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Chinese Taipei
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Chinese Taipei
Teachers and teaching conditions, primary to upper secondary education (TALIS 2018)
  • Teaching was the first-choice career for 83% of teachers in Chinese Taipei and for 67% in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS. In terms of why they joined the profession, at least 94% of teachers in Chinese Taipei cite the opportunity to influence children's development or contribute to society as a major motivation.
  • One out of six of teachers (17%) in Chinese Taipei are aged 50 and above (OECD average 34%). This means that Chinese Taipei will have to renew one out of six members of its teaching workforce over the next decade or so.
  • In terms of classroom environments, relations between students and teachers are positive overall, with 97% of teachers in Chinese Taipei agreeing that students and teachers usually get on well with each other. However, 0% of principals report regular acts of intimidation or bullying among their students, which is lower than the OECD average (14%).
  • In Chinese Taipei, 37% of teachers work in schools where at least 10% of the students have a migrant background (OECD average 17%). At the same time, 96% of school leaders report that their teachers believe that children and young people should learn that people of different cultures have a lot in common (OECD average 95%).
  • In Chinese Taipei, 55% of teachers "agree" or "strongly agree" with the statement that their profession is valued in society, which is higher than the average across OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS. (26%).
  • In Chinese Taipei, 10% of teachers report experiencing stress in their work "a lot", which is lower than the OECD average (18%).
  • 18% of teachers report participating in collaborative professional learning at least once a month (OECD average 21%) and 7% engage in team teaching with the same frequency (OECD average 28%).
  • In Chinese Taipei, 5% of teachers report that they had never received feedback in their schools (OECD average 10%). The forms of feedback most commonly used in Chinese Taipei are based on school-based and classroom-based results, observation of the teacher's classroom teaching and self-assessment of the teacher's work.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    School climate

    A small share of principals report that intimidation or bullying among students occurred at least weekly in their school. (0.3 %, rank 48/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    Teachers' age in primary education is relatively old in Chinese Taipei compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (42.6 Years, rank 4/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, the share of teachers aged 50 or above in primary education is comparatively small. (19.1 %, rank 10/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, the teachers in primary education worked a similar number of years in other non-educational roles compared to those lower secondary level. (0.4 Years, rank 1/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, the share of female teachers in primary education is relatively small. (73.1 %, rank 12/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, the share of female teachers is one of the smallest in primary compared to lower secondary education. (4.6 % points, rank 14/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, the percentage of teachers aged 50 and above in upper secondary education is especially low. (23.6 %, rank 9/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In upper secondary education, the total number of years working in other non-educational roles in Chinese Taipei is one of the shortest among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.9 Years, rank 9/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, the number of years teachers worked in other non-educational roles is similar in upper secondary compared to lower secondary level. (0.8 Years, rank 6/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, the difference in the share of female teachers is one of the largest in upper secondary compared to lower secondary education. (-10.2 % points, rank 9/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female teachers in upper secondary level who teaches STEM is one of the smallest in Chinese Taipei among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.8 %, rank 11/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male teachers in upper secondary level who teaches STEM is one of the highest in Chinese Taipei among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (40.3 %, rank 1/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, the share of female teachers who teaches VET at upper secondary level is relatively important . (27.1 %, rank 1/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of male teachers who teaches VET at upper secondary level is relatively important in Chinese Taipei. (30.8 %, rank 1/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Who the principals are

    The proportion of female principals in primary education is one of the smallest in Chinese Taipei. (31.5 %, rank 12/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female principals in upper secondary education is one of the lowest in Chinese Taipei among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.1 %, rank 10/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Initial and induction training of teachers

    A small share of teachers in primary education were instructed on subject content, pedagogy and classroom practice in Chinese Taipei. (72.6 %, rank 13/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers in Chinese Taipei having received instruction on subject content, pedagogy and classroom practice is similar or less in primary compared to lower secondary education. (-6.4 % points, rank 11/11 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of primary education teachers who participated in some kind of induction at their current school is one of the highest in Chinese Taipei among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (42.4 %, rank 4/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, the difference in teachers who participated in some kind of induction at their current school is one of the smallest in upper secondary compared to lower secondary level. (5.3 % points, rank 6/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small share of upper secondary teachers teach reading with training in the subject in Chinese Taipei. (73.7 %, rank 11/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers teaching mathematics with training in the subject is especially low in Chinese Taipei. (67.4 %, rank 11/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In upper secondary education, the percentage of teachers teaching science with training in the subject is especially low in Chinese Taipei. (65.8 %, rank 12/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small share of upper secondary teachers teach social sciences with training in the subject in Chinese Taipei. (69 %, rank 11/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Principals' formal training

    For a large share of principals, school administration or principal training programme or course were included in their formal education or training before taking up position as principal. (55.9 %, rank 4/48 , 2018) Download Indicator

    For a large share of principals, instructional leadership training or course were included in their formal education or training before and after taking up position as principal. (42.9 %, rank 5/47 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Professional development of teachers

    The proportion of primary education teachers who attended at least one professional development activity in the last year is especially large in Chinese Taipei. (97.3 %, rank 4/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of principals in upper secondary education who attended at least one professional development activity in the last year is especially large in Chinese Taipei. (100 %, rank 1/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' practices

    In Chinese Taipei, a low percentage of teachers in primary education who report frequently or always explaining to their students what they expect them to learn. (88 %, rank 10/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the share of teachers who report that they frequently or always ask students to decide on their own procedures for solving complex tasks is especially small in Chinese Taipei. (45.2 %, rank 10/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, a small proportion of teachers in primary education report that maintaining classroom discipline is a source of stress. (31.2 %, rank 11/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of teachers in primary school reporting a high need for professional development in student behavior and classroom management is especially high in Chinese Taipei. (25.2 %, rank 4/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' autonomy, collegiality and collaboration

    A low share of teachers report engaging in team-teaching at least once a month. (7.3 %, rank 46/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, the percentage of teachers who report engaging in collaborative professional learning at least once a month is larger in upper secondary compared to lower secondary education. (3.5 % points, rank 1/7 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, the percentage of upper secondary teachers who report engaging in discussion about the learning development of specific students at least once a month is relatively small. (27.1 %, rank 11/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, the difference in the percentage of teachers who report engaging in discussions about the learning development of specific students is one of the smallest in upper secondary compared to lower secondary education. (-6 % points, rank 3/9 , 2018) Download Indicator

    ICT for teaching

    Chinese Taipei has a smaller share of teachers "frequently" or "always" letting students use ICT for projects or class work. (14.7 %, rank 49/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of teachers in primary education who report that they frequently or always let students use ICT for projects or class work is one of the lowest in Chinese Taipei among all OECD and partner economies with available data. (16.5 %, rank 13/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of primary education principals who report that the delivery of quality instruction is hindered by a shortage of digital technology for instruction is one of the lowest in Chinese Taipei among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (11 %, rank 14/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small share of upper secondary teachers report that they frequently or always let students use ICT for projects or class work in Chinese Taipei. (24.5 %, rank 12/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, a larger share of teachers report that they frequently or always let students use ICT for projects or class work in upper secondary compared to lower secondary education. (9.9 % points, rank 3/10 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, the percentage of upper secondary teachers who report a high need for professional development in using ICT for teaching is relatively . (24.4 %, rank 3/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small proportion of upper secondary principals report that the delivery of quality instruction is hindered by a shortage of teachers with competencies in teaching students with special needs in Chinese Taipei. (6.2 %, rank 10/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teaching students with special needs

    Less school leaders in Chinese Taipei report a shortage of teachers with competence in teaching students with special needs. (4.6 %, rank 49/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, the share of teachers who report a high need for professional development in teaching special needs students is smaller than 5 percentage points in primary compared to lower secondary education. (6.9 % points, rank 6/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small proportion of primary education principals report that the delivery of quality instruction is hindered by a shortage of teachers with competencies in teaching students with special needs in Chinese Taipei. (13.5 %, rank 12/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Modifying lessons for students with special needs is a source of stress for a share of primary education teachers in Chinese Taipei. (8.6 %, rank 14/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teaching in multicultural settings

    Chinese Taipei has a smaller share of teachers feeling they can cope with the challenges of a multicultural classroom "quite a bit" or "a lot" in teaching a culturally diverse class. (34 %, rank 48/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    "Teaching in a multicultural or multilingual setting" was included in a higher proportion of teachers' professional development activities. (43 %, rank 4/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teaching in vocational education and training

    In Chinese Taipei, the percentage of upper secondary teachers in non-VET schools who reported that their initial training included all the areas of content, pedagogy and classroom practice is especially low. (75.4 %, rank 8/11 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of non-VET teachers in upper secondary education who report that they frequently or always ask students to decide on their own procedures for solving complex tasks is relatively small in Chinese Taipei. (37.1 %, rank 10/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Classroom management

    "Student behaviour and classroom management" was included in a higher proportion of teachers' formal education or training. (92.5 %, rank 4/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' self-efficacy

    A smaller proportion of teachers believe that they can help their students to think critically. (70.7 %, rank 45/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' satisfaction with their jobs

    Compared to most other TALIS countries, Chinese Taipei has a high proportion of teachers who are satisfied with the salary they receive for their work. (74.8 %, rank 2/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers who think that the teaching profession is valued by society in primary education is especially high in Chinese Taipei. (52.8 %, rank 4/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, the percentage of teachers who report they are satisfied with their job at primary level is one of the lowest among all OECD and partner countries. (88.5 %, rank 10/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of teachers who report being satisfied with their salary at primary level is especially important in Chinese Taipei. (79.7 %, rank 1/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, teachers reported being more satisfied with their salary in primary compared to lower secondary education. (4.9 % points, rank 1/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, the share of primary education teachers who report being satisfied with the terms of their teaching contract apart from salary is relatively large. (76 %, rank 2/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In primary education, a low percentage of teachers in Chinese Taipei report that they experience a lot of stress in their work. (9.4 %, rank 12/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of primary education teachers for whom having too much administrative work is a source of stress in is especially low in Chinese Taipei. (38.5 %, rank 11/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, there is a large share of upper secondary teachers who think that the teaching profession is valued by society. (59 %, rank 3/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers who report being satisfied with their job is especially low in Chinese Taipei. (86.5 %, rank 11/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary teachers who report that they are satisfied with their salary is one of the largest in Chinese Taipei among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (74.1 %, rank 1/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, a small share of upper secondary teachers report that their school provides staff with opportunities to actively participate in school decisions. (71.2 %, rank 11/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Having too much administrative work is a source of stress for a small share of upper secondary teachers in Chinese Taipei. (38.9 %, rank 9/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' engagement, motivation and drive

    For a large share of teachers, teaching was their fisrt choice as a career. (82.6 %, rank 5/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers’ working conditions, mobility and risk of attrition

    In Chinese Taipei, the proportion of teachers who have a permanent contract in primary education is one of the smallest among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (72.4 %, rank 12/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the percentage of full-time teachers in Chinese Taipei is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (94.3 %, rank 2/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, the proportion of teachers who have a permanent contract in upper secondary education is one of the smallest among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (67.3 %, rank 11/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Chinese Taipei, there is a large share of full-time teachers in upper secondary level. (92.9 %, rank 1/12 , 2018) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
                            
    • Across OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, teachers are 44 years old and principals are 52 years old, on average. Furthermore, 20% of principals across the OECD are aged 60 and above.
    • In the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, 47% of principals are women, compared to 68% of teachers.
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    • In OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, 65% of teachers report frequently calming students who are disruptive and 84% report frequently explaining how new and old topics are related.
    • During a typical lesson, teachers spend 78% of classroom time on actual teaching and learning, on average in the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS.
    • In the past five to ten years, classroom time spent on actual teaching and learning has decreased in about half of the countries and economies participating in TALIS.
    • 84% of teachers report having control over determining course content in their class, on average across in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS.
    • 81% of teachers say that they work in a collaborative school culture characterised by mutual support, on average in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS. Furthermore, 59% of principals took actions on a regular basis to support co-operation among teachers to develop new teaching practices in the 12 months prior to the survey.
    • On average in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, only 21% of teachers report participating in collaborative professional learning at least once a month and 28% engage in team-teaching with the same frequency.
    • About half of teachers in the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS "frequently" or "always" let students use ICT for projects or class work, but 25% of school principals report that delivery of quality instruction in their school is hindered by a shortage or inadequacy of digital technology for instruction.
    • In the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, 27% of teachers work in classes with at least 10% of students with special needs (i.e. those for whom a special learning need has been formally identified because they are mentally, physically, or emotionally disadvantaged). But, 32% of school principals report that delivery of quality instruction in their school is hindered by a shortage of teachers with competence in teaching students with special needs.
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    • During their initial education and training, 79% of teachers in the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS were instructed on subject content, pedagogy and classroom. Only 42% of teachers report having participated in some kind of formal or informal induction when they joined their current school.
    • In the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, taking part in some kind of in-service training is commonplace among teachers and principals, with 94% of teachers and 99% of principals attending at least one professional development activity in the year prior to the survey.
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    • Across OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, 26% of teachers "agree" or "strongly agree" with the statement that their profession is valued in society. Between 2013 and 2018, the percentage of teachers reporting that the profession is valued in society has increased in almost half of the countries and economies with available data.
    • Nine out of ten teachers and 95% of school leaders report that, all in all, they are satisfied with their job, on average in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS.
    • 39% of teachers and 47% of school leaders report being satisfied with their salaries, on average in OECD countries and economies.
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    • Across OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, 82% of teachers have a permanent contract while 12% of teacher are employed on contracts of one year or less.
    • 18% of teachers report experiencing stress in their work "a lot", on average in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS. 49% of teachers report that having too much administrative work is a source of stress they experience at work "quite a bit" or "a lot".
    • A quarter of teachers report that they would like to leave teaching within the next five years, on average across the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS. Furthermore, 14% of teachers age 50 or would like to leave teaching in the next five years.
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    • Only 10% of teachers report that they have never received feedback in their schools. On average across the OECD, the forms of feedback most commonly used are based on classroom observations and students' school-based and classroom-based results.
    • 71% of teachers who received feedback in the 12 months prior to the survey report that it had a positive impact on their teaching practice. In all countries and economies participating in TALIS, teachers who report receiving feedback based on multiple methods are more likely to find that the feedback they received had a positive impact on their teaching.
    • The proportion of teachers who work in schools where appraisal can result in a salary increase or financial bonus is 55% in schools where school management has responsibility over salaries. In schools where school management does not have responsibility over salaries, the proportion is only 30%.
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    • The proportion of female teachers represents over three quarters of the primary teaching force (TALIS average 78%), which is higher than the proportion in lower secondary education of 63%.
    • Less than half of teachers (46% on average) cited receiving formal training in facilitating transitions from early childhood education to primary education. However, a slightly smaller share of teachers (38%) said they felt well or very well prepared in this area.
    • Thirty-seven percent (37%) of teachers report modifying lessons for students with special needs is a source of stress "quite a bit" or "a lot" in primary in contrast to 29% in lower secondary.
    • Teachers in upper secondary education reported being involved in fewer collaborative activities than their peers in lower secondary education. Teaching jointly as a team in the same class shows significant decreases among teachers in upper secondary (5 percentage points difference).
    • Almost a quarter of teachers (23%) in upper secondary education stated they would like to leave teaching in the next five years. Teachers satisfied with their salaries and terms of employment, and who consider the school provides opportunities to engage in discussion and has a collaborative culture are less likely to state they will leave teaching.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Chinese Taipei

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Chinese Taipei

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.