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Portugal
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Data profiles:



Portugal
Teachers and teaching conditions, lower and upper secondary education (TALIS 2018)
  • Teaching was the first-choice career for 84% of teachers in Portugal and for 67% in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS. In terms of why they joined the profession, at least 93% of teachers in Portugal cite the opportunity to influence children's development or contribute to society as a major motivation.
  • Less than one out of two of teachers (47%) in Portugal are aged 50 and above (OECD average 34%). This means that Portugal will have to renew less than one out of two members of its teaching workforce over the next decade or so.
  • In terms of classroom environments, relations between students and teachers are positive overall, with 97% of teachers in Portugal agreeing that students and teachers usually get on well with each other. However, 7% of principals report regular acts of intimidation or bullying among their students, which is lower than the OECD average (14%).
  • In Portugal, 14% of teachers work in schools where at least 10% of the students have a migrant background (OECD average 17%). At the same time, 96% of school leaders report that their teachers believe that children and young people should learn that people of different cultures have a lot in common (OECD average 95%).
  • In Portugal, 9% of teachers "agree" or "strongly agree" with the statement that their profession is valued in society, which is lower than the average across OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS. (26%). In Portugal, between 2013 and 2018, the percentage of teachers reporting that the teaching profession is valued in society has remained stable.
  • In Portugal, 35% of teachers report experiencing stress in their work "a lot", which is higher than the OECD average (18%).
  • 5% of teachers report participating in collaborative professional learning at least once a month (OECD average 21%) and 23% engage in team teaching with the same frequency (OECD average 28%).
  • In Portugal, 24% of teachers report that they had never received feedback in their schools (OECD average 10%). The forms of feedback most commonly used in Portugal are based on school-based and classroom-based results, observation of the teacher's classroom teaching and external results of students the teacher teaches.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Who the teachers are

    Teachers are on average older than teachers in most other TALIS countries. (48.7 Years, rank 5/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    On average, teachers in Portugal have spent more years teaching than teachers in most other TALIS countries. (23.1 Years, rank 4/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Portugal shows one of the strongest increases in the share of teachers aged 50 and above between 2013 and 2018, compared to other countries participating in the TALIS survey. (19 % points, rank 1/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' age in upper secondary education is relatively old in Portugal compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (49.2 Years, rank 1/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the percentage of teachers aged 50 and above in upper secondary education is especially important. (49.9 %, rank 1/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the total number of years working as a teacher in upper secondary education is relatively important . (23.3 Years, rank 1/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the share of female teachers in upper secondary education is especially high. (67.7 %, rank 2/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the difference in the share of female teachers is one of the smallest in upper secondary compared to lower secondary education. (-6 % points, rank 4/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female teachers in upper secondary level who teaches STEM is one of the largest in Portugal among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (32.3 %, rank 1/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the share of female teachers who teaches VET at upper secondary level is relatively low. (11.5 %, rank 10/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Initial and induction training of teachers

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers who were instructed on subject content, pedagogy and classroom practice is especially low in Portugal. (68 %, rank 10/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary teachers who participated in some kind of induction at their current school is one of the lowest in Portugal among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (42.7 %, rank 9/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the difference in teachers who participated in some kind of induction at their current school is one of the smallest in upper secondary compared to lower secondary level. (3 % points, rank 7/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small share of upper secondary teachers teach reading with training in the subject in Portugal. (73.2 %, rank 12/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Professional development of teachers

    Relative to most TALIS countries, a smaller proportion of teachers report having undertaken professional development in the 12 months prior to the survey. (88 %, rank 46/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small percentage of teachers participated in a network of teachers formed specifically for the professional development of teachers in the 12 months prior to the survey. (13.9 %, rank 50/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the percentage of upper secondary teachers who attended at least one professional development activity in the last year is especially low. (88.5 %, rank 11/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of principals in upper secondary education who attended at least one professional development activity in the last year is especially small in Portugal. (97.3 %, rank 11/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teacher appraisal and feedback

    A high share of teachers report that they have never received feedback in their school. (24 %, rank 4/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' practices

    Teachers report spending more hours per week marking and correcting work. (6.9 Hours/week, rank 3/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A large proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' present tasks for which there is no obvious solution. (67.3 %, rank 2/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A large proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' tell students to follow classroom rules. (96.8 %, rank 1/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A large proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' tell students to listen to what they say. (96.7 %, rank 1/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A large proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' calm students who are disruptive. (85 %, rank 3/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A large proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' when the lesson begins, tell students to quieten down quickly. (81.2 %, rank 5/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A large proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' refer to a problem from everyday life or work to demonstrate why new knowledge is useful. (93.1 %, rank 1/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A large proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' administer their own assessment. (97.3 %, rank 1/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Principals' practices

    Principals report spending shorter time on curriculum and teaching-related tasks and meetings. (12.8 %, rank 29/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' autonomy, collegiality and collaboration

    Portugal has one of the lowest proportion of teachers who agree that they have control over determining course content. (47.1 %, rank 50/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A low percentage of principals report that teachers in Portugal have significant responsibility for the majority of tasks concerning school policies, instruction and curriculum. (5.1 %, rank 46/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small share of upper secondary teachers report engaging in collaborative professional learning at least once a month in Portugal. (4.6 %, rank 12/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers who report that they can rely on each other is one of the lowest in Portugal among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (76.7 %, rank 11/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    ICT for teaching

    In Portugal, the share of upper secondary teachers who received formal training in using ICT for teaching is relatively low . (47.7 %, rank 9/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the share of upper secondary teachers who feel well prepared in using ICT for teaching is relatively low . (44.5 %, rank 9/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A large share of upper secondary teachers report that they frequently or always let students use ICT for projects or class work in Portugal. (69.8 %, rank 3/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, a larger share of teachers report that they frequently or always let students use ICT for projects or class work in upper secondary compared to lower secondary education. (12.9 % points, rank 1/10 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A large proportion of upper secondary principals report that the delivery of quality instruction is hindered by a shortage of teachers with competencies in teaching students with special needs in Portugal. (49.5 %, rank 3/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teaching in multicultural settings

    Portugal has a higher share of teachers feeling they can cope with the challenges of a multicultural classroom "quite a bit" or "a lot" in teaching a culturally diverse class. (94.4 %, rank 1/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    "Teaching in a multicultural or multilingual setting" was included in a lower proportion of teachers' formal education or training in Portugal. (20.6 %, rank 46/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Portugal has one the largest shares of teachers teaching in schools where more than 10% of students are immigrants or with migrant background. (52.5 %, rank 5/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teaching in vocational education and training

    In Portugal, the percentage of upper secondary teachers in VET schools who reported that their initial training included all the areas of content, pedagogy and classroom practice is especially low. (67.7 %, rank 8/11 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the percentage of upper secondary teachers in non-VET schools who reported that their initial training included all the areas of content, pedagogy and classroom practice is especially low. (70.1 %, rank 9/11 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of VET teachers in upper secondary education who report that they frequently or always ask students to decide on their own procedures for solving complex tasks is relatively high in Portugal. (65.8 %, rank 2/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of non-VET teachers in upper secondary education who report that they frequently or always ask students to decide on their own procedures for solving complex tasks is relatively large in Portugal. (54 %, rank 3/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Classroom management

    A higher proportion of teachers "agree" or "strongly agree" loosing quite a lot of time due to students interrupting the lesson. (43 %, rank 4/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    More teachers in Portugal feel that they can calm a student who is disruptive or noisy compared to most TALIS countries. (97.8 %, rank 1/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' self-efficacy

    Relative to most other TALIS countries, more teachers believe that they are able to help their students to value learning. (99.3 %, rank 1/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A larger proportion of teachers believe that they can help their students to think critically. (98 %, rank 1/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' satisfaction with their jobs

    Compared to most other TALIS countries, Portugal has a low proportion of teachers who are satisfied with the salary they receive for their work. (9.4 %, rank 49/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Compared to most other TALIS countries, Portugal has a low proportion of teachers who, apart from their salary, are satisfied with the terms of their teaching contract/employment. (29 %, rank 50/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers who report being satisfied with their job is especially high in Portugal. (94 %, rank 3/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary teachers who report that they are satisfied with their salary is one of the smallest in Portugal among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.1 %, rank 12/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the share of teachers who reported being satisfied with their salary is more important in upper secondary compared to lower secondary education. (1.7 % points, rank 1/3 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the share of upper secondary teachers who report being satisfied with the terms of their teaching contract apart from salary is relatively small. (32.3 %, rank 12/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In upper secondary education, the share of teachers reporting there is a collaborative culture characterised by mutual support is smaller in Portugal compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (71.5 %, rank 11/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, a small share of upper secondary teachers report that their school provides staff with opportunities to actively participate in school decisions. (71.3 %, rank 10/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In upper secondary education, a high percentage of teachers report that they experience a lot of stress in their work in Portugal. (29.8 %, rank 1/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the share of female teachers who report stress in upper secondary education compared to male teachers is comparatively high. (-10.7 % points, rank 9/9 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Having too much administrative work is a source of stress for a large share of upper secondary teachers in Portugal. (70.8 %, rank 1/12 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Principals' satisfaction with their jobs

    A relatively low share of principals, apart from their salary, are satisfied with the terms of their teaching contract/employment. (39.7 %, rank 47/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' engagement, motivation and drive

    For a large share of teachers, teaching was their fisrt choice as a career. (84.2 %, rank 4/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers’ working conditions, mobility and risk of attrition

    In Portugal, the percentage of teachers experiencing a lot of stress in their work is relatively high. (34.8 %, rank 2/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    For a large share of teachers, having too much administrative work is a source of stress. (76.7 %, rank 1/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, a small proportion of teachers age 50 and below want to leave teaching within the next five years. (3.2 %, rank 49/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the proportion of teachers who have a permanent contract in upper secondary education is one of the smallest among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (72.1 %, rank 10/12 , 2018) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
                            
    • Across OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, teachers are 44 years old and principals are 52 years old, on average. Furthermore, 20% of principals across the OECD are aged 60 and above.
    • In the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, 47% of principals are women, compared to 68% of teachers.
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    • In OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, 65% of teachers report frequently calming students who are disruptive and 84% report frequently explaining how new and old topics are related.
    • During a typical lesson, teachers spend 78% of classroom time on actual teaching and learning, on average in the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS.
    • In the past five to ten years, classroom time spent on actual teaching and learning has decreased in about half of the countries and economies participating in TALIS.
    • 84% of teachers report having control over determining course content in their class, on average across in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS.
    • 81% of teachers say that they work in a collaborative school culture characterised by mutual support, on average in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS. Furthermore, 59% of principals took actions on a regular basis to support co-operation among teachers to develop new teaching practices in the 12 months prior to the survey.
    • On average in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, only 21% of teachers report participating in collaborative professional learning at least once a month and 28% engage in team-teaching with the same frequency.
    • About half of teachers in the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS "frequently" or "always" let students use ICT for projects or class work, but 25% of school principals report that delivery of quality instruction in their school is hindered by a shortage or inadequacy of digital technology for instruction.
    • In the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, 27% of teachers work in classes with at least 10% of students with special needs (i.e. those for whom a special learning need has been formally identified because they are mentally, physically, or emotionally disadvantaged). But, 32% of school principals report that delivery of quality instruction in their school is hindered by a shortage of teachers with competence in teaching students with special needs.
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    • During their initial education and training, 79% of teachers in the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS were instructed on subject content, pedagogy and classroom. Only 42% of teachers report having participated in some kind of formal or informal induction when they joined their current school.
    • In the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, taking part in some kind of in-service training is commonplace among teachers and principals, with 94% of teachers and 99% of principals attending at least one professional development activity in the year prior to the survey.
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    • Across OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, 26% of teachers "agree" or "strongly agree" with the statement that their profession is valued in society. Between 2013 and 2018, the percentage of teachers reporting that the profession is valued in society has increased in almost half of the countries and economies with available data.
    • Nine out of ten teachers and 95% of school leaders report that, all in all, they are satisfied with their job, on average in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS.
    • 39% of teachers and 47% of school leaders report being satisfied with their salaries, on average in OECD countries and economies.
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    • Across OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, 82% of teachers have a permanent contract while 12% of teacher are employed on contracts of one year or less.
    • 18% of teachers report experiencing stress in their work "a lot", on average in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS. 49% of teachers report that having too much administrative work is a source of stress they experience at work "quite a bit" or "a lot".
    • A quarter of teachers report that they would like to leave teaching within the next five years, on average across the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS. Furthermore, 14% of teachers age 50 or would like to leave teaching in the next five years.
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    • Only 10% of teachers report that they have never received feedback in their schools. On average across the OECD, the forms of feedback most commonly used are based on classroom observations and students' school-based and classroom-based results.
    • 71% of teachers who received feedback in the 12 months prior to the survey report that it had a positive impact on their teaching practice. In all countries and economies participating in TALIS, teachers who report receiving feedback based on multiple methods are more likely to find that the feedback they received had a positive impact on their teaching.
    • The proportion of teachers who work in schools where appraisal can result in a salary increase or financial bonus is 55% in schools where school management has responsibility over salaries. In schools where school management does not have responsibility over salaries, the proportion is only 30%.
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    • The proportion of female teachers represents over three quarters of the primary teaching force (TALIS average 78%), which is higher than the proportion in lower secondary education of 63%.
    • Less than half of teachers (46% on average) cited receiving formal training in facilitating transitions from early childhood education to primary education. However, a slightly smaller share of teachers (38%) said they felt well or very well prepared in this area.
    • Thirty-seven percent (37%) of teachers report modifying lessons for students with special needs is a source of stress "quite a bit" or "a lot" in primary in contrast to 29% in lower secondary.
    • Teachers in upper secondary education reported being involved in fewer collaborative activities than their peers in lower secondary education. Teaching jointly as a team in the same class shows significant decreases among teachers in upper secondary (5 percentage points difference).
    • Almost a quarter of teachers (23%) in upper secondary education stated they would like to leave teaching in the next five years. Teachers satisfied with their salaries and terms of employment, and who consider the school provides opportunities to engage in discussion and has a collaborative culture are less likely to state they will leave teaching.
    Visualisations
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Portugal

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Portugal

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.