Explore the OECD's reports or draw from a wide variety of education indicators and data to construct your own, customised country reports, highlighting the facts, developments and outcomes of your choice.

Country

Data profiles:



Sweden
Overview of the education system (EAG 2021)
  • In Sweden, men are more likely than women to pursue a vocational track. In 2019, 60% of upper secondary vocational graduates were men, compared to 55% on average across OECD countries.
  • In Sweden, 58% of 25-34 year-old women had a tertiary qualification in 2020 compared to 40% of their male peers.
  • In 2018, Sweden invested a total of USD 13 144 per student on primary to tertiary institutions compared to USD 10 454 on average across OECD countries. This represents 5.5% of GDP, compared to 4.9% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2019, 94% of 3-5 year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education and care programmes and primary education in Sweden, compared to 88% on average across OECD countries.
  • Statutory salaries of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of their salary scales are 17% to 33% higher than those of teachers with the minimum qualifications at the start of their career at pre-primary (ISCED 02), primary and general lower and upper secondary levels in Sweden compared to 86% - 91% on average.
  • Profile View

    Select first some countries to compare, choose the charts you wish to display and customise them.

    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

    Show indicators for which your country ranks among the top or bottom: Sort by:

    Attainment by gender

    Sweden has one of the smallest share of women among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (34.3 %, rank 31/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The percentage of students in independent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.5 %, rank 26/30 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 40-64 year-olds in Sweden is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.9 %, rank 4/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in school- and work-based programmes among all upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.9 %, rank 18/22 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation expectancy

    In Sweden, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from upper secondary education before turning 25 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (70.4 %, rank 31/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Sweden has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree before the age of 30. (18.2 %, rank 30/31 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Sweden has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to obtain a bachelor's or an equivalent degree before the age of 30. (17.7 %, rank 26/27 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Sweden has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education before the age of 30. (28.7 %, rank 22/25 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of men (excluding international students) expected to be first-time graduates from tertiary education before the age of 30 is relatively small. (20.9 %, rank 21/25 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of women (excluding international students) expected to be first-time graduates from tertiary education before the age of 30 is relatively small. (37 %, rank 22/25 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates is relatively low in Sweden. (53.4 %, rank 26/30 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time master's graduates is relatively high in Sweden. (30.7 %, rank 1/23 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at post-secondary non-tertiary level is comparatively small. (93.4 %, rank 20/24 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    In Sweden, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law is relatively high. (59.3 %, rank 3/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of male tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.3 %, rank 41/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively high in Sweden. (11.5 %, rank 3/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by age

    The share of tertiary graduates younger than 30-years-old is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (74.1 %, rank 27/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the average age of first-time tertiary graduates is relatively high. (28.1 Years, rank 2/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the percentage of first-time short-cycle tertiary graduates younger than 30 is relatively low. (57.8 %, rank 23/26 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates younger than 30 is relatively low. (74.4 %, rank 31/31 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.1 %, rank 43/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.1 %, rank 2/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humaties in Sweden is relatively small. (4.4 %, rank 42/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law in Sweden is relatively small. (3.3 %, rank 40/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Sweden is relatively large. (27.3 %, rank 1/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.8 %, rank 30/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary is relatively low. (0.8 %, rank 40/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Sweden, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is relatively low. (16.1 %, rank 34/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all national tertiary students in Sweden is relatively low. (13.7 %, rank 31/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.9 %, rank 33/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all international or foreign tertiary students in Sweden is relatively low. (11.8 %, rank 30/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics among all international or foreign tertiary students in Sweden is relatively high. (13.9 %, rank 4/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all international or foreign tertiary students in Sweden is relatively high. (25.6 %, rank 2/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.3 %, rank 34/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.1 %, rank 34/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Adult learning

    In Sweden, the number of annual hours of participation of adults without an upper secondary education in formal and/or non-formal education and training is comparatively high (201 %, rank 3/24 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Adult participation in non-formal education

    In Sweden, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over of 249 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (71.2 %, rank 4/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (2.7 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (3.4 %, rank 34/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of adults employed in the private sector and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (2.9 %, rank 32/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (2.3 %, rank 36/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26147 USD Equivalent, rank 4/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15290 USD Equivalent, rank 5/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on tertiary education in Sweden is comparatively low. (0 USD Equivalent, rank 24/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14410 USD Equivalent 2015, rank 5/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The public expenditure on public educational institutions per full-time equivalent student at tertiary level is comparatively high in Sweden. (22851 USD Equivalent, rank 5/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24643 USD Equivalent 2015, rank 4/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Sweden, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (5.3 %, rank 4/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (0.2 %, rank 33/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary level is high. (4 %, rank 3/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the international expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to tertiary education is high. (0 USD Equivalent, rank 2/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent student from primary to tertiary education is one of the largest in Sweden among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.1 %, rank 3/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds at primary to tertiary education is relatively high in Sweden. (5.3 %, rank 2/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of private expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is comparatively small in Sweden. (0.2 %, rank 21/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, international expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on tertiary education is relatively large . (0.1 %, rank 4/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    At tertiary level, the public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds is comparatively high in Sweden. (1.3 %, rank 5/27 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.2 %, rank 37/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Sweden has one of the smallest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (3.4 %, rank 34/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively large. (95.3 %, rank 3/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the relative share of public expenditure from initial sources of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.8 %, rank 2/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the relative share of private expenditure from initial sources of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.2 %, rank 25/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the relative share of public expenditure from initial source of funds at primary to tertiary education is relatively high . (95.4 %, rank 3/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the relative share of private expenditure from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is relatively small. (3.3 %, rank 22/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    The share of capital expenditure for primary to tertiary education in Sweden is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.4 %, rank 29/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of current expenditure for primary to tertiary education in Sweden is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (95.6 %, rank 3/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of capital expenditure on tertiary education is relatively in Sweden. (3.7 %, rank 28/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of current expenditure on tertiary education is relatively in Sweden. (96.3 %, rank 4/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (45.4 %, rank 16/20 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers under 30 in lower secondary education is especially low in Sweden. (56.8 %, rank 31/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Females under 30 represent a small proportion of teachers in upper secondary education in Sweden. (52.6 %, rank 34/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.17 Ratio, rank 25/28 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In pre-primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is relatively low. (1.17 Ratio, rank 26/28 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In upper secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is relatively low. (1.31 Ratio, rank 31/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Principals' salaries

    Upper-secondary school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Sweden. (1.18 Ratio, rank 17/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10 Ratio, rank 32/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low in Sweden. (10.1 Ratio, rank 15/19 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the ratio of students to teaching staff in bachelor's and tertiary advanced research programmes is one of the lowest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (10 Ratio, rank 26/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (89.3 %, rank 4/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (89.1 %, rank 4/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (93.1 %, rank 2/41 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (89 %, rank 4/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (87.6 %, rank 1/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (80.9 %, rank 3/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively high. (23.6 %, rank 5/42 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (3.9 %, rank 29/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (7.4 %, rank 29/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (124 Index, rank 35/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (108 Index, rank 25/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (115 Index, rank 31/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (143 Index, rank 30/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (118 Index, rank 31/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (142 Index, rank 32/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (124 Index, rank 31/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full and part-time workers with tertiary education are comparatively low. (123 Index, rank 37/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings of foreign-born aged between 25 and 64 who work full- and part-time with a short cycle tertiary education are comparatively low. (102 Index, rank 26/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers with a Bachelor's or equivalent education are comparatively low. (112 Index, rank 30/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers with a Master's, doctoral or equivalent education degree are comparatively low. (148 Index, rank 30/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (70 %, rank 27/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (125 Index, rank 35/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (85.7 %, rank 4/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of youth neither employed nor in education or training among 25-29 year-olds in Sweden is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.8 %, rank 39/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of youth neither employed nor in education or training among 15-29 year-olds in Sweden is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.6 %, rank 38/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of women neither employed nor in education among 15-29 year-olds is relatively low. (7.6 %, rank 37/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Among 15-29 year-olds, the share of youth without an upper secondary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training in Sweden is relatively low. (8.9 %, rank 35/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Among 15-29 year-olds, the share of youth without an upper secondary or post-secondary non tertiary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training in Sweden is relatively low. (7.5 %, rank 36/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of youth with a tertiary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training among 15-29 year-olds is comparatively small. (4.9 %, rank 36/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Among 25-29 year-olds men in Sweden, a small share of them are neither employed nor in education or training. (7.7 %, rank 37/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the percentage of women neither employed nor in education or training among 20-24 year-olds is relatively low. (9.8 %, rank 36/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of young women neither employed nor in education or training (25-29 year-olds) in Sweden is comparatively low . (9.9 %, rank 38/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 18-24 year-old women neither employed nor in education or training is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (8.6 %, rank 35/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Sweden, the proportion of adults who reported being interested in politics is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (77.3 %, rank 2/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of adults with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who reported being interested in politics is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (73.5 %, rank 3/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Participation in education by gender

    The share of women among tertiary education new entrants is one of the largest compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (57 %, rank 5/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering bachelor's programmes in Sweden is relatively large. (61.8 %, rank 2/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of men (excluding international students) expected to enter bachelor's programmes before the age of 25 is relatively small. (21.7 %, rank 30/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the percentage of men (excluding international students) expected to enter tertiary education before the age of 25 is relatively low. (33.3 %, rank 26/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    The share of new entrants younger than 25 in bachelor's or equivalent programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (67.2 %, rank 37/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the percentage of young people expected to enter in a bachelor's or equivalent programme before the age of 25 is relatively low. (31.1 %, rank 35/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the percentage of young people expected to enter into tertiary education before the age of 25 is relatively low. (45.8 %, rank 28/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the percentage of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes younger than 25 is relatively low. (36.6 %, rank 28/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the percentage of first-time entrants into tertiary education younger than 25 is relatively low. (68.1 %, rank 31/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The average age of new entrants in tertiary education in Sweden is comparatively old. (24.3 Years, rank 3/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of youth (excluding international students) expected to enter bachelor's or equivalent programme before the age of 25 is comparatively low in Sweden. (29.5 %, rank 29/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of youth (excluding international students) expected to enter tertiary education before the age of 25 is comparatively low in Sweden. (41.2 %, rank 26/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of first-time entrants into bachelor's or equivalent programmes before the age of 25 is relatively low. (67.2 %, rank 37/37 , 2019) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
                            
    • One in five adults across the OECD has not attained upper secondary education.
    • In 2020, the unemployment rate of adults that had not completed upper secondary education was almost twice as high as those with higher qualifications, and 27% of these adults earn only at or below half the median on average across OECD countries.
    • In 2019, at least 10% of school-aged youth were not in school in about a quarter of OECD countries.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    
                            
    • In 2019, women made up 55% of new entrants to tertiary education on average. If current patterns continue, it is expected that 46% of young women will graduate with a tertiary degree for the first time before they turn 30, 15 percentage points more than men.
    • Women also earn on average about 76-78% of men’s salaries regardless of educational attainment, although the gender gap narrowed by 2 percentage points between 2013 and 2019.
    • Women are less likely than men to enter a STEM field of study, and the average share remained generally stable between 2013 and 2019.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    
                            
    • On average across countries, expenditure on educational institutions amounted to approximately USD 9 300 per student at pre-primary level; USD 10 500 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non tertiary level; and USD 17 100 at tertiary level.
    • The public sector funds 90% of total expenditure on primary and secondary institutions on average, often compulsory in most OECD countries, compared to 83% at pre-primary level and 66% at tertiary level.
    • In 2018, the OECD countries spent on average 4.9% of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on primary to tertiary educational institutions.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    
                            
    • In 2019, less than 5% of pre-primary teachers were men, compared to 18% at primary level, 40% at upper secondary level and more than 50% at tertiary level on average.
    • Between 2005 and 2020, on average across OECD countries and economies with available data for all reference years, the statutory salaries of teachers with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications increased by 3% at primary level, 4% at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 2% at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • In most countries, teachers above 50 years of age make up more than a third of the teaching force.
    • Attracting male teachers to the profession can be difficult: While the average actual salary of female teachers is equal to or higher than the average salary of other full-time, tertiary-educated women, primary and secondary male teachers earn between 76% and 85% of the average earnings of other full-time, tertiary-educated men.
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    
                            
    • On average across OECD countries, 87% of children aged 3-5 are enrolled in education on average across OECD countries compared to 25% for children below the age of 3.
    • There are 15 children for every teacher at pre-primary level on average across OECD countries.
    • Half of children enrolled in early childhood development services and a two-thirds of pre-primary children attend public institutions on average across OECD countries
    Visualisations
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Click the arrow sign next to the title: arrows to display other variables
    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Sweden

    Click on the coverpage to see the full OECD iLibrary version
    Key
    Country Reviews for Sweden

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.