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Switzerland
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Diagram of the education system

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  • Diagram of education system in country language


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  • Education system in Switzerland

    Switzerland
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2020)
  • On average, 64% of all upper secondary students enrol in VET programmes in Switzerland, a higher proportion than the OECD average of 42%.
  • In 2019, 53% of 25-34 year-olds had a tertiary degree in Switzerland compared to 45% on average across OECD countries.
  • In Switzerland, in 2018, 25-64 year-olds with a tertiary degree with income from full-time, full-year employment earned 45% more than full-time, full-year workers with upper secondary education compared to 54% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2018, 50% of 3-5 year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education and care programmes and primary education in Switzerland, compared to 88% on average across OECD countries.
  • Statutory salaries of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of their salary scales are 52% - 54% higher than those of teachers with the minimum qualifications at the start of their career at pre-primary (ISCED 02), primary and general lower and upper secondary levels in Switzerland compared to 78-80% on average.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (36.2 %, rank 8/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (3.2 %, rank 2/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of tertiary graduates younger than 30-years-old is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (76.9 %, rank 27/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at upper secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (68 %, rank 3/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30.9 %, rank 9/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43.6 %, rank 7/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.1 %, rank 31/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.8 %, rank 28/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from general programmes in Switzerland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (20 Years, rank 4/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the average age of first-time tertiary graduates is relatively high. (27.7 Years, rank 2/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the percentage of first-time short-cycle tertiary graduates younger than 30 is relatively low. (32.4 %, rank 24/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates younger than 30 is relatively low. (77.1 %, rank 26/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the percentage of first-time doctorate graduates younger than 35 is relatively high. (79 %, rank 4/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    In Switzerland, the share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (23.5 %, rank 7/46 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Switzerland has one of the largest share of women among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (45.4 %, rank 10/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Switzerland has one of the largest share of women among 55-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (53.5 %, rank 4/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of humanities (except languages), social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (7.1 %, rank 24/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (12.1 %, rank 29/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (28.6 %, rank 7/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health (medical and dental) is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (3.2 %, rank 11/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The proportion of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (63.7 %, rank 7/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in Switzerland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.5 %, rank 41/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in Switzerland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48.6 %, rank 39/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of new entrants younger than 25 in bachelor's or equivalent programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (68.7 %, rank 35/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the average age of new entrants in doctoral programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.4 Years, rank 35/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of new female entrants in master's long first degree (LFD) programmes is relatively high. (85.7 %, rank 1/24 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the percentage of young people expected to enter in a short-cycle tertiary programme before the age of 25 is relatively low. (0.9 %, rank 25/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the percentage of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes younger than 25 is relatively low. (68.7 %, rank 35/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the percentage of first-time entrants into tertiary education younger than 25 is relatively low. (66.6 %, rank 30/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of young people (excluding international students) expected to enter in short-cycle tertiary programme before the age of 25 is relatively low. (0.9 %, rank 25/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 15-19-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (60.1 %, rank 5/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in school- and work-based programmes among all upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (90.3 %, rank 6/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation expectancy

    In Switzerland, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from a doctoral or equivalent programme before the age of 35 ranks as one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.8 %, rank 1/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Switzerland has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes before the age of 30. (0.1 %, rank 24/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Switzerland has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree before the age of 30. (38.6 %, rank 8/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Switzerland has one of the smallest shares of women graduates from tertiary programmes. (49.9 %, rank 36/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively low. (41.5 %, rank 34/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7 %, rank 10/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.6 %, rank 38/42 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humaties in Switzerland is relatively small. (8 %, rank 36/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Switzerland is relatively large. (31.9 %, rank 7/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (32.8 %, rank 3/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 %, rank 28/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Adult learning

    In Switzerland, the proportion of employed adults participating in non-formal education and training is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (72 %, rank 2/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in non-formal education and training is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (64.3 %, rank 1/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in non-formal education and training is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (84.2 %, rank 2/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of adults employed in the private sector and participating in non-formal education and training is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (69.9 %, rank 1/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in non-formal education and training is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (83.5 %, rank 4/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively high. (60.8 %, rank 3/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (47.7 %, rank 1/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over of 249 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (77.6 %, rank 1/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The annual training costs per participant are one of the lowest across OECD countries and partner countries. (1319.5 %, rank 18/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the annual training costs as a share of total labour costs is relatively low compared to other OECD countries and partner countries. (0.8 %, rank 24/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In enterprises of 10-49 employed persons, the annual training costs as a share of total labour costs is relatively low. (0.6 %, rank 23/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In enterprises of ver 249 employed persons, the annual training costs as a share of total labour costs is relatively low. (0.9 %, rank 25/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Switzerland, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively low. (7.2 %, rank 30/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46.7 %, rank 32/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (44.5 %, rank 31/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13 %, rank 30/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.2 %, rank 33/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of health and welfare is relatively small. (54.5 %, rank 32/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively small. (7.2 %, rank 30/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Switzerland has one of the largest proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.7 %, rank 5/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of new international entrants in master's long first degreee (LFD) programmes is relatively low. (6.6 %, rank 15/21 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of international graduates among first-time doctorate graduates is relatively high. (56.5 %, rank 2/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of arts and humanities among all international or foreign tertiary students in Switzerland is relatively high. (13.8 %, rank 10/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics among all international or foreign tertiary students in Switzerland is relatively high. (17.4 %, rank 2/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.5 %, rank 28/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    The average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent students from primary to tertiary education between 2012 and 2017 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.7 %, rank 5/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average annual growth of the number of full-time equivalent students in tertiary education between 2012 and 2017 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.9 %, rank 10/38 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    In Switzerland, total public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively high. (13.6 %, rank 5/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Total public expenditure on education as a percentage of total government expenditure, for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high in Switzerland compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.6 %, rank 9/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Tuition fees

    The estimated average annual tuition fee for national students in independent private institutions for a bachelor's or equivalent level education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3238 USD Equivalent, rank 12/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The estimated average annual tuition fee for national students in independent private institutions for a master's or equivalent level education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3238 USD Equivalent, rank 9/11 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially high. (59975 USD Equivalent, rank 3/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (91312 USD Equivalent, rank 2/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (67022 USD Equivalent, rank 3/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (84865 USD Equivalent, rank 2/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.1 Ratio, rank 25/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.2 Ratio, rank 7/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    Classes in lower secondary public institutions are comparatively small in Switzerland. (19 Students, rank 27/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (89.4 %, rank 6/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (89.6 %, rank 5/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (83.3 %, rank 9/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the largest in Switzerland, compared to other OECD countries. (57.9 %, rank 7/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with below upper secondary education is low in Switzerland. (23 %, rank 35/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low in Switzerland. (9.5 %, rank 39/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with tertiary education is low in Switzerland. (6.3 %, rank 39/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (3.6 %, rank 24/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (9.3 %, rank 9/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively Switzerland. (7 %, rank 30/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively Switzerland. (17 %, rank 28/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (3.9 %, rank 25/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (77.9 %, rank 5/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (23.9 %, rank 19/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (14.3 %, rank 23/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (21.7 %, rank 28/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (14.7 %, rank 25/25 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (26.8 %, rank 28/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (24.6 %, rank 27/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary education or post-secondary non-tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (83.7 %, rank 7/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (78.9 %, rank 9/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (146 Index, rank 30/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings by field of education

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of business, administration and law are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Switzerland. (113.8 %, rank 5/15 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Switzerland. (106.1 %, rank 12/15 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of health and welfare are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Switzerland. (86.5 %, rank 13/15 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    (8.1 %, rank 37/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    (5.8 %, rank 38/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    (3 %, rank 30/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    (4.4 %, rank 39/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    (12.7 %, rank 35/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Switzerland, the proportion of adults who reported being interested in politics is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (53 %, rank 19/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of adults without an upper secondary education who reported being interested in politics is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (28.3 %, rank 19/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of adults with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who reported being interested in politics is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (45.1 %, rank 20/28 , 2018) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
                            
    • While 37% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are in vocational programmes, the share increases to 61% among students over 25.
    • The most popular fields of study among vocational graduates vary at different levels of education. While engineering, manufacturing and construction is the most common broad field at upper secondary level, at short-cycle tertiary level, most students graduate from business, administration and law, or health and welfare.
    • Combined school and work-based learning can help students transition smootly into the labor market. However, only one -third of all upper secondary vocational students are enrolled in school and work-based programmes on average across OECD countries.
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    • Between the age of 3 to 5, 88% of children are enrolled in pre-primary and primary education, on average across OECD countries.
    • The estimated expenditure on all children aged 3 to 5 enrolled in ECEC and primary education amounts to an average of 0.6% of GDP. Only in Iceland and Norway does it equal or exceed 1.0%.
    • The ECEC workforce is at the heart of high-quality education. On average across OECD countries, there are 14 children for every teacher working in pre-primary education (ISCED 02).
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    • In 2019, 45% of 25-34 year-olds held a tertiary degree, compared to 28% among 55-64 year-olds, on average across OECD countries.
    • On average across OECD countries, 17% of first-time tertiary entrants enter short-cycle tertiary programmes. The employment rate of adults with a short-cycle tertiary degree is 4 percentage points higher than those with an upper secondary vocational attainment and they earn 16% more, on average across OECD countries.
    • Based on current patterns, it is estimated that 38% of young adults across OECD countries will graduate from tertiary education for the first time before the age of 30 (excluding international students).
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    • In 2017, total expenditure amounted to approximately USD 9 100 per student in primary institutions and USD 10 500 in secondary institutions on average across OECD countries.
    • After increasing between 2005 and 2012, total expenditure on primary to tertiary institutions as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) has fallen to 4.9% in 2017 on average, below its 2005 value of 5.1%. This is due to educational expenditure rising more slowly than GDP over this period, growing by 17% while GDP grew by 27%.
    • Private sources financed more than 30% of the expenditure, on average, at tertiary level compared to 10% at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level.
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    • There are relatively few young teachers (under the age of 30), and the proportion decreases with the level of education. Young teachers make up 12% of the teaching population in primary education, 10% in lower secondary education and 8% in upper secondary education, on average across OECD countries.
    • While instruction time for students increases at higher educational levels, statutory teaching time in public institutions decreases: teachers in OECD countries and economies are required to teach on average 778 hours per year at primary level compared to 680 hours at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • Between 2005 and 2019, the statutory salaries of primary and secondary general teachers - with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications - increased by 2-3%, despite salaries falling after the 2008 economic crisis, on average across OECD countries and economies with available data.
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    Key
    Country Reviews for Switzerland

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Some countries may have provided data refering to another year, to know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.