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Diagram of the education system

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  • Diagram of education system in country language


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  • Education system in Canada

    Canada
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2020)
  • On average, 9% of all upper secondary students enrol in VET programmes in Canada, a lower proportion than the OECD average of 42%.
  • In 2019, 63% of 25-34 year-olds had a tertiary degree in Canada compared to 45% on average across OECD countries.
  • In Canada, in 2017, 25-64 year-olds with a tertiary degree with income from full-time, full-year employment earned 39% more than full-time, full-year workers with upper secondary education compared to 54% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2017, Canada invested a total of USD 14 428 per student on primary to tertiary institutions compared to USD 11 231 on average across OECD countries. This represents 5.9% of GDP, compared to 4.9% on average across OECD countries.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

    Show indicators for which your country ranks among the top or bottom: Sort by:

    Educational outcomes

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.4 %, rank 27/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at upper secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 %, rank 36/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.1 %, rank 30/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.1 %, rank 26/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26.5 %, rank 5/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24.4 %, rank 1/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25.6 %, rank 2/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from vocational programmes in Canada is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (32.9 Years, rank 2/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates younger than 30 is relatively high. (90.6 %, rank 10/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the percentage of first-time master's graduates younger than 35 is relatively low. (77.6 %, rank 23/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.7 %, rank 31/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Canada has one of the smallest share of women among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (31.3 %, rank 34/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Canada has one of the smallest share of women among 55-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (31.5 %, rank 33/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate among 15-19 year-olds in Canada is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (77 %, rank 33/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.7 %, rank 40/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 40-64 year-olds in Canada is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.7 %, rank 30/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation expectancy

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree before the age of 35 is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (8.3 %, rank 25/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.7 %, rank 40/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law in Canada is relatively small. (4.4 %, rank 36/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    In Canada, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law is relatively high. (51.7 %, rank 8/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively low. (23.9 %, rank 37/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Adult learning

    In Canada, the proportion of employed adults participating in non-formal education and training is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (64.1 %, rank 9/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in non-formal education and training is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (76.5 %, rank 8/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in non-formal education and training is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (79.8 %, rank 7/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively high. (53.6 %, rank 9/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (36 %, rank 10/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over of 249 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (67 %, rank 10/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (2.9 %, rank 22/27 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (4.8 %, rank 31/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is is relatively low in Canada. (1.6 %, rank 12/15 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the number of annual hours of participation of adults with upper secondary or post-secondary education in non-formal education and training is comparatively high (114.5 %, rank 7/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies among all national tertiary students in Canada is relatively low. (3.3 %, rank 31/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Canada has one of the largest proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.8 %, rank 7/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Canada is one of the most attractive destinations to foreign students compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (4 %, rank 7/81 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the number of international or foreign students per national student abroad is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5 Students, rank 9/46 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of education among all international or foreign tertiary students in Canada is relatively low. (1.2 %, rank 33/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all international or foreign tertiary students in Canada is relatively high. (29.5 %, rank 9/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics among all international or foreign tertiary students in Canada is relatively high. (12.3 %, rank 6/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all international or foreign tertiary students in Canada is relatively high. (19.4 %, rank 10/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of health and welfare among all international or foreign tertiary students in Canada is relatively low. (4.9 %, rank 30/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of services among all international or foreign tertiary students in Canada is relatively low. (0.7 %, rank 29/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    In Canada, total public expenditure on secondary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (2.9 %, rank 41/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Between 2012 and 2017, the average annual growth rate in total expenditure on educational institutions from primary to tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.6 %, rank 24/31 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24671 USD Equivalent, rank 5/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14428 USD Equivalent, rank 6/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13891 USD Equivalent, rank 6/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Canada, between 2012 and 2017, the average annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student from primary to tertiary education is one the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-0.2 %, rank 26/30 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average annual growth rate of total expenditure per full-time equivalent student in tertiary education between 2012 and 2017 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-1.1 %, rank 23/31 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Canada, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies. (5.9 %, rank 8/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Canada, expenditure on secondary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (1.4 %, rank 34/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Canada, expenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (2.3 %, rank 3/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Canada, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (1.4 %, rank 7/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46.1 %, rank 8/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Canada has one of the largest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (23.6 %, rank 10/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for tertiary education is comparatively small. (53.9 %, rank 30/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively small. (76.4 %, rank 27/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Tuition fees

    The estimated average annual tuitions fees charged by public institutions, for foreign students in master's or equivalent level in Canada is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13552 USD Equivalent, rank 4/5 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2007/2008, in 2017/2018 the amount of tuition fees at masters' or equivalent level are relatively high. (107 Index, rank 7/9 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (49.3 %, rank 7/39 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (26.6 %, rank 31/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (26.6 %, rank 27/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (62381 USD Equivalent, rank 5/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (70698 USD Equivalent, rank 4/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (62381 USD Equivalent, rank 10/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (60097 USD Equivalent, rank 6/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (85 %, rank 34/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (88.3 %, rank 7/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64, with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the largest in Canada, compared to other OECD countries. (55.1 %, rank 4/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the smallest in Canada, compared to other OECD countries. (10.3 %, rank 35/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the smallest in Canada, compared to other OECD countries. (11.5 %, rank 36/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the largest in Canada, compared to other OECD countries. (55.5 %, rank 3/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the smallest in Canada, compared to OECD countries. (11.2 %, rank 36/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with below upper secondary education is high in Canada. (35.7 %, rank 10/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively Canada. (7.3 %, rank 28/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (3.5 %, rank 26/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (47.1 %, rank 22/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (23.7 %, rank 20/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (63.8 %, rank 25/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (43.5 %, rank 23/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (69.1 %, rank 27/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (50.4 %, rank 27/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (35 %, rank 22/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (66.9 %, rank 34/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary education or post-secondary non-tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (69.4 %, rank 33/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (75.2 %, rank 34/37 , 2017) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
                            
    • While 37% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are in vocational programmes, the share increases to 61% among students over 25.
    • The most popular fields of study among vocational graduates vary at different levels of education. While engineering, manufacturing and construction is the most common broad field at upper secondary level, at short-cycle tertiary level, most students graduate from business, administration and law, or health and welfare.
    • Combined school and work-based learning can help students transition smootly into the labor market. However, only one -third of all upper secondary vocational students are enrolled in school and work-based programmes on average across OECD countries.
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    • Between the age of 3 to 5, 88% of children are enrolled in pre-primary and primary education, on average across OECD countries.
    • The estimated expenditure on all children aged 3 to 5 enrolled in ECEC and primary education amounts to an average of 0.6% of GDP. Only in Iceland and Norway does it equal or exceed 1.0%.
    • The ECEC workforce is at the heart of high-quality education. On average across OECD countries, there are 14 children for every teacher working in pre-primary education (ISCED 02).
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    • In 2019, 45% of 25-34 year-olds held a tertiary degree, compared to 28% among 55-64 year-olds, on average across OECD countries.
    • On average across OECD countries, 17% of first-time tertiary entrants enter short-cycle tertiary programmes. The employment rate of adults with a short-cycle tertiary degree is 4 percentage points higher than those with an upper secondary vocational attainment and they earn 16% more, on average across OECD countries.
    • Based on current patterns, it is estimated that 38% of young adults across OECD countries will graduate from tertiary education for the first time before the age of 30 (excluding international students).
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    • In 2017, total expenditure amounted to approximately USD 9 100 per student in primary institutions and USD 10 500 in secondary institutions on average across OECD countries.
    • After increasing between 2005 and 2012, total expenditure on primary to tertiary institutions as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) has fallen to 4.9% in 2017 on average, below its 2005 value of 5.1%. This is due to educational expenditure rising more slowly than GDP over this period, growing by 17% while GDP grew by 27%.
    • Private sources financed more than 30% of the expenditure, on average, at tertiary level compared to 10% at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level.
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    • There are relatively few young teachers (under the age of 30), and the proportion decreases with the level of education. Young teachers make up 12% of the teaching population in primary education, 10% in lower secondary education and 8% in upper secondary education, on average across OECD countries.
    • While instruction time for students increases at higher educational levels, statutory teaching time in public institutions decreases: teachers in OECD countries and economies are required to teach on average 778 hours per year at primary level compared to 680 hours at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • Between 2005 and 2019, the statutory salaries of primary and secondary general teachers - with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications - increased by 2-3%, despite salaries falling after the 2008 economic crisis, on average across OECD countries and economies with available data.
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    Key
    Country Reviews for Canada

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.