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Türkiye
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Türkiye
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In Türkiye, 34% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education and 25% in vocational upper secondary education. A further 1% are enrolled in lower secondary programmes and 11% in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 23% in vocational upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • In Türkiye,11% of 25-34 year-olds have a vocational education and training (VET) qualification at upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary level as their highest level of attainment.
  • Although an upper secondary qualification is often the minimum attainment needed for successful labour-market participation,33% of 25-34 year-olds in Türkiye have not attained an upper secondary qualification, higher than the OECD average (14%).
  • Workers in Türkiye aged 25-34 with vocational upper secondary attainment earn 30% more than those without upper secondary attainment, whereas the earning advantage for workers with general upper secondary attainment is 20%.
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, Türkiye spends USD 5352 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647. Expenditure per student is equivalent to 19% of per capita GDP, which is below the OECD average of 27%.
  • In Türkiye,18% of teachers in general upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or older, compared to the OECD average of 39%.Teachers in vocational programmes are on average younger than their general programme peers, with 17% aged 50 or above (43% on average across the OECD).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The level of upper secondary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26.4 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25.8 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.7 %, rank 42/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.8 %, rank 42/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 %, rank 32/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.8 %, rank 32/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 31/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The proportion of 45-54 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (37 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30.7 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43.4 %, rank 41/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 35-44 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (45.3 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 45-54 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27.9 %, rank 43/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old women who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.3 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 35-44 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24.1 %, rank 41/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 45-54 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.9 %, rank 43/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.4 %, rank 43/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained below upper secondary education in Türkiye is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56.6 %, rank 5/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men who attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Türkiye is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29.2 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Türkiye is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.6 %, rank 43/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 55-64 year-old men who attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Türkiye is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.8 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 55-64 year-old women who attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Türkiye is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.9 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Türkiye has one of the smallest share of women among 55-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (34.3 %, rank 35/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (1.2 %, rank 31/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (6.5 %, rank 31/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Education expectancy

    In Türkiye, the expected years in education between ages 15 and 29 are comparatively short . (5.8 Years, rank 37/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    For women, the expected years in education between ages 15 and 29 are relatively short in Türkiye. (5.8 Years, rank 39/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    The share of new entrants younger than 25 in bachelor's or equivalent programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (70.8 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the percentage of first-time entrants into tertiary education younger than 25 is relatively low. (68.2 %, rank 33/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of new entrants in tertiary education in Türkiye is comparatively old. (24.3 Years, rank 3/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of women among the new entrants in master's programmes in Türkiye is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (47.7 %, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of first-time entrants in bachelor's programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (48.5 %, rank 32/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of first-time entrants in master's programmes is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (2.2 %, rank 20/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance by field of education and gender

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64.9 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of arts and humanities is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56.1 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.6 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of education is relatively small. (61.1 %, rank 34/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye,the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively small. (61.1 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of health and welfare is relatively small. (31.5 %, rank 32/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (65.4 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in education in Türkiye is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (63.5 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in health and welfare in Türkiye is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (59.5 %, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of men among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (67.1 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of men among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.9 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of men among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66.7 %, rank 38/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (47.2 %, rank 21/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate of 6-14 year-olds in Türkiye is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in Türkiye is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.1 %, rank 80/82 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 3-5 year-old children in early childhood and primary education in Türkiye is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31.7 %, rank 40/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the enrolment rate of children under 3 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 36/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 tertiary programmes in Türkiye is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.2 %, rank 5/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 tertiary programmes in Türkiye is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.6 %, rank 1/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the percentage of students enrolled in private institutions at early childhood educational and development level is comparatively high. (100 %, rank 1/47 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion without access to tertiary education in Türkiye is relatively low compared to the other countries. (1.1 %, rank 28/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (100 %, rank 1/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (56.5 %, rank 4/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Türkiye has a share of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion with access to tertiary education that is higher than other OECD and partner countries; (100 %, rank 1/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary general programmes in Türkiye is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.3 %, rank 5/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in short-cycle tertiary programmes in Türkiye is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.7 %, rank 1/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in pre-primary in Türkiye is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.1 %, rank 79/81 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The average age of graduates from general programmes at the upper secondary level in Türkiye is comparatively high. (23.7 Years, rank 1/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of tertiary graduates younger than 30-years-old is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (75.8 %, rank 29/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates is relatively low in Türkiye. (50.9 %, rank 32/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time master's graduates is relatively low in Türkiye. (2.1 %, rank 23/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of master's or equivalent graduates in Türkiye is among the youngest. (24.4 Years, rank 25/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Türkiye has one of the smallest shares of women graduates from tertiary programmes. (52.7 %, rank 31/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of female first-time bachelor's graduates is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (51.1 %, rank 31/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of female first-time master's graduates is relatively smallest, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (52.1 %, rank 22/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.1 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.2 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.2 %, rank 42/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humaties in Türkiye is relatively large. (15.9 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law in Türkiye is relatively large. (14.4 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of information and communication technologies in Türkiye is relatively small. (0.7 %, rank 40/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.6 %, rank 32/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (34.4 %, rank 1/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.6 %, rank 33/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (6.3 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is relatively low in Türkiye. (22.6 %, rank 43/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries. (49.7 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field health and welfare is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries. (100 %, rank 1/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (64.7 %, rank 43/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (53.5 %, rank 43/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (48.2 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (42.3 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Türkiye, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of education is relatively low. (3.7 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively low. (2.4 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of education among all national tertiary students in Türkiye is relatively low. (3.3 %, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics among all national tertiary students in Türkiye is relatively low. (2.1 %, rank 36/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies among all national tertiary students in Türkiye is relatively low. (2.4 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all national tertiary students in Türkiye is relatively low. (8.8 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively small. (7.8 %, rank 29/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of arts and humanities is relatively high, compared to other countries with available data. (17.5 %, rank 2/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (0.8 %, rank 33/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of new entrants in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics bachelor's programmes is relatively low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.8 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the proportion of new entrants in Information and communication technologies bachelor's programmes is relatively low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.7 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of new entrants in Information and communication tecnologies master's programmes is one of the lowest, compared to other countries with available data. (1.4 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of new entrants in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics bachelor's programmes is relatively low in Türkiye among countries with available data. (18 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Türkiye has a small share of international students graduate from tertiary programmes compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (1.1 %, rank 31/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of international and foreign students enrolled in doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.7 %, rank 37/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, international or foreign students from North America are least represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.5 %, rank 40/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, international or foreign students from Latin America and the Caribbean are least represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.2 %, rank 40/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the proportion of international graduates among bachelor's first-time graduates is relatively low. (1.6 %, rank 31/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the proportion of international graduates among first-time master's graduates is relatively low. (6.1 %, rank 28/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of international or foreign students enrolled in doctoral or equivalent programmes among men is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (8.9 %, rank 36/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of international or foreign students enrolled in doctoral or equivalent programmes among women is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (4.5 %, rank 36/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies among all international or foreign tertiary students in Türkiye is relatively low. (2.4 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all international or foreign tertiary students in Türkiye is relatively high. (23.2 %, rank 3/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of arts and humanities is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.6 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.8 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.4 %, rank 36/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of students enrolled in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics among tertiary students is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (13.3 %, rank 34/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9288 USD Equivalent, rank 37/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5352 USD Equivalent, rank 37/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4108 USD Equivalent, rank 37/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4603 USD Equivalent, rank 37/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7418 USD Equivalent, rank 32/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in Türkiye is comparatively low. (4264 USD Equivalent, rank 36/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on tertiary education in Türkiye is comparatively low. (7260 USD Equivalent, rank 36/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary to tertiary education in Türkiye is comparatively low. (4824 USD Equivalent, rank 36/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary educational services on primary to tertiary education in Türkiye is comparatively low. (178 USD Equivalent, rank 26/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student on research and development for primary to tertiary education in Türkiye is comparatively low. (350 USD Equivalent, rank 31/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the annual expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student in primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education, is relatively low. (4446 USD Equivalent, rank 37/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student in primary to tertiary education is one the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5453 USD Equivalent, rank 20/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent student (2012 to 2020) at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is comparatively high. (1.6 %, rank 3/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, public expenditure from initial source of funds on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education per student is relatively low. (3607 USD Equivalent, rank 38/41 , 2020) Download Indicator

    (4530 USD Equivalent 2015, rank 21/22 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The public expenditure on public educational institutions per full-time equivalent student from primary to tertiary education is relatively lowest in Türkiye. (4299 USD Equivalent, rank 37/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of current expenditure on post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (-3 %, rank 31/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the total annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student on tertiary education is one of the small among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9463 USD Equivalent 2015, rank 19/22 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Türkiye, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (2.4 %, rank 39/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0.8 %, rank 2/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0 %, rank 3/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP for tertiary education is low compared to 2015. (86 Index, rank 32/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP for primary to tertiary education is low compared to 2015. (93 Index, rank 33/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary level is small. (2.4 %, rank 26/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the private expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary level is high. (0.8 %, rank 1/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of private expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is comparatively high in Türkiye. (1.2 %, rank 4/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Government and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.5 %, rank 1/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, total public expenditure on secondary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively high. (5.2 %, rank 5/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively small. (76.2 %, rank 39/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of private expenditure from primary to tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25.7 %, rank 2/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the relative share of public expenditure from initial sources of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (76 %, rank 30/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the relative share of public expenditure from initial source of funds at primary to tertiary education is relatively small. (73.7 %, rank 28/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively low in Türkiye. (521 Hours, rank 31/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively low in Türkiye. (521 Hours, rank 30/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64.1 %, rank 42/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (42.2 %, rank 21/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (58.5 %, rank 36/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially high. (71.1 %, rank 1/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (18.2 %, rank 36/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (6.7 %, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (17.3 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (13.8 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in general upper secondary education in Türkiye is relatively small. (52.7 %, rank 32/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Females aged 50 or more represent a small proportion of teachers in primary education in Türkiye. (47.6 %, rank 40/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in lower secondary education is especially low in Türkiye. (41.4 %, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in upper secondary education is especially low in Türkiye. (36.7 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of tertiary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is relatively high, compared to other countries with data available. (62.6 %, rank 2/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of short-cycle tertiary teachers older than 50 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (15.3 %, rank 22/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of bachelor's, master's and doctoral level teachers older than 50 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (22.1 %, rank 30/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of tertiary teachers older than 50 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (21.2 %, rank 33/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of short-cycle tertiary female teachers older than 50 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (27.7 %, rank 22/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of teachers aged 50 or more in pre-primary education is especially low in Türkiye (3.8 %, rank 36/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the percentage of teachers aged between 30 and 49 in pre-primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (73.8 %, rank 1/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In upper secondary education, the percentage of teachers aged 50 or more is particularly low in Türkiye. (17.9 %, rank 33/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the percentage of upper secondary general education teachers aged between 30 and 49 is relatively high, compared to the other countries with available data. (73.8 %, rank 1/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of upper secondary vocational education teachers aged 50 or more is relatively low, compared to the other countries with available data. (16.7 %, rank 30/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers under 30 in upper secondary vocational education is especially high in Türkiye. (10.4 %, rank 4/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the percentage of teachers aged between 30 and 49 in upper secondary vocational education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (72.9 %, rank 2/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    In Türkiye, the change in statutory lower secondary education teachers' salaries with 15 years of experience, based on most prevalent qualifications at different points in teachers' careers is relatively large. (109 Index, rank 5/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the least rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.09 Ratio, rank 35/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.09 Ratio, rank 28/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.09 Ratio, rank 35/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.09 Ratio, rank 35/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In pre-primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is relatively low. (1.2 Ratio, rank 21/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.2 Ratio, rank 31/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.2 Ratio, rank 31/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In upper secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is relatively low. (1.2 Ratio, rank 31/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in independent private institutions is especially low in Türkiye. (7.9 Ratio, rank 20/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the number of students per teacher in private upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.6 Ratio, rank 37/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the upper secondary level in independent private institutions is especially low in Türkiye. (7.6 Ratio, rank 22/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the number of students per teacher in all private secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.7 Ratio, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the secondary level in independent private institutions is especially low in Türkiye. (7.7 Ratio, rank 23/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the number of students per teacher in public institutions short-cycle tertiary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (42.8 Ratio, rank 3/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the number of students per teacher in private institutions short-cycle tertiary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (34.8 Ratio, rank 2/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Türkiye, total intended instruction time for primary and lower secondary students (in hours per year) is among the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6251 Hours, rank 26/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (73.5 %, rank 44/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (62.5 %, rank 43/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (64.9 %, rank 35/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (75.5 %, rank 43/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (82.8 %, rank 40/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (66.2 %, rank 35/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (59.8 %, rank 38/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is compartively low in Türkiye. (72.2 %, rank 43/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Türkiye. (64.5 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-olds with tertiary education is compartively low in Türkiye. (44.8 %, rank 45/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Türkiye. (34.6 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (69.5 %, rank 35/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (60.9 %, rank 36/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education is comparatively low. (67.5 %, rank 31/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (74.6 %, rank 34/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (67.5 %, rank 37/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (66 %, rank 36/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (61.6 %, rank 38/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (81.1 %, rank 42/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (77.6 %, rank 44/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (70.4 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (63.5 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education is comparatively low. (70.2 %, rank 32/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education is comparatively low. (68.2 %, rank 34/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively low in Türkiye. (79.2 %, rank 38/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is comparatively low. (84.1 %, rank 43/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (30.3 %, rank 43/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (36.4 %, rank 43/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively low. (61.8 %, rank 44/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Türkiye. (26.1 %, rank 43/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is compartively low in Türkiye. (61 %, rank 44/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Türkiye. (37.2 %, rank 43/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-old men with tertiary education is compartively low in Türkiye. (53.7 %, rank 45/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Türkiye. (46.9 %, rank 43/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Türkiye. (19.7 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-old women with tertiary education is compartively low in Türkiye. (28.9 %, rank 44/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Türkiye. (14.9 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low (39.1 %, rank 36/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of employed 25-64 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (36.2 %, rank 38/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of employed 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (36.8 %, rank 36/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in Türkiye compared to other countries with available data. (36 %, rank 38/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by field of education

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of educaton is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (71.1 %, rank 31/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (67.3 %, rank 31/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business, administration and law is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (72.9 %, rank 31/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (72.6 %, rank 31/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of information and communication technologies is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (73.9 %, rank 31/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (78.4 %, rank 30/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health and welfare is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (78.3 %, rank 30/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (76.8 %, rank 29/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (12.7 %, rank 4/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (9.3 %, rank 2/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (9 %, rank 4/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (7.2 %, rank 1/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (1.2 %, rank 17/21 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (7.9 %, rank 4/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (10.5 %, rank 5/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (14 %, rank 5/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively high in Türkiye. (12.5 %, rank 4/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively high in Türkiye. (11.6 %, rank 2/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old with a short cycle tertiary education degree is relatively high in Türkiye. (13.7 %, rank 2/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment by gender and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is compartively high in Türkiye. (10 %, rank 4/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is compartively high in Türkiye. (16 %, rank 3/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (17.3 %, rank 3/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.4 %, rank 2/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.8 %, rank 3/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high in Türkiye. (21.9 %, rank 2/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with tertiary education is high in Türkiye. (17.2 %, rank 5/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (23 %, rank 2/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (29.2 %, rank 5/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (17 %, rank 5/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (10.4 %, rank 5/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a short cycle tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (21.8 %, rank 1/27 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a short cycle tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (26.5 %, rank 2/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (18.9 %, rank 2/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (31.1 %, rank 2/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (33.2 %, rank 1/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (28.1 %, rank 3/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity by gender and educational attainment

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women without an upper secondary education is relatively high. (69.2 %, rank 2/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate 25-64 year-old women without an upper secondary education is relatively high compared to other countries with available data. (66.5 %, rank 1/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (53.9 %, rank 1/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (56.7 %, rank 1/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (52.7 %, rank 1/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (56.8 %, rank 1/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (53.5 %, rank 2/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (56.7 %, rank 2/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is relatively high. (27.4 %, rank 3/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is relatively high. (29.3 %, rank 3/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is relatively high. (9.5 %, rank 4/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Türkiye. (142 Index, rank 4/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    Earnings of women (as a percentage of men's earnings) among full- and part-time 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education are one of the highest among countries with available data. (78.6 %, rank 4/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of inactive youth neither in formal education nor training among 18-24 year-olds in Türkiye is one of the highest among countries with available data. (24.1 %, rank 3/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of unemployed youth neither in formal education nor training among 18-24 year-olds in Türkiye is one of the highest among countries with available data. (9.4 %, rank 5/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Türkiye is relatively high (52 %, rank 1/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Türkiye is relatively high (33.3 %, rank 1/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Türkiye is relatively high (51.3 %, rank 1/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Türkiye is relatively high. (26.8 %, rank 4/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Türkiye is relatively high. (51.6 %, rank 2/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary in Türkiye is relatively high. (30.3 %, rank 3/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women with tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Türkiye is relatively high. (32.5 %, rank 2/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Türkiye is relatively high. (17.5 %, rank 4/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with tertiary education in Türkiye is relatively high. (25.6 %, rank 2/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women who are inactive NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Türkiye is relatively high. (32.9 %, rank 1/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women who are inactive NEET (18-24 year-olds) in Türkiye is relatively high. (37.4 %, rank 1/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are unemployed NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Türkiye is relatively high. (9.4 %, rank 3/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are unemployed NEET (18-24 year-olds) in Türkiye is relatively high. (11.2 %, rank 3/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of inactive NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Türkiye is relatively high. (20.1 %, rank 2/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of youth neither employed nor in education or training among 25-29 year-olds in Türkiye is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (33.5 %, rank 2/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of men neither employed nor in education among 15-29 year-olds is relatively high. (17.3 %, rank 4/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the share of women neither employed nor in education among 15-29 year-olds is relatively high. (39 %, rank 2/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Among 15-29 year-olds, the share of youth without an upper secondary or post-secondary non tertiary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training in Türkiye is relatively high. (30.3 %, rank 3/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Türkiye, the proportion of youth with a tertiary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training among 15-29 year-olds is comparatively large. (28.4 %, rank 2/39 , 2021) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Türkiye

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Türkiye

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.