vocational students as a share of short-cycle tertiary students is among the largest in all OECD and partner countries. (100 %, rank 1/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Short-cycle tertiary students represent a large share of all vocational students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.6 %, rank 9/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in vocational programmes is comparativele high. (29 %, rank 10/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Denmark has a share of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion with access to tertiary education that is higher than other OECD and partner countries; (100 %, rank 1/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of below-two year-olds in early childhood education in Denmark is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (38.1 %, rank 7/71 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in upper secondary programmes in Denmark is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (53.5 %, rank 36/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in upper secondary vocational programmes in Denmark is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.2 %, rank 31/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of two-year-olds in early childhood education in Denmark is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (86.5 %, rank 9/80 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary programmes in Denmark is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.4 %, rank 2/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary general programmes in Denmark is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.5 %, rank 3/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary vocational programmes in Denmark is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.9 %, rank 3/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in bachelor's programmes in Denmark is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29.1 %, rank 10/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in primary education in Denmark is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 6/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (45.9 %, rank 25/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The average age of graduates from vocational programmes at the upper secondary level in Denmark is comparatively high. (28.6 Years, rank 6/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the average age of post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (38.5 Years, rank 3/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of bachelor's or equivalent graduates in public institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.8 %, rank 4/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of master's or equivalent graduates in public institutions is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctorate graduates in public institutions is relatively high in Denmark. (100 %, rank 1/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Denmark has one of the smallest shares of women graduates from tertiary programmes. (56.3 %, rank 27/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates among post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes in Denmark is relatively low. (41.4 %, rank 22/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of female first-time graduates in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (45.4 %, rank 22/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.3 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.3 %, rank 4/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of education in Denmark is relatively small. (0 %, rank 43/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law in Denmark is relatively small. (0 %, rank 44/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of information and communication technologies in Denmark is relatively small. (0 %, rank 42/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of health and welfare in Denmark is relatively large. (32.6 %, rank 3/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.4 %, rank 9/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.1 %, rank 6/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.7 %, rank 32/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.8 %, rank 10/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.9 %, rank 10/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of arts and humanities is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (13.2 %, rank 8/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of business, administration and law is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (43.6 %, rank 4/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively low compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (2.6 %, rank 29/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of services is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (18 %, rank 9/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23 %, rank 2/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (6.6 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (27.9 %, rank 4/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively high in Denmark. (10.6 %, rank 6/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of female post-secondary non-tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is relatively small. (46.7 %, rank 26/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of female post-secondary non-tertiary graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 27/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field health and welfare is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries. (89.4 %, rank 7/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field of services is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries. (42.5 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (70.5 %, rank 39/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (63.4 %, rank 36/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (50.7 %, rank 38/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Completion rates

    A relatively high share of upper secondary students complete their studies within the theoretical programme duration. (81.4 %, rank 4/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    A relatively high share of students in upper secondary general programmes complete their studies within the theoretical programme duration. (81.4 %, rank 7/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    A relatively high share of upper secondary students complete their studies up to two years later than the theoretical programme duration. (86.8 %, rank 6/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Denmark, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of arts and humanities is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (6.6 %, rank 32/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of business, administration and law is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (0 %, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of education is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (0 %, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively high, compared to other countries with available data. (30.2 %, rank 1/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of health and welfare is relatively high, compared to other countries with available data. (35.3 %, rank 2/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (0 %, rank 35/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the proportion of new entrants in education master's programmes is relatively low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.1 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is comparatively low in Denmark, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.8 %, rank 28/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Denmark has a large share of international students graduate from tertiary programmes compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (15.5 %, rank 5/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of international and foreign students enrolled in doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (36.3 %, rank 10/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, international or foreign students from North America are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.3 %, rank 9/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, international or foreign students from Europe are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (79.5 %, rank 6/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, international or foreign students from Oceania are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.7 %, rank 4/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, international or foreign students from Africa are lowest represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.5 %, rank 35/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the proportion of international graduates among first-time doctorate graduates is relatively high. (39.6 %, rank 7/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of international students among the new entrants in master's programmes in Denmark is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (22.1 %, rank 10/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in master's programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20 %, rank 9/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.5 %, rank 7/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (10.5 %, rank 10/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all international or foreign tertiary students in Denmark is relatively high. (21.9 %, rank 4/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 33/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.4 %, rank 30/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 34/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of Information and communication technologies is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 34/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (40.2 %, rank 2/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Adult participation in non-formal education

    In Denmark, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-olds participating in at least one job-related non-formal education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.1 %, rank 4/19 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (11.6 %, rank 17/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    In Denmark, the salary cost of primary teachers per student is comparatively high. (5458 USD Equivalent, rank 1/24 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the salary cost of lower-secondary teachers per student is comparatively high. (5784 USD Equivalent, rank 5/24 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23432 USD Equivalent, rank 7/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16312 USD Equivalent, rank 6/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16508 USD Equivalent, rank 5/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14273 USD Equivalent, rank 5/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student on research and development in tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12580 USD Equivalent, rank 4/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in Denmark is comparatively high. (14071 USD Equivalent, rank 7/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in Denmark is comparatively low. (122 USD Equivalent, rank 28/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on tertiary education in Denmark is comparatively low. (1 USD Equivalent, rank 25/27 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary educational services on primary to tertiary education in Denmark is comparatively low. (95 USD Equivalent, rank 28/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Denmark is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19563 USD Equivalent, rank 8/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Denmark, expenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (1.9 %, rank 6/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, public and private expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (3.9 %, rank 9/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (3.7 %, rank 10/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0 %, rank 3/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (5.3 %, rank 7/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure on educational institutions at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is relatively low in Denmark. (-0.7 %, rank 33/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds at primary to tertiary education is relatively high in Denmark. (5.3 %, rank 5/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, international expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on tertiary education is relatively large. (0.1 %, rank 5/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education in Denmark is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.6 %, rank 2/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Government and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.5 %, rank 32/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.5 %, rank 2/46 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Denmark has one of the smallest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (7.2 %, rank 31/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, total public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively high. (11.9 %, rank 9/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of total expenditure on primary to tertiary education is relatively high. (1.7 %, rank 8/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for tertiary education is comparatively large in Denmark. (83.2 %, rank 10/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively large. (91.1 %, rank 9/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of private expenditure from primary to tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.2 %, rank 21/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the relative share of public expenditure from initial sources of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (95 %, rank 10/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the relative share of public expenditure from initial source of funds at primary to tertiary education is relatively large. (91.1 %, rank 9/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2015, the share of total government expenditure is comparatively lowest in Denmark. (106 Index, rank 42/49 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (93 %, rank 34/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (68.3 %, rank 40/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51 %, rank 38/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43.2 %, rank 20/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (63.2 %, rank 31/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially high. (14.6 %, rank 7/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in general upper secondary education in Denmark is relatively small. (53.2 %, rank 31/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of women among teaching staff in vocational upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (45.9 %, rank 31/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers younger than 30 in primary education is especially low in Denmark. (58.9 %, rank 40/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers under 30 in lower secondary education is especially low in Denmark. (53.9 %, rank 35/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Females under 30 represent a small proportion of teachers in upper secondary education in Denmark. (55.1 %, rank 34/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of female teachers younger than 30 in tertiary education is relatively small . (43.9 %, rank 33/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Females aged 50 or more represent a small proportion of teachers in primary education in Denmark. (71.9 %, rank 36/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of tertiary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (47.8 %, rank 25/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of bachelor's, master's and doctoral level teachers older than 50 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (32.4 %, rank 26/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of tertiary teachers older than 50 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (33.4 %, rank 27/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of short-cycle tertiary teachers younger than 30 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (2.8 %, rank 20/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of tertiary teachers younger than 30 is relatively high, compared to other countries with data available. (18.8 %, rank 4/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of bachelor's, master's and doctoral level female teachers younger than 30 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (43.8 %, rank 30/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of teachers under 30 in early childhood educational development is especially low in Denmark. (11.1 %, rank 14/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of women among teaching staff in early childhood educational development is one of the lowest, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (92.8 %, rank 18/22 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of teachers aged 50 or more in pre-primary education is especially high in Denmark (38.3 %, rank 9/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the percentage of teachers under 30 in pre-primary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.9 %, rank 27/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of male teachers in pre-primary education is especially high in Denmark. (7 %, rank 8/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of teachers under 30 in Denmark is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.6 %, rank 24/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers under 30 in upper secondary vocational education is especially low in Denmark. (4.7 %, rank 22/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (61968 USD Equivalent, rank 6/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.8 Ratio, rank 19/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the change in statutory primary education teachers' salaries with 15 years of experience, based on most prevalent qualifications at different points in teachers' careers is relatively small. (95 Index, rank 26/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the change in statutory lower secondary education teachers' salaries with 15 years of experience, based on most prevalent qualifications at different points in teachers' careers is relatively small. (94 Index, rank 27/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the change in statutory upper secondary education teachers' salaries with 15 years of experience, based on most prevalent qualifications at different points in teachers' careers is relatively small. (92 Index, rank 28/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual pre-primary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52051 USD Equivalent, rank 4/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (63312 USD Equivalent, rank 4/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (63679 USD Equivalent, rank 5/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (74654 USD Equivalent, rank 4/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (61968 USD Equivalent, rank 7/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (65555 USD Equivalent, rank 7/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52261 USD Equivalent, rank 6/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (61473 USD Equivalent, rank 7/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary female teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year women workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.92 Ratio, rank 15/21 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 45-54 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Denmark. (0.73 Ratio, rank 18/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 55-64 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Denmark. (0.75 Ratio, rank 16/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-34 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the highest in Denmark relatively compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (58352 USD Equivalent, rank 2/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 55-64 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the highest in Denmark. (66817 USD Equivalent, rank 6/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The change in statutory pre-primary teachers' salaries with 15 years of experience, based on most prevalent qualifications at different points in their careers is comparatively small in Denmark. (94 Index, rank 20/23 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the least rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.16 Ratio, rank 34/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially high. (53364 USD Equivalent, rank 4/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (59294 USD Equivalent, rank 7/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (53598 USD Equivalent, rank 4/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (59930 USD Equivalent, rank 7/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.12 Ratio, rank 26/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.15 Ratio, rank 34/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.3 Ratio, rank 30/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In pre-primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is relatively low. (1.12 Ratio, rank 24/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.15 Ratio, rank 32/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.16 Ratio, rank 32/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In upper secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is relatively low. (1.3 Ratio, rank 30/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Principals' salaries

    Pre-primary 25-64 year-old school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Denmark. (0.86 Ratio, rank 15/17 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Lower-secondary 25-64 year-old school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Denmark. (1.16 Ratio, rank 16/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-64 year-old primary school heads is one of the highest in Denmark. (92120 USD Equivalent, rank 6/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-64 year-old lower secondary education school heads is one of the highest in Denmark. (92120 USD Equivalent, rank 7/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average upper-secondary school heads' actual salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (118760 USD Equivalent, rank 3/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 55-64 year-old lower secondary school heads is one of the highest in Denmark. (94537 USD Equivalent, rank 7/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.2 Ratio, rank 33/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the ratio of children to contact staff in pre-primary education is one of the lowest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.2 Ratio, rank 23/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the vocational upper secondary level is especially high in Denmark. (16.5 Ratio, rank 8/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in independent private institutions is especially low in Denmark. (4.4 Ratio, rank 24/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the number of students per teacher in private upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.8 Ratio, rank 41/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the upper secondary level in government-dependent private institutions is especially low in Denmark. (5.7 Ratio, rank 20/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the upper secondary level in independent private institutions is especially low in Denmark. (6.7 Ratio, rank 25/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the number of students per teacher in all private secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.6 Ratio, rank 30/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the secondary level in government-dependent private institutions is especially low in Denmark. (10 Ratio, rank 14/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the secondary level in independent private institutions is especially low in Denmark. (5 Ratio, rank 27/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the number of students per teacher in private institutions tertiary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (28.4 Ratio, rank 4/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the number of students per teacher in public institutions short-cycle tertiary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (22.8 Ratio, rank 5/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the number of students per teacher in private institutions short-cycle tertiary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (40.8 Ratio, rank 1/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the ratio of children to teaching staff in early childhood educational development is one of the lowest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.1 Ratio, rank 15/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark the ratio of children to contact staff in early childhood educational development is one of the lowest compared to the other OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.1 Ratio, rank 13/16 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Denmark, the intended instruction time for lower secondary students (in hours per year) is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1200 Hours, rank 2/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary students in Denmark is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7000 Hours, rank 1/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the total intended instruction time for primary students (in hours per year) is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7000 Hours, rank 1/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students in Denmark is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3600 Hours, rank 9/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, total intended instruction time for lower secondary students is among the longest compared to other countries with available data. (3600 Hours, rank 7/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary and lower secondary student in Denmark is among the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10600 Hours, rank 2/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, total intended instruction time for primary and lower secondary students (in hours per year) is among the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10600 Hours, rank 1/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, compulsory instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1000 Hours, rank 3/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1000 Hours, rank 5/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1200 Hours, rank 1/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In government-dependent private institutions at primary education level, the average class size is relatively small in Denmark among OECD and other partner countries with available data. (17 Students, rank 13/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (83.2 %, rank 8/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-olds with tertiary education is compartively high in Denmark. (81.6 %, rank 10/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively high in Denmark. (75.7 %, rank 6/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (88 %, rank 8/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively high in Denmark. (79 %, rank 8/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high (82.8 %, rank 8/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of employed 25-64 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (73.8 %, rank 10/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of employed 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (80.4 %, rank 6/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of employed 25-64 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (88.1 %, rank 10/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in Denmark. (73.9 %, rank 30/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by field of education

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of arts is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (82.9 %, rank 12/17 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business, administration and law is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (90.4 %, rank 6/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (79.7 %, rank 26/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (3.5 %, rank 38/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (4.2 %, rank 5/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (3 %, rank 3/21 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (2.4 %, rank 30/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64, with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the largest in Denmark, compared to other OECD countries. (30.6 %, rank 9/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the smallest in Denmark, compared to OECD countries. (24.8 %, rank 29/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (2.6 %, rank 32/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively high in Denmark. (8.1 %, rank 2/8 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively high in Denmark. (6.5 %, rank 6/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment by gender and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Denmark. (3.3 %, rank 37/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Denmark. (8.4 %, rank 30/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Denmark. (3.8 %, rank 37/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (2.8 %, rank 30/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (2.2 %, rank 32/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.5 %, rank 30/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.4 %, rank 29/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in Denmark. (4.7 %, rank 28/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    In Denmark, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (23.9 %, rank 9/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (2.6 %, rank 11/14 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (1.8 %, rank 27/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (4.3 %, rank 32/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (5.5 %, rank 33/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a short cycle tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (9.8 %, rank 29/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (14.4 %, rank 35/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (13.2 %, rank 30/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity by gender and educational attainment

    In Denmark, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men without an upper secondary education is relatively high compared to other countries with available data. (27.9 %, rank 8/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (22.1 %, rank 29/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (22.5 %, rank 5/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (17.5 %, rank 5/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (17.6 %, rank 29/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (6.5 %, rank 9/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (18.5 %, rank 37/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is relatively low. (8.4 %, rank 37/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (34.7 %, rank 30/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (19.2 %, rank 23/28 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (58.5 %, rank 28/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (74.7 %, rank 25/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The earnings of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education. (90 Index, rank 6/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (124 Index, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (110 Index, rank 25/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (113 Index, rank 32/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (144 Index, rank 33/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (114 Index, rank 32/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (144 Index, rank 31/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (109 Index, rank 27/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (121 Index, rank 32/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (148 Index, rank 33/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full and part-time workers with tertiary education are comparatively low. (128.4 %, rank 38/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers with a bachelor's or equivalent education are comparatively low. (110.8 %, rank 32/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of workers earning more than twice the median among those with a bachelor's or equivalent education degree is comparatively low. (6.2 %, rank 31/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of worker earning more than twice the median among those with a master's or doctoral or equivalent education degree is comparatively low. (18.2 %, rank 32/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of worker earning more than twice the median among those with a short-cycle tertiary education degree is comparatively low. (6.8 %, rank 26/31 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of worker earning more than twice the median among those with a tertiary education degree is comparatively . (10.3 %, rank 40/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the proportion of young 25-34 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent attainment earnings is relatively low compared to OECD and other members with available data (110 %, rank 33/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Denmark. (103 Index, rank 29/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Denmark. (122 Index, rank 20/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Denmark. (111 Index, rank 22/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Denmark. (111 Index, rank 22/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Denmark. (111 Index, rank 21/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education earning more than twice the overall median in Denmark is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (4.1 %, rank 30/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Denmark. (127 Index, rank 34/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with tertiary education earning at or below half the overall median in Denmark is one of the highest among countries with available data. (14.6 %, rank 7/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Denmark. (147 Index, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with bachelor's or equivalent attainment compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Denmark. (119 Index, rank 30/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with bachelor's or equivalent attainment compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Denmark. (125 Index, rank 34/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with bachelor's or equivalent attainment compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Denmark. (130 Index, rank 35/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    The earnings of men without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of men with an upper secondary education. (89 Index, rank 5/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The earnings of women without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of women with an upper secondary education. (90 Index, rank 5/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (129 Index, rank 39/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (124 Index, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (81.8 %, rank 31/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds without an upper secondary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (80.1 %, rank 22/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (74.3 %, rank 20/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (82.2 %, rank 6/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings by field of education

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of business, administration and law are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Denmark. (128.2 %, rank 1/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Denmark. (109.5 %, rank 4/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT) are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Denmark. (107.7 %, rank 12/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of health and welfare are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Denmark. (85.1 %, rank 14/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Denmark who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information are high, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (86.7 %, rank 3/14 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Denmark who studied in the field of business, administration and law, are high, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (119 %, rank 1/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Denmark who studied in the field of health and welfare, are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (84.4 %, rank 16/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Denmark who studied in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT), are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (103.7 %, rank 11/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Denmark who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics, are high, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (111.1 %, rank 3/15 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of youth who have been unemployed for at least 3 months but less than a year and not in formal education or training among 18-24 year-olds in Denmark is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (1.5 %, rank 20/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Denmark is relatively low (5.9 %, rank 31/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Denmark is relatively low (8.6 %, rank 22/29 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Denmark is relatively low (7.4 %, rank 31/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Denmark is relatively low (16.3 %, rank 24/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Denmark is relatively low (2.2 %, rank 29/29 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Denmark is relatively low. (7.1 %, rank 30/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Denmark is relatively low. (10.8 %, rank 37/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Denmark is relatively low. (4.8 %, rank 36/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary in Denmark is relatively low. (7.2 %, rank 38/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Denmark is relatively high. (13.3 %, rank 6/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are unemployed NEET (18-24 year-olds) in Denmark is relatively low. (3.8 %, rank 31/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Among 15-29 year-olds, the share of youth without an upper secondary or post-secondary non tertiary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training in Denmark is relatively low. (9.3 %, rank 33/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Denmark, the share of Internet users without an upper secondary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (25.7 %, rank 6/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Denmark, the share of Internet users with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (25.1 %, rank 6/26 , 2021) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Denmark

    Click on the coverpage to see the full OECD iLibrary version
    Key
    Country Reviews for Denmark

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.