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Sweden
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In Sweden, 42% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education and 21% in vocational upper secondary education. A further 21% are enrolled in lower secondary programmes and 4% in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 23% in vocational upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • In Sweden,23% of 25-34 year-olds have a vocational education and training (VET) qualification as their highest level of attainment: 17% at upper secondary level and 2% at post-secondary non-tertiary level and 4% at short-cycle tertiary level.
  • Although an upper secondary qualification is often the minimum attainment needed for successful labour-market participation,15% of 25-34 year-olds in Sweden have not attained an upper secondary qualification, higher than the OECD average (14%).
  • Workers in Sweden aged 25-34 with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment earn 9% more than those without upper secondary attainment, whereas the earning advantage for workers with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment is 10%.
  • In Sweden,25-34 year-old workers with bachelor's attainment earn 17% more than their peers without upper secondary attainment, while those with master's or doctoral attainment earn 36% more.
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, Sweden spends USD 15 994 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647. Expenditure per student is equivalent to 28% of per capita GDP, which is above the OECD average of 27%.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment by gender

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a general degree at the tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56.3 %, rank 5/46 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Sweden has one of the smallest share of women among 55-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (38.4 %, rank 33/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of law is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (2.9 %, rank 13/15 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (16.3 %, rank 28/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    The share of new entrants younger than 25 in bachelor's or equivalent programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (69.1 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among tertiary education new entrants is one of the largest compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (57.3 %, rank 3/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering bachelor's programmes in Sweden is relatively large. (61.8 %, rank 1/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the percentage of first-time entrants into tertiary education younger than 25 is relatively low. (68.5 %, rank 32/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of new entrants in tertiary education in Sweden is comparatively old. (24.3 Years, rank 3/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance by field of education and gender

    In Sweden, the share of men among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (71.3 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering master's or equivalent programmes in information and communication technologies in Sweden is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (63.5 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The percentage of students in independent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 30/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 in general upper secondary programmes in Sweden is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.1 %, rank 4/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in general upper secondary programmes in Sweden is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.3 %, rank 2/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion without access to tertiary education in Sweden is relatively low compared to the other countries. (1.8 %, rank 25/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (71 %, rank 28/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of post-secondary non-tertiary students enrolled in vocational programmes in Sweden is among the highest. (34.5 %, rank 5/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in post-secondary non-tertiary vocational programmes are proportionally less in Sweden than in the other countries. (1.8 %, rank 19/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (96.7 %, rank 5/16 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (91.1 %, rank 29/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Sweden has a share of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion with access to tertiary education that is higher than other OECD and partner countries; (100 %, rank 1/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of below-two year-olds in other registered ECEC services in Sweden is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 6/7 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of two-year-olds in other registered ECEC services in Sweden is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.4 %, rank 5/7 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary programmes in Sweden is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.2 %, rank 3/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary general programmes in Sweden is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.4 %, rank 1/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in bachelor's programmes in Sweden is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.1 %, rank 38/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of six-year-olds in ECEC in Sweden is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98.4 %, rank 3/83 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of six-year-olds in pre-primary education in Sweden is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98.4 %, rank 3/83 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of six-year-olds in primary education in Sweden is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.7 %, rank 44/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The share of tertiary graduates younger than 30-years-old is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (72.2 %, rank 32/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates younger than 30 is relatively low. (72.7 %, rank 35/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates is relatively low in Sweden. (53.6 %, rank 31/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at post-secondary non-tertiary level is comparatively small. (94.5 %, rank 21/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of short-cycle tertiary graduates in Sweden is among the oldest. (30.2 Years, rank 5/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of bachelor's or equivalent graduates in Sweden is among the oldest. (27.9 Years, rank 3/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    In Sweden, the share of female first-time bachelor's graduates is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (66.8 %, rank 1/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.6 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.6 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.2 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humaties in Sweden is relatively small. (4.9 %, rank 43/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law in Sweden is relatively small. (3.1 %, rank 43/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.3 %, rank 33/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.9 %, rank 44/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.9 %, rank 3/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    In Sweden, the share of male tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.1 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries. (8 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries. (67.7 %, rank 32/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Completion rates

    (83.9 %, rank 17/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Sweden, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is relatively low. (16 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all national tertiary students in Sweden is relatively low. (13.8 %, rank 36/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of arts and humanities is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (4.7 %, rank 34/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of business, administration and law is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (2.6 %, rank 35/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of health and welfare is relatively high, compared to other countries with available data. (34.4 %, rank 3/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of new entrants in arts and humanities master's programmes is relatively low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.7 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the percentage of new entrants in business, administration and law bachelor's programmes is relatively low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.9 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of new entrants in business, administration and law master's programmes is relatively low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.8 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of new entrants in Agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary bachelor's programmes is especially lowest, compared to the other countries with other data. (0.6 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    The share of international students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 27/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 31/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of international or foreign students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes among men is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (0 %, rank 30/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all international or foreign tertiary students in Sweden is relatively low. (10.9 %, rank 34/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics among all international or foreign tertiary students in Sweden is relatively high. (13.9 %, rank 3/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all international or foreign tertiary students in Sweden is relatively high. (24.9 %, rank 2/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3 %, rank 38/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (36.8 %, rank 3/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Adult participation in non-formal education

    In Sweden, the share of employed 25-64 year-olds participating in at least one job-related non-formal education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.2 %, rank 2/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-olds participating in at least one job-related non-formal education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.6 %, rank 1/19 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of 25-64 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (13.6 %, rank 3/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of 25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (12.7 %, rank 1/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (20.2 %, rank 5/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (11 %, rank 1/20 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26215 USD Equivalent, rank 4/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16621 USD Equivalent, rank 4/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student on research and development in tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13824 USD Equivalent, rank 3/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on tertiary education in Sweden is comparatively low. (0 USD Equivalent, rank 26/27 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student in primary to tertiary education is one the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14099 USD Equivalent, rank 4/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent student (2012 to 2020) at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is comparatively high. (2.1 %, rank 1/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Sweden is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23262 USD Equivalent, rank 5/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the total annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student on tertiary education is one of the large among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23110 USD Equivalent 2015, rank 3/22 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Sweden, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (0 %, rank 37/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0 %, rank 3/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (5.4 %, rank 5/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (0.2 %, rank 36/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the private expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary level is low. (0 %, rank 27/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds at primary to tertiary education is relatively high in Sweden. (5.4 %, rank 4/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of private expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is comparatively low in Sweden. (0.2 %, rank 25/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, international expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on tertiary education is relatively large. (0.1 %, rank 5/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Government and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 39/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Sweden has one of the smallest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (3.3 %, rank 36/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively large. (95.4 %, rank 3/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 29/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of private expenditure from primary to tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.3 %, rank 25/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the relative share of public expenditure from initial sources of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.9 %, rank 2/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the relative share of public expenditure from initial source of funds at primary to tertiary education is relatively large. (95.5 %, rank 4/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In Sweden, the share of capital expenditure on primary through tertiary is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.6 %, rank 32/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of current expenditure on primary through tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (95.4 %, rank 3/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of capital expenditure on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.8 %, rank 32/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of current expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96.2 %, rank 4/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46.3 %, rank 17/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers under 30 in lower secondary education is especially low in Sweden. (57.3 %, rank 33/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Females under 30 represent a small proportion of teachers in upper secondary education in Sweden. (53.1 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of teachers under 30 in early childhood educational development is especially low in Sweden. (10.6 %, rank 16/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.17 Ratio, rank 25/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In pre-primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is relatively low. (1.17 Ratio, rank 23/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Principals' salaries

    Upper-secondary 25-64 year-old school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Sweden. (1.16 Ratio, rank 19/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.2 Ratio, rank 34/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff in post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low in Sweden. (10.3 Ratio, rank 16/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the ratio of students to teaching staff in bachelor's and tertiary advanced research programmes is one of the lowest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.2 Ratio, rank 27/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the ratio of children to contact staff in pre-primary education is one of the lowest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.2 Ratio, rank 23/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the number of students per teacher in public institutions tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (10.1 Ratio, rank 35/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the number of students per teacher in private institutions tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (11 Ratio, rank 30/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the number of students per teacher in government-dependent private institutions tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (11 Ratio, rank 12/14 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the number of students per teacher in government-dependent private short-cycle tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (11 Ratio, rank 9/10 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the number of students per teacher in public bachelor's, master's, doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (10.1 Ratio, rank 28/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the number of students per teacher in private bachelor's, master's, doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (11 Ratio, rank 25/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the number of students per teacher in government-dependent private bachelor's, master's, doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (11 Ratio, rank 9/9 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the ratio of children to teaching staff in early childhood educational development is one of the highest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.7 Ratio, rank 4/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of teachers' aides among contact staff in early childhood educational development is one of the highest of OECD and partner countries with available data. (59.6 Ratio, rank 3/12 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of teachers' aides among contact staff in pre-primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55.3 Ratio, rank 4/17 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (84.1 %, rank 4/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (90.1 %, rank 2/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (93.5 %, rank 4/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively high in Sweden. (78.3 %, rank 3/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively high in Sweden. (94.6 %, rank 4/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively high in Sweden. (81.5 %, rank 5/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of employed 25-64 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (76.6 %, rank 5/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of employed 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (80.8 %, rank 4/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by field of education

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of arts is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (88.2 %, rank 3/17 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of humanities (except languages), social sciences, journalism and information is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (89.8 %, rank 5/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health (medical and dental) is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (87.8 %, rank 13/14 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (18.1 %, rank 3/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment by gender and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively high in Sweden. (27.2 %, rank 5/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with below upper secondary education is low in Sweden. (18.9 %, rank 41/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (6.7 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (20.7 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (3.7 %, rank 36/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (4.4 %, rank 37/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (11.9 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (13.9 %, rank 35/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (10.7 %, rank 34/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity by gender and educational attainment

    In Sweden, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women without an upper secondary education is relatively low. (29.1 %, rank 40/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the inactivity rate 25-64 year-old women without an upper secondary education is relatively low compared to other countries with available data. (29.5 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (18.2 %, rank 37/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (15.9 %, rank 34/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (16.9 %, rank 43/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is relatively low. (7.8 %, rank 41/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (70.4 %, rank 28/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (126 Index, rank 38/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (108 Index, rank 27/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (116 Index, rank 31/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (145 Index, rank 32/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (118 Index, rank 31/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (144 Index, rank 31/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (110 Index, rank 26/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (125 Index, rank 31/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full and part-time workers with tertiary education are comparatively low. (124.8 %, rank 40/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of foreign-born aged between 25 and 64 who work full- and part-time with a short cycle tertiary education are comparatively low. (103.2 %, rank 28/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers with a bachelor's or equivalent education are comparatively low. (113.7 %, rank 31/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers with a master's, doctoral or equivalent education degree are comparatively low. (150.7 %, rank 32/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of workers earning more than twice the median among those with a bachelor's or equivalent education degree is comparatively low. (7.1 %, rank 29/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of worker earning more than twice the median among those with a master's or doctoral or equivalent education degree is comparatively low. (17.5 %, rank 33/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of worker earning more than twice the median among those with a short-cycle tertiary education degree is comparatively low. (5 %, rank 29/31 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of worker earning more than twice the median among those with a tertiary education degree is comparatively . (10.4 %, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of young 25-34 year-old adults with post-secondary non-tertiary education, is relatively low compared to OECD and other members with available data (96.7 %, rank 17/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the proportion of young 25-34 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent attainment earnings is relatively low compared to OECD and other members with available data (106.8 %, rank 34/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Sweden. (123 Index, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with bachelor's or equivalent attainment compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Sweden. (117 Index, rank 32/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with bachelor's or equivalent attainment compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Sweden. (135 Index, rank 31/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    The difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (126 Index, rank 38/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings by field of education

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Sweden. (71.1 %, rank 11/15 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of business, administration and law are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Sweden. (118.8 %, rank 2/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Sweden. (98 %, rank 13/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Sweden who studied in the field of business, administration and law, are high, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (118.4 %, rank 2/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Sweden who studied in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT), are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (102.6 %, rank 12/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Sweden who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics, are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (99.8 %, rank 12/15 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of inactive youth neither in formal education nor training among 18-24 year-olds in Sweden is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (3.9 %, rank 38/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of youth who have been unemployed for less than 3 months and not in formal education or training among 18-24 year-olds in Sweden is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (0.9 %, rank 25/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training without an upper secondary in Sweden is relatively low. (22.3 %, rank 38/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women who are inactive NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Sweden is relatively low. (4.6 %, rank 38/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women who are inactive NEET (18-24 year-olds) in Sweden is relatively low. (4.3 %, rank 38/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are inactive NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Sweden is relatively low. (3.3 %, rank 39/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of inactive NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Sweden is relatively low. (3.9 %, rank 39/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of youth neither employed nor in education or training among 25-29 year-olds in Sweden is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.3 %, rank 38/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of youth neither employed nor in education or training among 15-29 year-olds in Sweden is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.3 %, rank 37/41 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of men neither employed nor in education among 15-29 year-olds is relatively low. (7.1 %, rank 36/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of women neither employed nor in education among 15-29 year-olds is relatively low. (7.5 %, rank 37/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Among 15-29 year-olds, the share of youth without an upper secondary or post-secondary non tertiary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training in Sweden is relatively low. (7.3 %, rank 36/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among 25-29 year-old men in Sweden, a small share of them are neither employed nor in education or training. (7 %, rank 37/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of young women neither employed nor in education or training (25-29 year-olds) in Sweden is comparatively low . (9.8 %, rank 38/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 18-24 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively small in Sweden. (8.5 %, rank 37/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 18-24 year-old women neither employed nor in education or training is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (8.3 %, rank 37/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Sweden, the share of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.4 %, rank 22/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of adults with a tertiary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.2 %, rank 20/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Sweden, the share of Internet users without an upper secondary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (27.5 %, rank 4/26 , 2021) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
                            
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Sweden

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Sweden

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.