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Diagram of the education system

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  • Diagram of education system in country language


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  • > Notes on the education system in Australia
    Education system in Australia

    Australia
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2020)
  • On average, 49% of all upper secondary students enrol in VET programmes in Australia, a higher proportion than the OECD average of 42%.
  • In 2019, 52% of 25-34 year-olds had a tertiary degree in Australia compared to 45% on average across OECD countries.
  • In Australia, in 2018, 25-64 year-olds with a tertiary degree with income from full-time, full-year employment earned 25% more than full-time, full-year workers with upper secondary education compared to 54% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2017, Australia invested a total of USD 13 272 per student on primary to tertiary institutions compared to USD 11 231 on average across OECD countries. This represents 6% of GDP, compared to 4.9% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2018, 84% of 3-5 year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education and care programmes and primary education in Australia, compared to 88% on average across OECD countries.
  • Statutory salaries of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of their salary scales are 48% - 48% higher than those of teachers with the minimum qualifications at the start of their career at pre-primary (ISCED 02), primary and general lower and upper secondary levels in Australia compared to 78-80% on average.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    In Australia, the percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (26.5 %, rank 6/46 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (1.3 %, rank 10/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the average age of upper secondary graduates from general programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (35.7 Years, rank 5/23 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from vocational programmes in Australia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (32.2 Years, rank 3/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from general programmes in Australia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (17.2 Years, rank 33/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the percentage of first-time short-cycle tertiary graduates younger than 30 is relatively low. (65.2 %, rank 20/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    In Australia, the share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (23.8 %, rank 6/46 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (29.2 %, rank 5/46 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Australia has one of the smallest share of women among 55-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (33.9 %, rank 31/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of humanities (except languages), social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (6.1 %, rank 25/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (29.1 %, rank 6/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (11.6 %, rank 27/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate of 40-64 year-olds in Australia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 %, rank 1/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the percentage of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes younger than 25 is relatively low. (79.9 %, rank 27/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 15-19-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.8 %, rank 34/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation expectancy

    In Australia, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from a doctoral or equivalent programme before the age of 35 ranks as one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.3 %, rank 9/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Australia has one of the highest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree before the age of 30. (50.1 %, rank 1/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of today's young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree before the age of 35 is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (21.4 %, rank 3/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Australia has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to obtain a master's or an equivalent degree before the age of 30. (6.1 %, rank 25/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates among post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes in Australia is relatively low. (49.6 %, rank 18/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.1 %, rank 8/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6 %, rank 38/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (35.9 %, rank 4/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.8 %, rank 40/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.5 %, rank 8/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21 %, rank 8/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of services is relatively low. (9.6 %, rank 20/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary is relatively low. (0.7 %, rank 41/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Adult learning

    In Australia, the proportion of employed adults participating in non-formal education and training is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (64.5 %, rank 7/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in non-formal education and training is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (81 %, rank 4/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in non-formal education and training is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (82.4 %, rank 5/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively high. (56.6 %, rank 5/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (39.3 %, rank 7/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over of 249 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (72.1 %, rank 3/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (3.4 %, rank 32/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (4 %, rank 31/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (2.7 %, rank 23/27 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (4.1 %, rank 32/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the proportion of employed adults participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (0.7 %, rank 31/33 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the proportion of adults employed in the private sector and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (0.7 %, rank 27/30 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (0.9 %, rank 21/22 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Australia had one of the smallest share of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer. (4.6 %, rank 29/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies among all national tertiary students in Australia is relatively low. (3 %, rank 32/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all national tertiary students in Australia is relatively low. (7.6 %, rank 35/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of services among all national tertiary students in Australia is relatively low. (1.6 %, rank 32/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Australia has one of the largest proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26.5 %, rank 2/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Australia is one of the most attractive destinations to foreign students compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.9 %, rank 3/81 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the number of international or foreign students per national student abroad is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (33 Students, rank 1/46 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the proportion of international graduates among bachelor's first-time graduates is relatively high. (28.1 %, rank 1/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the proportion of international graduates among first-time doctorate graduates is relatively high. (40.5 %, rank 6/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of arts and humanities among all international or foreign tertiary students in Australia is relatively low. (6.4 %, rank 32/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of social sciences, journalism and information among all international or foreign tertiary students in Australia is relatively low. (2.6 %, rank 34/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all international or foreign tertiary students in Australia is relatively high. (48.6 %, rank 1/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics among all international or foreign tertiary students in Australia is relatively low. (4.4 %, rank 28/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of services among all international or foreign tertiary students in Australia is relatively low. (0.6 %, rank 30/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.3 %, rank 29/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    In Australia, the share of capital expediture on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.7 %, rank 8/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the share of current expediture on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (90.3 %, rank 25/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the share of capital expediture on primary through tertiary is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12 %, rank 4/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the share of current expediture on primary through tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (88 %, rank 26/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the share of current expediture on secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (89.7 %, rank 28/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the share of current expediture on post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (91.5 %, rank 13/17 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the share of current expediture on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (84.1 %, rank 28/31 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20436 USD Equivalent, rank 8/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14314 USD Equivalent, rank 5/34 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in Australia is comparatively low. (150 USD Equivalent, rank 24/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary educational services on primary to tertiary education in Australia is comparatively low. (280 USD Equivalent, rank 21/25 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Australia, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies. (6 %, rank 7/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, expenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (2 %, rank 4/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (2 %, rank 3/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The total expenditure on early childhood and care educational institutions, as a percentage of GDP, is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.6 %, rank 20/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.8 %, rank 3/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (63.8 %, rank 5/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Australia has one of the largest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (33.9 %, rank 2/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively small. (81.2 %, rank 34/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for tertiary education is comparatively small. (36.2 %, rank 33/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively small. (66.1 %, rank 34/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, public expenditure on early childhood and care educational institutions from final source of funds is relatively low. (62.8 %, rank 26/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the share of private expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (37.2 %, rank 4/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the share of public expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (82.4 %, rank 26/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the share of public expenditure on primary through tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (73.1 %, rank 25/26 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the share of public expenditure on tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54.8 %, rank 24/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Tuition fees

    The estimated average of annual tuition fees charged by public institutions for foreign students in doctoral programmes is relatively high. (15951 USD Equivalent, rank 1/7 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2007/2008, in 2017/2018 the amount of tuition fees at bachelor's or equivalent level are relatively high. (109 Index, rank 10/13 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary school is especially high. (199 Days, rank 4/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year pre-primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively low in Australia. (624 Hours, rank 25/26 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (65028 USD Equivalent, rank 4/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64926 USD Equivalent, rank 2/27 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.89 Ratio, rank 4/21 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.9 Ratio, rank 7/25 , 2019) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (74 USD Equivalent, rank 6/31 , 2019) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher can expect to have one of the highest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (79 USD Equivalent, rank 10/31 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (60516 USD Equivalent, rank 5/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (65028 USD Equivalent, rank 6/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a pre-primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64926 USD Equivalent, rank 2/27 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 25-34 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is high in Australia. (0.98 Ratio, rank 6/21 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 55-64 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is high in Australia. (0.85 Ratio, rank 6/21 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-34 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the highest in Australia relatively compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (54865 USD Equivalent, rank 2/24 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 55-64 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the highest in Australia. (64408 USD Equivalent, rank 4/24 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially high. (45216 USD Equivalent, rank 5/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (66978 USD Equivalent, rank 9/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (45213 USD Equivalent, rank 6/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (65028 USD Equivalent, rank 5/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (67073 USD Equivalent, rank 9/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Salaries of upper secondary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (67073 USD Equivalent, rank 9/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (64926 USD Equivalent, rank 3/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Salaries of pre-primary teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (66978 USD Equivalent, rank 6/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers less time to progress through the salary scale in Australia compared to other OECD and partner countries. (8 Years, rank 25/26 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.48 Ratio, rank 24/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Principals' salaries

    Lower-secondary school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is high in Australia. (1.67 Ratio, rank 4/21 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The average lower secondary school heads' actual salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (112248 USD Equivalent, rank 1/23 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the average actual salaries of 25-34 year-old lower-secondary school heads is relatively high compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (93603 USD Equivalent, rank 1/16 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 55-64 year-old lower secondary school heads is one of the highest in Australia. (114021 USD Equivalent, rank 1/20 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of lower secondary men school heads aged 25 to 64 is one of the highest in Australia. (112598 USD Equivalent, rank 1/20 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of lower secondary women school heads aged 25 to 64 is one of the highest in Australia. (111642 USD Equivalent, rank 1/20 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Australia, compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1000 Hours, rank 7/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly large in primary schools. (23 Students, rank 6/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Classes in public primary institutions are comparatively large in Australia. (23 Students, rank 9/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively large in Australia. (24 Students, rank 6/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (97.2 %, rank 6/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (78 %, rank 8/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (82.2 %, rank 10/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The earnings of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education. (91 Index, rank 5/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (129 Index, rank 36/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (125 Index, rank 34/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (80.6 %, rank 8/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (104 Index, rank 27/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (142 Index, rank 32/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (143 Index, rank 31/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full and part-time workers with tertiary education are comparatively low. (125 Index, rank 35/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of foreign-born aged between 25 and 64 who work full- and part-time with a short cycle tertiary education are comparatively low. (103 Index, rank 25/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers with a Master's, doctoral or equivalent education degree are comparatively low. (147 Index, rank 30/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Australia, the proportion of adults who reported being interested in politics is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (71.8 %, rank 4/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the proportion of adults without an upper secondary education who reported being interested in politics is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (67.1 %, rank 3/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Australia, the proportion of adults with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who reported being interested in politics is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (70.2 %, rank 4/28 , 2018) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
                            
    • While 37% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are in vocational programmes, the share increases to 61% among students over 25.
    • The most popular fields of study among vocational graduates vary at different levels of education. While engineering, manufacturing and construction is the most common broad field at upper secondary level, at short-cycle tertiary level, most students graduate from business, administration and law, or health and welfare.
    • Combined school and work-based learning can help students transition smootly into the labor market. However, only one -third of all upper secondary vocational students are enrolled in school and work-based programmes on average across OECD countries.
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    • Between the age of 3 to 5, 88% of children are enrolled in pre-primary and primary education, on average across OECD countries.
    • The estimated expenditure on all children aged 3 to 5 enrolled in ECEC and primary education amounts to an average of 0.6% of GDP. Only in Iceland and Norway does it equal or exceed 1.0%.
    • The ECEC workforce is at the heart of high-quality education. On average across OECD countries, there are 14 children for every teacher working in pre-primary education (ISCED 02).
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    • In 2019, 45% of 25-34 year-olds held a tertiary degree, compared to 28% among 55-64 year-olds, on average across OECD countries.
    • On average across OECD countries, 17% of first-time tertiary entrants enter short-cycle tertiary programmes. The employment rate of adults with a short-cycle tertiary degree is 4 percentage points higher than those with an upper secondary vocational attainment and they earn 16% more, on average across OECD countries.
    • Based on current patterns, it is estimated that 38% of young adults across OECD countries will graduate from tertiary education for the first time before the age of 30 (excluding international students).
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    • In 2017, total expenditure amounted to approximately USD 9 100 per student in primary institutions and USD 10 500 in secondary institutions on average across OECD countries.
    • After increasing between 2005 and 2012, total expenditure on primary to tertiary institutions as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) has fallen to 4.9% in 2017 on average, below its 2005 value of 5.1%. This is due to educational expenditure rising more slowly than GDP over this period, growing by 17% while GDP grew by 27%.
    • Private sources financed more than 30% of the expenditure, on average, at tertiary level compared to 10% at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level.
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    • There are relatively few young teachers (under the age of 30), and the proportion decreases with the level of education. Young teachers make up 12% of the teaching population in primary education, 10% in lower secondary education and 8% in upper secondary education, on average across OECD countries.
    • While instruction time for students increases at higher educational levels, statutory teaching time in public institutions decreases: teachers in OECD countries and economies are required to teach on average 778 hours per year at primary level compared to 680 hours at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • Between 2005 and 2019, the statutory salaries of primary and secondary general teachers - with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications - increased by 2-3%, despite salaries falling after the 2008 economic crisis, on average across OECD countries and economies with available data.
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    Key
    Country Reviews for Australia

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Some countries may have provided data refering to another year, to know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.