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Portugal
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Portugal
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In Portugal, 40% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education and 24% in vocational upper secondary education. A further 10% are enrolled in lower secondary programmes and 18% in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 23% in vocational upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • In Portugal,21% of 25-34 year-olds have a vocational education and training (VET) qualification as their highest level of attainment: 18% at upper secondary level and 2% at post-secondary non-tertiary level and 1% at short-cycle tertiary level.
  • Although an upper secondary qualification is often the minimum attainment needed for successful labour-market participation,17% of 25-34 year-olds in Portugal have not attained an upper secondary qualification, higher than the OECD average (14%).
  • Workers in Portugal aged 25-34 with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment earn 19% more than those without upper secondary attainment, whereas the earning advantage for workers with general upper secondary attainment is 15%.
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, Portugal spends USD 10 816 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647.
  • On average,annual statutory salaries for upper secondary teachers in general programmes with the most prevalent qualification and 15 years of experience are USD 53 456 across the OECD. In Portugal, the corresponding salary adjusted for purchasing power is USD 44 277, which is equivalent to EUR 29 100.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    Portugal has one of the lowest percentages of 25-64 year-olds whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (0.3 %, rank 34/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old men who have attained at least upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (34.6 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Portugal has one of the smallest shares of 25-64 year-old men whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (0.3 %, rank 33/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Portugal has one of the smallest shares of 25-64 year-old women whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (0.2 %, rank 34/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 55-64 year-old men who attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Portugal is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.4 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (1.7 %, rank 29/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    The share of female new entrants integrating short-cycle tertiary programmes in Portugal is comparatively small. (37 %, rank 31/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the average age of new entrants in master's long first degree (LFD) programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.1 Years, rank 24/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the average age of new entrants in master's programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.7 Years, rank 37/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance by field of education and gender

    In Portugal,the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively small. (61.1 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in information and communication technologies in Portugal is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (8.2 %, rank 27/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Portugal is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (24.2 %, rank 20/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of arts and humanities is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (40.2 %, rank 28/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of services is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (40.4 %, rank 24/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate of 6-14 year-olds in Portugal is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the share of upper secondary students enrolled in programmes giving partial completion or insufficient for completion is relatively low compared to the other countries. (0 %, rank 16/16 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (100 %, rank 1/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in post-secondary non-tertiary vocational programmes are proportionally more in Portugal than in the other countries. (100 %, rank 1/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    in Portugal, the share of post-secondary non-tertiary students among all vocational students is relatively small compared to other OECD and partner countries. (2.6 %, rank 22/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (100 %, rank 1/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (22.1 %, rank 31/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Portugal has a share of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion with access to tertiary education that is higher than other OECD and partner countries; (100 %, rank 1/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in master's programmes in Portugal is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.4 %, rank 4/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (0.2 %, rank 5/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students enrolled in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (34.9 %, rank 26/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (37.2 %, rank 30/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The average age of graduates from general programmes at the upper secondary level in Portugal is comparatively high. (20.7 Years, rank 3/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the percentage of first-time doctorate graduates younger than 35 is relatively low. (40.7 %, rank 31/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of short-cycle tertiary graduates in Portugal is among the youngest. (22.8 Years, rank 23/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of master's or equivalent graduates in Portugal is among the youngest. (24.7 Years, rank 23/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates among post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes in Portugal is relatively low. (36 %, rank 25/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the share of female first-time graduates in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (44.2 %, rank 24/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.8 %, rank 44/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.5 %, rank 41/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19 %, rank 4/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.7 %, rank 32/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively low. (0 %, rank 23/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of services is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.6 %, rank 1/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (5.1 %, rank 44/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively high. (39.7 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the share of female tertiary graduates in the field of sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.8 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of education is relatively low in Portugal. (2.1 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Completion rates

    (62.8 %, rank 19/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (62.6 %, rank 21/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (68.5 %, rank 14/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Portugal, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of education is relatively low. (3.9 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is relatively low. (3.4 %, rank 36/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of education among all national tertiary students in Portugal is relatively low. (3.3 %, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies among all national tertiary students in Portugal is relatively low. (2.9 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively high, compared to other countries with available data. (18.2 %, rank 3/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the share of new entrants in education bachelor's programmes is comparatively smallest, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.8 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the proportion of new entrants in Information and communication technologies bachelor's programmes is relatively low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.3 %, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    In Portugal, international or foreign students from Africa are highest represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (36.7 %, rank 2/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.3 %, rank 4/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the percentage of international or foreign students coming from neighbouring countries is comparatively low . (2 Students, rank 43/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies among all international or foreign tertiary students in Portugal is relatively low. (2.9 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.6 %, rank 4/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8099 USD Equivalent, rank 31/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on tertiary education in Portugal is comparatively low. (7676 USD Equivalent, rank 35/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent student (2012 to 2020) at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is comparatively low. (-1.7 %, rank 43/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent student from primary to tertiary education is one of the low in Portugal among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-1.4 %, rank 40/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Portugal, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0.5 %, rank 5/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0 %, rank 3/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the private expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary level is high. (0.5 %, rank 4/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure on educational institutions at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is relatively low in Portugal. (-1.5 %, rank 35/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Portugal is one of the low among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-1.2 %, rank 34/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, international expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on tertiary education is relatively large. (0.1 %, rank 5/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In Portugal, the share of capital expenditure on primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.8 %, rank 35/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The percentage of primary teachers younger than 30 is especially low. (2 %, rank 40/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially low. (1.6 %, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially low. (2.5 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially low. (2 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the share of female teachers younger than 30 in tertiary education is relatively small . (43.2 %, rank 34/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of teachers aged 50 or more in pre-primary education is especially high in Portugal (53.4 %, rank 2/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the percentage of teachers under 30 in pre-primary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.1 %, rank 35/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.47 Ratio, rank 1/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.35 Ratio, rank 2/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.32 Ratio, rank 3/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.42 Ratio, rank 2/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual pre-primary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51788 USD Equivalent, rank 5/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary female teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year women workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.54 Ratio, rank 1/21 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary male teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year men workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.1 Ratio, rank 2/21 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 25-34 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is high in Portugal. (1.29 Ratio, rank 2/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 55-64 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is high in Portugal. (1.01 Ratio, rank 4/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the most rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.16 Ratio, rank 2/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers longer to progress through the salary scale in Portugal compared to other OECD and partner countries. (34 Years, rank 3/10 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Principals' salaries

    Lower-secondary 25-64 year-old school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is high in Portugal. (1.92 Ratio, rank 2/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    In Portugal, the number of students per teacher in independent private institutions tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (14.4 Ratio, rank 19/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Portugal, the total intended instruction time for primary students (in hours per year) is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6108 Hours, rank 5/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1018 Hours, rank 4/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for lower secondary students is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (164 Days, rank 33/35 , 2023) Download Indicator

    The number of instruction days per year for primary students is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (173 Days, rank 33/35 , 2023) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is comparatively high. (90.9 %, rank 5/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (70.5 %, rank 4/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (84.4 %, rank 3/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (97.3 %, rank 4/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is compartively high in Portugal. (69 %, rank 5/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 55-64 year-olds with tertiary education is compartively high in Portugal. (87 %, rank 3/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education is comparatively low. (77 %, rank 28/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively high in Portugal. (100 %, rank 1/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (62.1 %, rank 3/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is comparatively high. (90.9 %, rank 1/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively high in Portugal. (63.1 %, rank 3/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the share of employed 25-64 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (81.6 %, rank 1/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the share of employed 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (82 %, rank 2/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the share of employed 25-64 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (89.8 %, rank 5/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high in Portugal compared to other countries with available data. (77.6 %, rank 4/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by field of education

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (89 %, rank 5/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with below upper secondary education is low in Portugal. (19.9 %, rank 39/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (7 %, rank 33/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (13.9 %, rank 34/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (24.7 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (4.3 %, rank 38/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (5.4 %, rank 45/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (10.5 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (11.9 %, rank 38/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (8 %, rank 36/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity by gender and educational attainment

    In Portugal, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women without an upper secondary education is relatively low. (26.3 %, rank 42/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the inactivity rate 25-64 year-old women without an upper secondary education is relatively low compared to other countries with available data. (32.7 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (15.8 %, rank 35/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (13.5 %, rank 38/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (8.8 %, rank 35/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (10.9 %, rank 36/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (5.3 %, rank 36/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (12.4 %, rank 42/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (12.7 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is relatively low. (6.8 %, rank 42/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education is relatively low. (5.4 %, rank 45/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is relatively high. (8.8 %, rank 5/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (106 Index, rank 28/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (104 Index, rank 29/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of foreign-born aged between 25 and 64 who work full- and part-time with a short cycle tertiary education are comparatively low. (105.6 %, rank 27/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the proportion of young 25-34 year-old adults with post-secondary non-tertiary education, is relatively high compared to OECD and other members with available data (115.2 %, rank 4/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers without an upper secondary education earning at or below half the overall median in Portugal is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (9.2 %, rank 36/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education earning at or below half the overall median in Portugal is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (6.3 %, rank 36/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with tertiary education earning at or below half the overall median in Portugal is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (3.3 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings by field of education

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of education are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Portugal. (68.6 %, rank 15/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Portugal. (107.2 %, rank 13/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Portugal who studied in the field of education, are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (69.8 %, rank 14/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Portugal who studied in the field of health and welfare, are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (89.5 %, rank 12/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Portugal who studied in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT), are high, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (112.8 %, rank 4/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Portugal who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics, are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (101.1 %, rank 11/15 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of inactive youth neither in formal education nor training among 18-24 year-olds in Portugal is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (4.7 %, rank 37/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women without an upper secondary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Portugal is relatively low (40.8 %, rank 32/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women who are inactive NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Portugal is relatively low. (5.2 %, rank 36/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women who are inactive NEET (18-24 year-olds) in Portugal is relatively low. (4.6 %, rank 37/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are inactive NEET (18-24 year-olds) in Portugal is relatively low. (4.8 %, rank 37/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of inactive NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Portugal is relatively low. (5.2 %, rank 36/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Portugal, the share of adults with below upper secondary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.9 %, rank 19/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Portugal, the share of Internet users without an upper secondary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.8 %, rank 22/26 , 2021) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Portugal

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Portugal

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.