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Russian Federation
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Russian Federation
Overview of the education system (EAG 2021)
  • In the Russian Federation, men are more likely than women to pursue a vocational track. In 2019, 57% of upper secondary vocational graduates were men, compared to 55% on average across OECD countries.
  • In the Russian Federation, 69% of 25-34 year-old women had a tertiary qualification in 2018 compared to 55% of their male peers.
  • In 2018, the Russian Federation invested a total of USD 5 734 per student on primary to tertiary institutions compared to USD 10 454 on average across OECD countries. This represents 3.4% of GDP, compared to 4.9% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2019, 83% of 3-5 year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education and care programmes and primary education in the Russian Federation, compared to 88% on average across OECD countries.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.7 %, rank 42/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.8 %, rank 45/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56.7 %, rank 2/46 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (62.1 %, rank 3/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.3 %, rank 1/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (2.6 %, rank 46/46 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.4 %, rank 43/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.8 %, rank 2/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.4 %, rank 1/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (55.3 %, rank 4/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (68.9 %, rank 3/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men who attained below upper secondary education in Russian Federation is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.8 %, rank 42/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women who attained below upper secondary education in Russian Federation is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.7 %, rank 43/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Education expectancy

    In Russian Federation, the expected years in education between ages 15 and 29 are comparatively short for men. (5.7 Years, rank 36/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate of 25-29 year-olds in Russian Federation is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.7 %, rank 39/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 40-64 year-olds in Russian Federation is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 39/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The share of doctorate graduates in public institutions is relatively high in Russian Federation. (100 %, rank 1/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates is relatively low in Russian Federation. (45.2 %, rank 29/30 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time master's graduates is relatively high in Russian Federation. (17.1 %, rank 4/23 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the share of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at post-secondary non-tertiary level is comparatively important . (100 %, rank 1/24 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary general programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (48.6 %, rank 38/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates among post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes in Russian Federation is relatively low. (38.4 %, rank 21/25 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the share of female post-secondary non-tertiary graduates in the field of services is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (38.9 %, rank 22/25 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by age

    In Russian Federation, the average age of post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (23.6 Years, rank 22/23 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.4 %, rank 2/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is relatively low. (7.5 %, rank 21/24 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively low. (4.5 %, rank 20/23 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Russian Federation, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of arts and humanities is relatively low. (5.3 %, rank 34/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of young men who are neither employed nor in education or training among 15-19 year-olds is comparatively large. (4.6 %, rank 5/81 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of international students entering doctoral or equivalent programmes in Russian Federation is relatively small. (9.7 %, rank 31/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Adult participation in non-formal education

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of employed adults participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (23.3 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (13.7 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (33.2 %, rank 34/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of adults employed in the private sector and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (17.3 %, rank 36/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (29.4 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (17.8 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (8.5 %, rank 34/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over of 249 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (28.3 %, rank 34/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of adults employed in the private sector and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (12.5 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (22.4 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (2.7 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (2.8 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (1.3 %, rank 27/27 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of adults employed in the private sector and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (1.7 %, rank 36/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (3.7 %, rank 33/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the proportion of employed adults participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (0.6 %, rank 33/33 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is is relatively low in Russian Federation. (1.1 %, rank 14/15 , 2016) Download Indicator

    The percentage of employed adults participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is relatively low in Russian Federation. (2.2 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Russian Federation had one of the smallest share of adults employed in enterprises of 1-9 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer. (1.6 %, rank 34/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Russian Federation had one of the smallest share of adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer. (2.2 %, rank 28/31 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Russian Federation had one of the smallest share of adults employed in the private sector and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer. (1.9 %, rank 35/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Russian Federation had one of the smallest share of adults employed in the public sector and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer. (2.9 %, rank 35/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the number of annual hours of participation of adults with upper secondary or post-secondary education in non-formal education and training is comparatively high (137 %, rank 5/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9024 USD Equivalent, rank 33/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6430 USD Equivalent, rank 33/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per secondary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5734 USD Equivalent, rank 34/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student on research and development in tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (948 USD Equivalent, rank 33/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student on research and development for primary to tertiary education in Russian Federation is comparatively low. (201 USD Equivalent, rank 33/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the total expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student in primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education, is relatively low. (5734 USD Equivalent, rank 34/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4985 USD Equivalent 2015, rank 34/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5591 USD Equivalent 2015, rank 34/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7846 USD Equivalent 2015, rank 34/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Russian Federation, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies. (3.4 %, rank 34/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, public and private expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (2.4 %, rank 35/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (2.3 %, rank 38/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (2.9 %, rank 37/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education in Russian Federation is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-0.5 %, rank 27/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on tertiary education in Russian Federation is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-3.1 %, rank 28/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    Compared to 2015, the share of total public expenditure from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is comparatively large in Russian Federation. (118 Index, rank 3/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2015, the share of total government expenditure is comparatively low in Russian Federation. (96 Index, rank 42/46 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively low in Russian Federation. (561 Hours, rank 32/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively low in Russian Federation. (483 Hours, rank 31/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively low in Russian Federation. (483 Hours, rank 31/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in primary school is especially low. (170 Days, rank 29/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary school is especially high. (210 Days, rank 1/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.1 %, rank 1/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (82.4 %, rank 4/40 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (73 %, rank 1/25 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education (bachelor's, master's, doctorate or equivalent education) is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54.1 %, rank 2/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (62.4 %, rank 1/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (86.6 %, rank 1/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Russian Federation, the share of female teachers younger than 30 in tertiary education is relatively large. (64 %, rank 2/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in tertiary education is especially high in Russian Federation. (56.3 %, rank 1/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of students per teacher in primary schools is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner countries with available data. (23.5 Ratio, rank 4/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in private institutions is especially low in Russian Federation. (5.4 Ratio, rank 38/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in independent private institutions is especially low in Russian Federation. (5.4 Ratio, rank 21/23 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    The number of instruction days per year for primary students is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (169 Days, rank 35/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average hours per year dedicated to compulsory instruction time for primary students in Russian Federation is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (598 Hours, rank 36/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Class size

    Classes in in private primary institutions are comparatively small in Russian Federation. (14 Students, rank 30/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively small in Russian Federation. (12 Students, rank 32/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In independent private institutions at primary education level, classes are one of the smallest in Russian Federation among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14 Students, rank 16/20 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In independent private institutions at lower secondary level, classes are one of the smallest in Russian Federation among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12 Students, rank 17/20 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (63 %, rank 36/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is compartively high in Russian Federation. (95 %, rank 1/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    In Russian Federation, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (7.4 %, rank 29/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Participation in education by gender

    The share of female students entering doctoral or equivalent programmes in Russian Federation is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (40.4 %, rank 38/42 , 2019) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
                            
    • One in five adults across the OECD has not attained upper secondary education.
    • In 2020, the unemployment rate of adults that had not completed upper secondary education was almost twice as high as those with higher qualifications, and 27% of these adults earn only at or below half the median on average across OECD countries.
    • In 2019, at least 10% of school-aged youth were not in school in about a quarter of OECD countries.
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    • In 2019, women made up 55% of new entrants to tertiary education on average. If current patterns continue, it is expected that 46% of young women will graduate with a tertiary degree for the first time before they turn 30, 15 percentage points more than men.
    • Women also earn on average about 76-78% of men’s salaries regardless of educational attainment, although the gender gap narrowed by 2 percentage points between 2013 and 2019.
    • Women are less likely than men to enter a STEM field of study, and the average share remained generally stable between 2013 and 2019.
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    • On average across countries, expenditure on educational institutions amounted to approximately USD 9 300 per student at pre-primary level; USD 10 500 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non tertiary level; and USD 17 100 at tertiary level.
    • The public sector funds 90% of total expenditure on primary and secondary institutions on average, often compulsory in most OECD countries, compared to 83% at pre-primary level and 66% at tertiary level.
    • In 2018, the OECD countries spent on average 4.9% of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on primary to tertiary educational institutions.
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    • In 2019, less than 5% of pre-primary teachers were men, compared to 18% at primary level, 40% at upper secondary level and more than 50% at tertiary level on average.
    • Between 2005 and 2020, on average across OECD countries and economies with available data for all reference years, the statutory salaries of teachers with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications increased by 3% at primary level, 4% at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 2% at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • In most countries, teachers above 50 years of age make up more than a third of the teaching force.
    • Attracting male teachers to the profession can be difficult: While the average actual salary of female teachers is equal to or higher than the average salary of other full-time, tertiary-educated women, primary and secondary male teachers earn between 76% and 85% of the average earnings of other full-time, tertiary-educated men.
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    • On average across OECD countries, 87% of children aged 3-5 are enrolled in education on average across OECD countries compared to 25% for children below the age of 3.
    • There are 15 children for every teacher at pre-primary level on average across OECD countries.
    • Half of children enrolled in early childhood development services and a two-thirds of pre-primary children attend public institutions on average across OECD countries
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Russian Federation

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Russian Federation

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.