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Brazil
Student performance (PISA 2022)
  • In mathematics, the main topic of PISA 2022, 15-year-olds in score 379 points compared to an average of 472 points in OECD countries.
  • On average, 15-year-olds score 410 points in reading compared to an average of 476 points in OECD countries.
  • In Brazil, the average performance in science of 15-year-olds is 403 points, compared to an average of 485 points in OECD countries.
  • Results in PISA have been remarkably stable over a long period of time: after 2009, in all three subjects, only small and mostly non-significant fluctuations were observed.
  • Compared to 2012 the proportion of students scoring below a baseline level of proficiency (Level 2) increased by five percentage points in mathematics; did not change significantly in reading; and did not change significantly in science.
  • The trend is more positive when the expansion of secondary education to previously marginalised populations is also considered. The proportion of 15-year-olds performing above the baseline in mathematics (i.e., at Level 2 or above) increased from 14% in 2003 to 20% in 2022; over the same period, the proportion of 15-year-olds not represented among the students who sat the PISA test decreased from 45% to 24%.
  • In Brazil, 27% of students attained at least Level 2 proficiency in mathematics, significantly less than on average across OECD countries (OECD average: 69%). At a minimum, these students can interpret and recognize, without direct instructions, how a simple situation can be represented mathematically.
  • Some 1% of students in Brazil were top performers in mathematics, meaning that they attained Level 5 or 6 in the PISA mathematics test (OECD average: 9%). At these levels, students can model complex situations mathematically, and can select, compare and evaluate appropriate problem-solving strategies for dealing with them.
  • In Brazil socio-economically advantaged students (the top 25% in terms of socio-economic status) outperformed disadvantaged students (the bottom 25%) by 77 score points in mathematics. This is smaller than the average difference between the two groups (93 score points) across OECD countries.
  • Some 10% of disadvantaged students in Brazil were able to score in the top quarter of mathematics performance, the same percentage as in the OECD average. These students can be considered academically resilient.
  • Boys outperformed girls in mathematics by 8 score points; girls outperformed boys in reading by 17 score points in Brazil. Globally, in mathematics, boys outperformed girls in 40 countries and economies, girls outperformed boys in another 17 countries or economies. In reading, girls, on average, scored above boys in all but two countries and economies that participated in PISA 2022 (79 out of 81).
  • In Brazil, 74% of students reported that their school building was closed for more than three months due to COVID-19. On average across OECD countries, 51% of students experienced similarly long school closures. In education systems where performance remained high and students' sense of belonging improved, fewer students experienced longer school closures.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Participation in education

    Brazil registered one of the smallest changes between 2018 and 2022 in the percentage of students who had repeated a grade at least once in primary, lower secondary or upper secondary school. (-12 %, rank 38/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    School climate

    The disciplinary climate in language-of-instruction lessons is one of the worse compared to other countries and economies. (-0.34 PISA Index, rank 78/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The change between PISA 2018 and PISA 2022 in the percentage of students who reported that they skipped some classes at least once in the two weeks prior to the PISA test is smaller in Brazil than in other OECD and partner countries/economies. (-31 % points, rank 61/62 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Sense of belonging at school

    The difference in the index of sense of belonging between students in the top quarter of PISA economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) index and those in the bottom quarter of ESCS is one of the largest among PISA-participating countries and economies. (0.31 PISA Index, rank 5/73 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Performance and diversity

    After accounting for socio-economic status, the difference in mathematics performance between non-immigrant and immigrant students is one of the largest among PISA-participating countries and economies, in favour of immigrants. (-65 PISA Score, rank 29/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The difference in mathematics performance between students enrolled in general or modular programmes and those in pre-vocational or vocational programmes is relatively small in Brazil, before accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile. (-34 PISA Score points, rank 40/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The difference in mathematics performance between students enrolled in general or modular programmes and those in pre-vocational or vocational programmes is relatively small in Brazil, after accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile. (-27 PISA Score points, rank 37/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    In Brazil, there is a small number of computers per student, compared to other countries and economies participating in PISA. (0.18 Ratio, rank 78/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in schools attended by 15-year-olds is comparatively high in Brazil. (25.7 Ratio, rank 5/80 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Between 2018 and 2022, the change in the student to teacher ratio in Brazil was relatively smaller than in other OECD and partner countries/economies. (-3.04 Ratio, rank 34/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Between 2018 and 2022, Brazil recorded a particularly significant change in the percentage of teachers working full time in schools attended by 15-years-olds, compared to the other OECD and partner countries/economies. (7.9 %, rank 3/27 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Between 2018 and 2022, Brazil recorded a particularly small change in the percentage of teachers working part time in schools attended by 15-years-olds, compared to the other OECD and partner countries/economies. (-7.9 %, rank 24/27 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Governance

    In Brazil, compared to attending a public school, the difference in mathematics performance associated with attendance at private schools is among the largest of the OECD and partner countries/economies, before accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile. (91 PISA Score points, rank 2/48 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Brazil, the educational leadership is particularly developed compared to the other OECD and partner countries/economies. (0.99 PISA Index, rank 3/75 , 2022) Download Indicator

    COVID-19 effects on education

    Compared to other OECD and partner countries/economies, students in Brazil had a relatively bad experience with learning at home. (-0.17 PISA Index, rank 67/71 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Brazil ranked among the countries where students reported a relatively low feeling of confidence in their capacity for self-directed learning, compared to the other OECD and partner countries/economies. (-0.39 PISA Index, rank 75/76 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The difference between boys and girls in the confidence they have on their capacity to drive self-directed learning is one of the largest among countries participating in PISA (0.11 PISA Index, rank 2/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Brazil, mathematics performance has one of the weakest increases assotiated to a one-unit increase in the index of confidence in capacity for self-directed learning (before accounting for students' and schools' socio-economic profile) (4 PISA Score points, rank 72/73 , 2022) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
    
    • Singapore scored significantly higher than all other countries/economies in mathematics (575 points) and, along with Hong Kong (China), Japan, Korea, Macao (China), and Chinese Taipei, outperformed all other countries and economies in mathematics. Another 17 countries also performed above the OECD average (472 points), ranging from Estonia (510 points) to New Zealand (479 points).
    • Boys outperformed girls in mathematics by nine score points and girls outperformed boys in reading by 24 score points on average across OECD countries. In science, the performance difference between boys and girls is not significant.
    • An average of 69% of students are at least basically proficient in mathematics in OECD countries. This means they are beginning to demonstrate the ability and initiative to use mathematics in simple real-life situations.
    • In 16 out of 81 countries/economies participating in PISA 2022, more than 10% of students attained Level 5 or 6 proficiency, meaning they are high-performing: they understand that a problem is quantitative in nature and can formulate complex mathematical models to solve it. By contrast, less than 5% of students are high-performing in 42 countries/economies.
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    • Singapore scored significantly higher than all other countries/economies in reading (543 points) and science (561 points). Behind Singapore, Ireland performed as well as Estonia, Japan, Korea and Chinese Taipei while another 14 education systems performed above the OECD average in reading (476 points), ranging from Macao (China) (510 points) to Italy (482 points).
    • About three out of four students have achieved basic proficiency in reading in OECD countries.
    • In reading, an OECD average of 7% of students attained the highest proficiency levels of 5 or 6. In 13 countries/economies, more than 10% of students are top performers in reading.
    • No change in the OECD average over consecutive PISA assessments up to 2018 has ever exceeded five points in reading: in PISA 2022, however, the OECD average dropped by about 10 score points in reading compared to PISA 2018.. The unprecedented drops reading point to the shock effect of COVID-19 on most countries.
    • Only four countries and economies improved their performance between PISA 2018 and 2022 in all three subjects: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, the Dominican Republic and Chinese Taipei.
    • Trend analysis of PISA results reveals a decades-long decline that began well before the pandemic. In reading, performances peaked in 2012 and 2009, respectively, before dipping while performance began a downward descent in mathematics before 2018 in Australia, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Iceland, Korea, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Slovak Republic and Switzerland.
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    • Mean performance in science remained stable.
    • In science, the highest-performing education systems are Singapore, Japan, Macao (China), Chinese Taipei, Korea, Estonia, Hong Kong (China) and Canada. Finland performed as well as Canada in science. In addition to these nine countries and economies, another 15 education systems also performed above the OECD average in science (485 points), ranging from Australia (507 points) to Belgium (491 points).
    • About three out of four students have achieved basic proficiency science in OECD countries.
    • In science, an OECD average of 7% of students attained the highest proficiency levels of 5 or 6. In 14 countries/economies, more than 10% of students are top performers in science.
    • Only four countries and economies improved their performance between PISA 2018 and 2022 in all three subjects: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, the Dominican Republic and Chinese Taipei.
    • Trend analysis of PISA results reveals a decades-long decline that began well before the pandemic. In science, performances peaked in 2012 and 2009, respectively, before dipping. while performance began a downward descent in mathematics before 2018 in Australia, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Iceland, Korea, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Slovak Republic and Switzerland.
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    • Socio-economically advantaged students scored 93 points more in mathematics than disadvantaged students on average across OECD countries. The performance gap attributed to students' socio-economic status is greater than 93 score points in 22 countries or economies and 50 points or fewer in 13 countries or economies.
    • Boys outperformed girls in mathematics by nine score points and girls outperformed boys in reading by 24 score points on average across OECD countries. In science, the performance difference between boys and girls is not significant.
    • Non-immigrant students scored 29 points more than immigrant students in mathematics on average across OECD countries but non-immigrant students scored only five points more than immigrant students once socio-economic status and language spoken at home had been accounted for.
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    • Between 2018 and 2022 trends in students' sense of belonging at school were mixed, with equal proportions of countries/economies showing stable, improving or deteriorating trends. Of the 47 education systems with improving or stable trends, only 20 maintained or attained a level of students' sense of belonging at school that was at or above the OECD average. 
    • Around 10% of students reported feeling unsafe on their way to or from school, or in places outside of the classroom, on average across OECD countries. Some 20% of students reported that they are bullied at least a few times a month.
    • Overall, students felt more confident about using digital technology for learning remotely during future school closures than they felt about taking responsibility for their own learning. For instance, on average across OECD countries, about three out of four students reported that they feel confident or very confident about using a learning-management system, a school learning platform or a video communication program, as well as about finding learning resources online on their own.
    • Students' experience with learning at home was more positive in systems that were better prepared for remote learning. However, when learning remotely, 40% of all students reported feeling lonely and 50% of all students reported feeling anxious about schoolwork and that they fell behind in their studies; and three in ten students reported that teachers were not available when needed, on average across OECD countries. 
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Brazil

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Brazil

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.