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Canada
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In Canada, the total compulsory instruction time over the course of primary and lower secondary education is higher than the OECD average, at 8 305 hours, distributed over nine grades.
  • In Canada, 54% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education. A further 19% are enrolled in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • In Canada,30% of 25-34 year-olds have a vocational education and training (VET) qualification as their highest level of attainment: 9% at post-secondary non-tertiary level and 21% at short-cycle tertiary level.
  • Although an upper secondary qualification is often the minimum attainment needed for successful labour-market participation,5% of 25-34 year-olds in Canada have not attained an upper secondary qualification, lower than the OECD average (14%).
  • In Canada,25-34 year-old workers with bachelor's attainment earn 62% more than their peers without upper secondary attainment, while those with master's or doctoral attainment earn 76% more.
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, Canada spends USD 15 443 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647. Expenditure per student is equivalent to 32% of per capita GDP, which is above the OECD average of 27%.
  • On average,annual statutory salaries for upper secondary teachers in general programmes with the most prevalent qualification and 15 years of experience are USD 53 456 across the OECD. In Canada, the corresponding salary adjusted for purchasing power is USD 72 734, which is equivalent to CAD 96 464.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.7 %, rank 43/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.3 %, rank 39/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.8 %, rank 42/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (62.7 %, rank 1/46 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (67 %, rank 2/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (53.2 %, rank 1/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.8 %, rank 31/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.2 %, rank 33/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a general upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.7 %, rank 9/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.5 %, rank 32/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24.3 %, rank 1/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a general degree at the tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56 %, rank 1/46 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a general degree at the tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (69.5 %, rank 1/46 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (94 %, rank 3/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96.6 %, rank 2/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (58.4 %, rank 4/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (75.8 %, rank 2/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men who attained below upper secondary education in Canada is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women who attained below upper secondary education in Canada is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.4 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old men who attained below upper secondary education in Canada is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.1 %, rank 41/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained below upper secondary education in Canada is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.6 %, rank 44/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women who attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Canada is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.7 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Canada has one of the smallest share of women among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (28.9 %, rank 36/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Canada has one of the smallest share of women among 55-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (34 %, rank 36/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained a short cycle tertiary degree is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (27 %, rank 1/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained a short cycle tertiary degree is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (21.7 %, rank 1/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Canada is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (5 %, rank 33/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Canada is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (11.9 %, rank 31/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate among 15-19 year-olds in Canada is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (74.7 %, rank 34/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.6 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in public tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 15-19-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2 %, rank 42/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 17 in general upper secondary programmes in Canada is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (73.3 %, rank 10/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 17 in tertiary programmes in Canada is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.6 %, rank 2/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 tertiary programmes in Canada is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.1 %, rank 6/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 tertiary programmes in Canada is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.9 %, rank 7/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 tertiary programmes in Canada is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.6 %, rank 6/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes in Canada is relatively high compared to the other countries. (25.7 %, rank 6/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of vocational students as a share of short-cycle tertiary students is among the largest in all OECD and partner countries. (100 %, rank 1/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Canada has a share of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion with access to tertiary education that is higher than other OECD and partner countries; (100 %, rank 1/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in upper secondary general programmes in Canada is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54.5 %, rank 3/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in short-cycle tertiary programmes in Canada is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.1 %, rank 5/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in short-cycle tertiary programmes in Canada is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.3 %, rank 6/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in primary education in Canada is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 6/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of six-year-olds in ECEC in Canada is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 74/83 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The average age of graduates from vocational programmes at the upper secondary level in Canada is comparatively high. (34 Years, rank 2/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at upper secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.2 %, rank 38/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the percentage of bachelor's or equivalent graduates in public institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the percentage of master's or equivalent graduates in public institutions is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of long first degree master's graduates in public institutions is relatively high in Canada. (100 %, rank 1/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctorate graduates in public institutions is relatively high in Canada. (100 %, rank 1/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (52.8 %, rank 7/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.2 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.1 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humaties in Canada is relatively small. (8.1 %, rank 35/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law in Canada is relatively small. (4.6 %, rank 37/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Canada is relatively large. (26.3 %, rank 9/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of health and welfare in Canada is relatively small. (10.1 %, rank 36/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of STEM is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27.1 %, rank 10/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (7.2 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively low. (25.1 %, rank 35/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the share of female tertiary graduates in the field of sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.9 %, rank 10/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of education is relatively low in Canada. (2.6 %, rank 35/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively low in Canada. (5.6 %, rank 36/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (23.1 %, rank 38/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of health and welfare is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (83.6 %, rank 7/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Completion rates

    A relatively high share of upper secondary students complete their studies within the theoretical programme duration. (80.5 %, rank 5/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    A relatively high share of upper secondary students complete their studies up to two years later than the theoretical programme duration. (88.7 %, rank 5/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Canada has one of the largest proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.4 %, rank 6/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, international or foreign students from Asia are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (73.4 %, rank 6/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, international or foreign students from Oceania are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.9 %, rank 2/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in bachelor's programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14 %, rank 4/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.7 %, rank 2/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the percentage of international or foreign students coming from neighbouring countries is comparatively low . (3 Students, rank 42/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of education among all international or foreign tertiary students in Canada is relatively low. (0.8 %, rank 33/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of arts and humanities among all international or foreign tertiary students in Canada is relatively low. (7 %, rank 31/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all international or foreign tertiary students in Canada is relatively high. (28.2 %, rank 9/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics among all international or foreign tertiary students in Canada is relatively high. (13.4 %, rank 6/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies among all international or foreign tertiary students in Canada is relatively high. (6.6 %, rank 10/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of health and welfare among all international or foreign tertiary students in Canada is relatively low. (5.5 %, rank 32/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.9 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.9 %, rank 29/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30 %, rank 10/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (36.7 %, rank 4/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the share of students enrolled in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary among all international or foreign tertiary students is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (0.8 %, rank 28/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24363 USD Equivalent, rank 6/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on tertiary education in Canada is comparatively high. (23604 USD Equivalent, rank 3/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary to tertiary education in Canada is comparatively high. (14848 USD Equivalent, rank 5/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student in primary to tertiary education is one the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14195 USD Equivalent, rank 3/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the total annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22394 USD Equivalent 2015, rank 4/22 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Canada, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies. (6 %, rank 9/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Canada, expenditure on primary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (2.3 %, rank 4/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Canada, expenditure on secondary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (1.3 %, rank 37/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Canada, expenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (2.4 %, rank 3/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Canada, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (1.4 %, rank 6/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Canada, expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP for tertiary education is high compared to 2015. (112 Index, rank 5/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Canada, expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP for primary to tertiary education is high compared to 2015. (107 Index, rank 10/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Government and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48.7 %, rank 8/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Canada has one of the largest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (23.8 %, rank 8/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Canada, total public expenditure on primary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively high. (4.1 %, rank 10/46 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Canada, total public expenditure on secondary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (2.3 %, rank 44/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for tertiary education is comparatively small in Canada. (51 %, rank 33/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively small. (76.1 %, rank 32/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2015, the share of total government expenditure is comparatively highest in Canada. (136 Index, rank 7/49 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In Canada, the share of capital expenditure on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.9 %, rank 26/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the share of current expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (93.1 %, rank 10/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (75 %, rank 4/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (49.5 %, rank 9/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially high. (61.7 %, rank 7/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (27.9 %, rank 30/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the share of female teachers younger than 30 in tertiary education is relatively large. (57.1 %, rank 6/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Females aged 50 or more represent a small proportion of teachers in primary education in Canada. (69.9 %, rank 37/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the share of bachelor's, master's and doctoral level teachers aged between 30 and 49 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (44.2 %, rank 30/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the share of tertiary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (45.3 %, rank 31/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the share of tertiary teachers older than 50 is relatively high, compared to other countries with data available. (49.4 %, rank 5/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64384 USD Equivalent, rank 5/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (72734 USD Equivalent, rank 4/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (72734 USD Equivalent, rank 4/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (72734 USD Equivalent, rank 4/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (61469 USD Equivalent, rank 6/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (61469 USD Equivalent, rank 6/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers longer to progress through the salary scale in Canada compared to other OECD and partner countries. (10.6 Years, rank 7/10 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    In Canada, the number of students per teacher in public bachelor's, master's, doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the highest among countries with available data. (21.3 Ratio, rank 4/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary students in Canada is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5531 Hours, rank 8/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary and lower secondary student in Canada is among the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8305 Hours, rank 8/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Canada, compulsory instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (922 Hours, rank 9/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (86.8 %, rank 31/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (88.4 %, rank 7/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively low in Canada. (88 %, rank 32/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is comparatively low. (87 %, rank 38/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high (81.5 %, rank 10/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64, with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the largest in Canada, compared to other OECD countries. (45.6 %, rank 3/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the smallest in Canada, compared to other OECD countries. (21.1 %, rank 31/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the smallest in Canada, compared to other OECD countries. (18.4 %, rank 33/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the largest in Canada, compared to other OECD countries. (46.2 %, rank 3/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the smallest in Canada, compared to OECD countries. (18.5 %, rank 34/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively high in Canada. (4 %, rank 10/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (4.5 %, rank 25/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    In Canada, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (7.3 %, rank 32/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (8.4 %, rank 10/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (10.2 %, rank 8/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (13.3 %, rank 9/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity by gender and educational attainment

    In Canada, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (16.3 %, rank 7/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (14.6 %, rank 26/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (4.4 %, rank 27/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is relatively high. (6.8 %, rank 10/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is relatively high. (9.7 %, rank 3/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (37.2 %, rank 29/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (28.6 %, rank 26/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (51.3 %, rank 30/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (37.7 %, rank 29/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (62.3 %, rank 29/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (45.4 %, rank 25/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (43.7 %, rank 30/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (30.3 %, rank 28/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (134 Index, rank 34/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full and part-time workers with tertiary education are comparatively low. (141.6 %, rank 32/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the proportion of young 25-34 year-old adults with post-secondary non-tertiary education, is relatively high compared to OECD and other members with available data (129.3 %, rank 1/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the proportion of young 25-34 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent attainment earnings is relatively high compared to OECD and other members with available data (141 %, rank 9/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers without an upper secondary education earning more than twice the overall median in Canada is one of the highest among countries with available data. (5.1 %, rank 6/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers without an upper secondary education earning at or below half the overall median in Canada is one of the highest among countries with available data. (41.5 %, rank 6/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Canada. (137 Index, rank 8/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Canada. (149 Index, rank 3/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Canada. (142 Index, rank 4/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Canada. (150 Index, rank 3/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education earning more than twice the overall median in Canada is one of the highest among countries with available data. (11.6 %, rank 5/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education earning at or below half the overall median in Canada is one of the highest among countries with available data. (32.6 %, rank 2/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with tertiary education earning at or below half the overall median in Canada is one of the highest among countries with available data. (25.8 %, rank 1/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with bachelor's or equivalent attainment compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Canada. (198 Index, rank 10/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (72.6 %, rank 33/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary education or post-secondary non-tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (73.4 %, rank 33/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women (as a percentage of men's earnings) among full- and part-time 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (60.2 %, rank 37/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary education or post-secondary non-tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the low among countries with available data. (71.2 %, rank 38/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds without an upper secondary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (69.9 %, rank 26/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (74.5 %, rank 19/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (56 %, rank 29/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (62.8 %, rank 28/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (67.5 %, rank 25/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (72 %, rank 32/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Canada is relatively high (18.7 %, rank 4/29 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Canada is relatively low. (12.7 %, rank 22/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Canada is relatively high. (16.2 %, rank 8/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women who are inactive NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Canada is relatively low. (6.4 %, rank 35/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women who are inactive NEET (18-24 year-olds) in Canada is relatively low. (5.2 %, rank 36/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of inactive NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Canada is relatively low. (6.5 %, rank 33/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the share of women neither employed nor in education among 15-29 year-olds is relatively low. (9.8 %, rank 35/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Canada, the share of adults with below upper secondary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.3 %, rank 3/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the share of Internet users without an upper secondary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.1 %, rank 1/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the share of Internet users with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (69.4 %, rank 1/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Canada, the share of Internet users with tertiary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (82.2 %, rank 1/26 , 2021) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Canada

    Click on the coverpage to see the full OECD iLibrary version
    Key
    Country Reviews for Canada

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.