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Germany
Overview of the education system (EAG 2021)
  • In Germany, men are more likely than women to pursue a vocational track. In 2019, 61% of upper secondary vocational graduates were men, compared to 55% on average across OECD countries.
  • In Germany, 36% of 25-34 year-old women had a tertiary qualification in 2020 compared to 33% of their male peers.
  • In 2018, Germany invested a total of USD 12 774 per student on primary to tertiary institutions compared to USD 10 454 on average across OECD countries. This represents 4.3% of GDP, compared to 4.9% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2019, 94% of 3-5 year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education and care programmes and primary education in Germany, compared to 88% on average across OECD countries.
  • Statutory salaries of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of their salary scales are 31% to 40% higher than those of teachers with the minimum qualifications at the start of their career at primary and general lower and upper secondary levels in Germany compared to 86% - 91% on average.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.7 %, rank 3/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a general upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.1 %, rank 39/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (1.6 %, rank 8/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43.8 %, rank 2/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56.3 %, rank 4/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.1 %, rank 37/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.2 %, rank 39/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 33/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.7 %, rank 32/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    Germany has one of the largest share of women among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (48.8 %, rank 5/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Germany has one of the largest share of women among 55-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (52.9 %, rank 3/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate of 20-24 year-olds in Germany is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.6 %, rank 6/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 40-64 year-olds in Germany is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.5 %, rank 37/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in school- and work-based programmes among all upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (89.4 %, rank 6/22 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation expectancy

    In Germany, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from a doctoral or equivalent programme before the age of 35 ranks as one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.1 %, rank 3/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Germany has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes before the age of 30. (0.4 %, rank 23/26 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Germany has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education before the age of 30. (0.4 %, rank 19/22 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of young people expected to be first-time graduates from post-secondary non-tertiary education before turning 30 is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (20.6 %, rank 2/24 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    In Germany, the percentage of master's or equivalent graduates in public institutions is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (93.3 %, rank 9/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of first-time short-cycle graduates is relatively low in Germany. (1.4 %, rank 24/26 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates is relatively high in Germany. (86.2 %, rank 10/30 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at post-secondary non-tertiary level is comparatively small. (92.7 %, rank 21/24 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary general programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (47.7 %, rank 39/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (39.4 %, rank 32/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Germany has one of the smallest shares of women graduates from tertiary programmes. (49.9 %, rank 36/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively low. (19.7 %, rank 40/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates among post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes in Germany is relatively high. (60.3 %, rank 8/25 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of female tertiary graduates in the field of sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.2 %, rank 1/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the proportion of male tertiary graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively small. (4.5 %, rank 37/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is relatively high in Germany. (54.1 %, rank 1/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively low in Germany. (4.1 %, rank 39/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by age

    In Germany, the average age of post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (23.7 Years, rank 21/23 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of first-time short-cycle tertiary graduates younger than 30 is relatively low. (60.3 %, rank 21/26 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates younger than 30 is relatively low. (82.8 %, rank 22/31 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of first-time master's graduates younger than 35 is relatively high. (94.5 %, rank 3/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of first-time doctorate graduates younger than 35 is relatively high. (79 %, rank 4/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (10.2 %, rank 38/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.1 %, rank 6/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24.2 %, rank 1/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.1 %, rank 39/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humaties in Germany is relatively small. (7.5 %, rank 37/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of sciences, journalism and information in Germany is relatively small. (5.6 %, rank 41/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Germany is relatively large. (28.2 %, rank 9/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (32.1 %, rank 2/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.6 %, rank 25/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of services is relatively low. (6.8 %, rank 22/24 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Germany, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of health and welfare is relatively low. (6.2 %, rank 36/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.1 %, rank 31/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of education is relatively small. (60 %, rank 29/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Germany is relatively small. (22.9 %, rank 32/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of health and welfare is relatively small. (55.6 %, rank 28/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of business, administration and law is relatively small. (0 %, rank 30/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively small. (0 %, rank 27/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    In Germany, the proportion of young men who are neither employed nor in education or training among 15-19 year-olds is comparatively large. (5.5 %, rank 4/81 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the proportion of new international entrants in master's long first degree (LFD) programmes is relatively high. (36.6 %, rank 2/22 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the proportion of international graduates among first-time short-cycle tertiary first-time graduates is relatively low. (0 %, rank 20/23 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of arts and humanities among all international or foreign tertiary students in Germany is relatively high. (15 %, rank 8/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of social sciences, journalism and information among all international or foreign tertiary students in Germany is relatively low. (7.8 %, rank 26/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all international or foreign tertiary students in Germany is relatively low. (17.5 %, rank 25/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all international or foreign tertiary students in Germany is relatively high. (29.8 %, rank 1/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.4 %, rank 29/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.7 %, rank 29/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Adult learning

    The annual training costs per participant are one of the highest across OECD countries and partner countries. (2313.9 %, rank 7/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the annual training costs as a share of total labour costs is relatively low compared to other OECD countries and partner countries. (1.4 %, rank 17/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In enterprises of 10-49 employed persons, the annual training costs as a share of total labour costs is relatively low. (1 %, rank 18/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In enterprises of ver 249 employed persons, the annual training costs as a share of total labour costs is relatively low. (1.5 %, rank 18/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Adult participation in non-formal education

    In Germany, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in non-formal education and training is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (50.4 %, rank 8/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (36.5 %, rank 9/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (2.4 %, rank 24/27 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    In Germany, the total expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student in primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education, is relatively high. (12774 USD Equivalent, rank 9/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11582 USD Equivalent 2015, rank 10/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Germany, expenditure on primary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (0.7 %, rank 34/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent student in tertiary education is one of the largest in Germany. (2.7 %, rank 9/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on tertiary education in Germany is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.9 %, rank 10/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on tertiary education in Germany is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-0.8 %, rank 24/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.4 %, rank 10/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Germany, total public expenditure on primary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (1.5 %, rank 39/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for tertiary education is comparatively large. (83.4 %, rank 9/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Total public expenditure on education as a percentage of total government expenditure, for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in Germany compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.3 %, rank 35/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively low in Germany. (691 Hours, rank 23/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary school is especially high. (193 Days, rank 6/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (32.4 %, rank 24/25 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education (bachelor's, master's, doctorate or equivalent education) is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (39.5 %, rank 24/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (39.5 %, rank 31/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66.3 %, rank 25/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially low. (6.8 %, rank 30/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of women among teaching staff in vocational upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.1 %, rank 23/30 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers younger than 30 in primary education is especially high in Germany. (90.8 %, rank 7/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers under 30 in lower secondary education is especially high in Germany. (78.9 %, rank 2/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Females under 30 represent a large proportion of teachers in upper secondary education in Germany. (72 %, rank 5/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of female teachers younger than 30 in tertiary education is relatively small . (44.9 %, rank 28/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in tertiary education is especially low in Germany. (31.3 %, rank 28/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.02 Ratio, rank 5/25 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2013 in statutory salaries for lower secondary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Germany. (117 Index, rank 8/25 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (84869 USD Equivalent, rank 1/27 , 2020) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (88037 USD Equivalent, rank 2/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the least rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.31 Ratio, rank 27/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially high. (65475 USD Equivalent, rank 2/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (86171 USD Equivalent, rank 4/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (72588 USD Equivalent, rank 2/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (83636 USD Equivalent, rank 3/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.32 Ratio, rank 29/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.31 Ratio, rank 30/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.9 Ratio, rank 28/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.3 Ratio, rank 34/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the ratio of students to teaching staff in bachelor's and tertiary advanced research programmes is one of the lowest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.9 Ratio, rank 24/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Germany, total intended instruction time for primary students is relatively short. (2900 Hours, rank 24/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, total intended instruction time for primary and lower secondary students is relatively short. (7402 Hours, rank 20/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, total compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students is relatively long. (4502 Hours, rank 3/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, total intended instruction time for lower secondary students is relatively long. (4502 Hours, rank 4/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Class size

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively large in Germany. (23 Students, rank 9/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (88.7 %, rank 8/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (87.6 %, rank 10/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is compartively high in Germany. (88.4 %, rank 9/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively high in Germany. (85.6 %, rank 1/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (89.5 %, rank 3/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (64.6 %, rank 32/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (83.2 %, rank 6/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is compartively high in Germany. (86.8 %, rank 7/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (3.9 %, rank 39/42 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (3.6 %, rank 35/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low in Germany. (10.9 %, rank 39/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with tertiary education is low in Germany. (8.2 %, rank 35/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (3.2 %, rank 31/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (7.5 %, rank 28/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (29.2 %, rank 6/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (3.6 %, rank 28/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (2.8 %, rank 33/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The earnings of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low compared to those of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education. (71 Index, rank 29/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite high. (162 Index, rank 10/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (161 Index, rank 7/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high. (172 Index, rank 7/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full and part-time workers with tertiary education are comparatively high. (169 Index, rank 10/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (49.5 %, rank 20/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (14.5 %, rank 26/27 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (12.7 %, rank 24/26 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (31.1 %, rank 24/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (42.3 %, rank 26/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The earnings of women without an upper secondary education are relatively low compared to those of women with an upper secondary education. (73 Index, rank 28/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (73.8 %, rank 28/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (69.9 %, rank 32/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (76.2 %, rank 33/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of youth neither employed nor in education or training (15-19 year-olds) in Germany is relatively low. (2.8 %, rank 35/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of youth neither employed nor in education or training among 20-24 year-olds in Germany is relatively small. (8.8 %, rank 37/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of youth neither employed nor in education or training among 15-29 year-olds in Germany is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.2 %, rank 35/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of men neither employed nor in education among 15-29 year-olds is relatively low. (6.5 %, rank 39/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of women neither employed nor in education among 15-29 year-olds is relatively low. (10.2 %, rank 34/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Among 15-29 year-olds, the share of youth without an upper secondary or post-secondary non tertiary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training in Germany is relatively low. (6.9 %, rank 38/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the proportion of youth with a tertiary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training among 15-29 year-olds is comparatively small. (4.5 %, rank 37/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the proportion of young men who are neither employed nor in education or training among 15-19 year-olds is comparatively small. (3.1 %, rank 33/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Among 20-24 year-olds men in Germany, a small share of them are neither employed nor in education or training. (7.6 %, rank 38/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Among 25-29 year-olds men in Germany, a small share of them are neither employed nor in education or training. (8.3 %, rank 34/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of women neither employed nor in education or training among 15-19 year-olds is relatively low. (2.5 %, rank 35/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of women neither employed nor in education or training among 20-24 year-olds is relatively low. (10.3 %, rank 35/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 18-24 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively small in Germany. (8.1 %, rank 38/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 18-24 year-old men neither employed nor in education or training is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (7.3 %, rank 38/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 18-24 year-old women neither employed nor in education or training is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (8.9 %, rank 34/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Germany, the proportion of adults who reported being interested in politics is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (67 %, rank 9/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Participation in education by gender

    The share of women among tertiary education new entrants is one of the smallest compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (49.6 %, rank 37/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering bachelor's programmes in Germany is relatively small. (46.9 %, rank 43/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes in Germany is comparatively small. (43.4 %, rank 33/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    In Germany, the average age of new entrants in doctoral programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29.1 Years, rank 30/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of young people expected to enter in a short-cycle tertiary programme before the age of 25 is relatively low. (0.3 %, rank 31/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes younger than 25 is relatively low. (38.6 %, rank 27/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of young people (excluding international students) expected to enter in short-cycle tertiary programme before the age of 25 is relatively low. (0.3 %, rank 28/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The average age of new entrants in tertiary education in Germany is comparatively old. (22.6 Years, rank 10/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of first-time entrants into bachelor's or equivalent programmes before the age of 25 is relatively low. (76.1 %, rank 30/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of first-time entrants into master's or equivalent programmes before the age of 30 is relatively high. (90 %, rank 6/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the proportion of first-time entrants into doctorate's or equivalent programmes before the age of 30 is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (70.6 %, rank 6/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of young people expected to enter master's programmes before the age of 30 is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.4 %, rank 10/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Excluding international students, Germany has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to enter master's programmes before turning 30. (20.3 %, rank 9/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Excluding international students, Germany has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to enter master's programmes before turning 25. (2.8 %, rank 2/35 , 2019) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
                            
    • One in five adults across the OECD has not attained upper secondary education.
    • In 2020, the unemployment rate of adults that had not completed upper secondary education was almost twice as high as those with higher qualifications, and 27% of these adults earn only at or below half the median on average across OECD countries.
    • In 2019, at least 10% of school-aged youth were not in school in about a quarter of OECD countries.
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    • In 2019, women made up 55% of new entrants to tertiary education on average. If current patterns continue, it is expected that 46% of young women will graduate with a tertiary degree for the first time before they turn 30, 15 percentage points more than men.
    • Women also earn on average about 76-78% of men’s salaries regardless of educational attainment, although the gender gap narrowed by 2 percentage points between 2013 and 2019.
    • Women are less likely than men to enter a STEM field of study, and the average share remained generally stable between 2013 and 2019.
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    • On average across countries, expenditure on educational institutions amounted to approximately USD 9 300 per student at pre-primary level; USD 10 500 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non tertiary level; and USD 17 100 at tertiary level.
    • The public sector funds 90% of total expenditure on primary and secondary institutions on average, often compulsory in most OECD countries, compared to 83% at pre-primary level and 66% at tertiary level.
    • In 2018, the OECD countries spent on average 4.9% of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on primary to tertiary educational institutions.
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    • In 2019, less than 5% of pre-primary teachers were men, compared to 18% at primary level, 40% at upper secondary level and more than 50% at tertiary level on average.
    • Between 2005 and 2020, on average across OECD countries and economies with available data for all reference years, the statutory salaries of teachers with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications increased by 3% at primary level, 4% at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 2% at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • In most countries, teachers above 50 years of age make up more than a third of the teaching force.
    • Attracting male teachers to the profession can be difficult: While the average actual salary of female teachers is equal to or higher than the average salary of other full-time, tertiary-educated women, primary and secondary male teachers earn between 76% and 85% of the average earnings of other full-time, tertiary-educated men.
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    • On average across OECD countries, 87% of children aged 3-5 are enrolled in education on average across OECD countries compared to 25% for children below the age of 3.
    • There are 15 children for every teacher at pre-primary level on average across OECD countries.
    • Half of children enrolled in early childhood development services and a two-thirds of pre-primary children attend public institutions on average across OECD countries
    Visualisations
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Germany

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Germany

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.