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Romania
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Romania
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In Romania, 26% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education and 32% in vocational upper secondary education. A further 9% are enrolled in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 23% in vocational upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • In Romania,47% of 25-34 year-olds have a vocational education and training (VET) qualification as their highest level of attainment: 44% at upper secondary level, 3% at post-secondary non-tertiary level.
  • Although an upper secondary qualification is often the minimum attainment needed for successful labour-market participation,22% of 25-34 year-olds in Romania have not attained an upper secondary qualification, higher than the OECD average (14%).
  • Workers in Romania aged 25-34 with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment earn 7% more than those without upper secondary attainment, whereas the earning advantage for workers with general upper secondary attainment is 5%.
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, Romania spends USD 5956 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647. Expenditure per student is equivalent to 18% of per capita GDP, which is below the OECD average of 27%.
  • In Romania, in full-time equivalent terms, there are 15 students per staff member in general upper secondary programmes (OECD average: 14 students per staff member) and 13 students for every teaching staff member in vocational upper secondary programmes (OECD average: 15 students per staff member).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (53.8 %, rank 5/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (57.2 %, rank 5/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.7 %, rank 42/46 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.4 %, rank 43/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51.1 %, rank 2/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a general upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.1 %, rank 34/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.4 %, rank 34/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46.5 %, rank 2/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.3 %, rank 37/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a general degree at the tertiary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.8 %, rank 42/46 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.2 %, rank 41/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 45-54 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.5 %, rank 42/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.1 %, rank 43/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.7 %, rank 42/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Romania is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (7.5 %, rank 36/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Romania is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (7 %, rank 37/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Romania is one of the highest among countries with available data. (42.6 %, rank 1/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Romania is one of the highest among countries with available data. (50.2 %, rank 2/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Entrance by field of education and gender

    In Romania,the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics ans statistics is relatively small. (34.4 %, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively small. (62.3 %, rank 31/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering master's or equivalent programmes in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Romania is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (30.8 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of men among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.5 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of men among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (70.4 %, rank 36/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering master's or equivalent programmes in information and communication technologies in Romania is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (63.8 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate of 25-29 year-olds in Romania is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.6 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the percentage of students enrolled in private institutions at early childhood educational and development level is comparatively low. (2.8 %, rank 46/47 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of upper secondary students enrolled in programmes giving partial completion or insufficient for completion is relatively high compared to the other countries. (26.4 %, rank 5/16 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (100 %, rank 1/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of post-secondary non-tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion without access to tertiary education is relatively large compared to other OECD or partner contries. (100 %, rank 1/14 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students enrolled in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (70.3 %, rank 5/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humaties in Romania is relatively large. (21.8 %, rank 3/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Romania is relatively small. (7 %, rank 43/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.4 %, rank 35/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 33/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is relatively low. (3.1 %, rank 24/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.8 %, rank 36/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of STEM is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29.3 %, rank 3/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    In Romania, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively high. (64.8 %, rank 2/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of female tertiary graduates in the field of sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21 %, rank 2/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of education is relatively low in Romania. (1.7 %, rank 43/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of female post-secondary non-tertiary graduates in the field of services is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (32.7 %, rank 27/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field of services is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries. (42.5 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the field of education is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (88.4 %, rank 3/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (76.1 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (68.5 %, rank 4/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (42.5 %, rank 2/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of information and communication technologies is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (35 %, rank 5/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (38.6 %, rank 3/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of services is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (32.1 %, rank 43/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of education among all national tertiary students in Romania is relatively low. (3.9 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of arts and humanities is relatively high, compared to other countries with available data. (18.9 %, rank 1/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively high, compared to other countries with available data. (24.6 %, rank 4/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively low. (7.1 %, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (7.1 %, rank 34/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of new entrants in health and welfare bachelor's programmes is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (5.6 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    The share of international students entering doctoral or equivalent programmes in Romania is relatively small. (4.7 %, rank 33/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of international and foreign students enrolled in doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.5 %, rank 38/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the proportion of international graduates among first-time doctorate graduates is relatively low. (5.6 %, rank 30/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of international or foreign students enrolled in doctoral or equivalent programmes among men is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (5.8 %, rank 37/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of international or foreign students enrolled in doctoral or equivalent programmes among women is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (3.2 %, rank 37/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of education among all international or foreign tertiary students in Romania is relatively low. (0.5 %, rank 35/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics among all international or foreign tertiary students in Romania is relatively low. (1.7 %, rank 34/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.3 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.4 %, rank 3/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.9 %, rank 3/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.3 %, rank 36/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of students enrolled in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics among all international or foreign students is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (17 %, rank 33/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of students enrolled in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary among all international or foreign tertiary students is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (4.5 %, rank 4/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9602 USD Equivalent, rank 36/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student from primary to tertiary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5956 USD Equivalent, rank 36/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5076 USD Equivalent, rank 28/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per primary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3188 USD Equivalent, rank 38/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2096 USD Equivalent, rank 20/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student on research and development in tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21 USD Equivalent, rank 35/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in Romania is comparatively low. (5150 USD Equivalent, rank 35/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on primary to tertiary education in Romania is comparatively low. (5929 USD Equivalent, rank 35/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in Romania is comparatively low. (13 USD Equivalent, rank 30/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on tertiary education in Romania is comparatively low. (74 USD Equivalent, rank 23/27 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary educational services on primary to tertiary education in Romania is comparatively low. (24 USD Equivalent, rank 29/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student on research and development for primary to tertiary education in Romania is comparatively low. (4 USD Equivalent, rank 35/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the annual expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student in primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education, is relatively low. (5163 USD Equivalent, rank 36/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent student from primary to tertiary education is one of the low in Romania among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-1.3 %, rank 39/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education in Romania is one of the large among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.5 %, rank 1/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Romania, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies. (2.7 %, rank 39/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, expenditure on primary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (0.4 %, rank 39/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, expenditure on tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (0.8 %, rank 38/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, public and private expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (1.9 %, rank 39/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (1.9 %, rank 43/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (0 %, rank 37/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0 %, rank 3/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (0 %, rank 39/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (2.6 %, rank 43/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (0 %, rank 39/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary level is small. (1.9 %, rank 30/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the private expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary level is low. (0 %, rank 27/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2010, from 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is relatively large in Romania. (8 Index, rank 1/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds at primary to tertiary education is relatively low in Romania. (2.6 %, rank 29/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of private expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is comparatively low in Romania. (0 %, rank 29/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Romania is one of the high among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.1 %, rank 1/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The percentage of capital expenditure on secondary education is relatively small in Romania. (0 %, rank 28/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Government and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 38/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.6 %, rank 40/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Romania has one of the smallest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (0.5 %, rank 39/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, total public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (6.7 %, rank 44/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, total public expenditure on primary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (1.1 %, rank 46/46 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of total expenditure on primary to tertiary education is relatively high. (2.6 %, rank 5/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for tertiary education is comparatively large in Romania. (93.5 %, rank 1/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively large. (96.9 %, rank 1/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Total public expenditure on education as a percentage of total government expenditure, for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in Romania compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.7 %, rank 45/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 27/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of private expenditure from primary to tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.5 %, rank 29/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the relative share of public expenditure from initial sources of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98.3 %, rank 4/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the relative share of public expenditure from initial source of funds at primary to tertiary education is relatively large. (96.9 %, rank 2/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2015, the share of total public expenditure from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is comparatively largest in Romania. (137 Index, rank 1/41 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (93.5 %, rank 2/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The percentage of current expenditure on secondary education is relatively small in Romania. (0.6 %, rank 30/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In Romania, the share of capital expenditure on primary through tertiary is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.9 %, rank 30/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of current expenditure on primary through tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (95.1 %, rank 5/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of capital expenditure on post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.8 %, rank 16/19 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.7 %, rank 2/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (72.2 %, rank 5/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52.2 %, rank 5/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of tertiary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is relatively high, compared to other countries with data available. (59.6 %, rank 5/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of bachelor's, master's and doctoral level teachers younger than 30 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (1.9 %, rank 27/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of tertiary teachers younger than 30 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (1.9 %, rank 31/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of teachers under 30 in early childhood educational development is especially low in Romania. (8.6 %, rank 18/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of women among teaching staff in early childhood educational development is one of the highest, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.7 %, rank 4/22 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of male teachers in pre-primary education is especially low in Romania. (0.3 %, rank 41/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged 50 or more in post secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in Romania, compared to the other countries with available data. (34.5 %, rank 17/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers aged between 30 and 49 in post secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high in Romania, compared to other countries with available data. (59.5 %, rank 4/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    The salaries of 25-34 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Romania. (0.71 Ratio, rank 20/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 55-64 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is high in Romania. (0.94 Ratio, rank 5/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-34 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the lowest in Romania relatively compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (25546 USD Equivalent, rank 22/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 35-44 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the lowest in Romania. (31999 USD Equivalent, rank 20/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 45-54 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the lowest in Romania. (35186 USD Equivalent, rank 20/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 55-64 year-old lower-secondary teachers is one of the lowest in Romania. (36697 USD Equivalent, rank 21/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially low. (31524 USD Equivalent, rank 31/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    In Romania, the ratio of children to teaching staff in early childhood educational development is one of the highest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.7 Ratio, rank 3/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania the ratio of children to contact staff in early childhood educational development is one of the highest compared to the other OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.5 Ratio, rank 1/16 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of teachers' aides among contact staff in early childhood educational development is one of the lowest of OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.9 Ratio, rank 11/12 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of teachers' aides among contact staff in pre-primary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.4 Ratio, rank 16/17 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    The total compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students in Romania is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4002 Hours, rank 5/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (91 %, rank 4/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (47.8 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Romania. (49.1 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Romania. (32.2 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Romania. (49 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (53.9 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (53.9 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (32.4 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively high. (89.5 %, rank 5/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Romania. (27.8 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Romania. (20.9 %, rank 43/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the share of employed 25-64 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (87.4 %, rank 5/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (0.8 %, rank 39/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively low. (1.3 %, rank 42/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment by gender and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively low. (0.9 %, rank 45/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-old men with tertiary education is compartively low in Romania. (1 %, rank 36/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-old women with tertiary education is compartively low in Romania. (0.7 %, rank 38/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    In Romania, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (45.5 %, rank 4/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity by gender and educational attainment

    In Romania, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women without an upper secondary education is relatively high. (66.4 %, rank 4/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the inactivity rate 25-64 year-old women without an upper secondary education is relatively high compared to other countries with available data. (63.2 %, rank 3/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (7 %, rank 32/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (9 %, rank 34/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (39.7 %, rank 26/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (20.6 %, rank 28/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (7.5 %, rank 28/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The earnings of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education. (94 Index, rank 2/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the proportion of young 25-34 year-old adults with post-secondary non-tertiary education, is relatively high compared to OECD and other members with available data (120.2 %, rank 2/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers without an upper secondary education earning more than twice the overall median in Romania is one of the highest among countries with available data. (5.6 %, rank 5/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Romania. (105 Index, rank 28/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Romania. (107 Index, rank 29/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Romania. (112 Index, rank 27/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Romania. (107 Index, rank 25/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Romania. (108 Index, rank 26/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education earning at or below half the overall median in Romania is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (0 %, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    The earnings of men without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of men with an upper secondary education. (93 Index, rank 3/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The earnings of women without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of women with an upper secondary education. (94 Index, rank 4/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (91.4 %, rank 3/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary education or post-secondary non-tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (93.6 %, rank 1/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (93.4 %, rank 2/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (97.2 %, rank 3/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women (as a percentage of men's earnings) among full- and part-time 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education are one of the highest among countries with available data. (93.4 %, rank 2/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women (as a percentage of men's earnings) among full- and part-time 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education are one of the highest among countries with available data. (93.5 %, rank 1/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary education or post-secondary non-tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the high among countries with available data. (91.7 %, rank 4/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Romania, the proportion of young women's earnings as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with tertiary education working full-time full-year), is relatively high compared to OECD and other members with available data (92.4 %, rank 4/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (91.1 %, rank 5/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (91.5 %, rank 2/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (94.8 %, rank 2/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (91.9 %, rank 2/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (93.9 %, rank 1/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (94.3 %, rank 1/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (94.4 %, rank 2/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (93.8 %, rank 2/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of women without an upper secondary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Romania is relatively high (76.3 %, rank 5/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training without an upper secondary in Romania is relatively high. (56 %, rank 3/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Romania is relatively high (35.4 %, rank 4/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women who are inactive NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Romania is relatively high. (21 %, rank 5/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of youth neither employed nor in education or training among 25-29 year-olds in Romania is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25.8 %, rank 5/40 , 2021) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Romania

    Click on the coverpage to see the full OECD iLibrary version
    Key
    Country Reviews for Romania

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.