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Japan
Teachers and teaching conditions, primary and lower secondary education (TALIS 2018)
  • Teaching was the first-choice career for 82% of teachers in Japan and for 67% in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS. In terms of why they joined the profession, at least 82% of teachers in Japan cite the opportunity to influence children's development or contribute to society as a major motivation.
  • One out of three of teachers (33%) in Japan are aged 50 and above (OECD average 34%). This means that Japan will have to renew one out of three members of its teaching workforce over the next decade or so.
  • In terms of classroom environments, relations between students and teachers are positive overall, with 96% of teachers in Japan agreeing that students and teachers usually get on well with each other. However, 0% of principals report regular acts of intimidation or bullying among their students, which is lower than the OECD average (14%).
  • In Japan, 1% of teachers work in schools where at least 10% of the students have a migrant background (OECD average 17%). At the same time, 89% of school leaders report that their teachers believe that children and young people should learn that people of different cultures have a lot in common (OECD average 95%).
  • In Japan, 34% of teachers "agree" or "strongly agree" with the statement that their profession is valued in society, which is higher than the average across OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS. (26%). In Japan, between 2013 and 2018, the percentage of teachers reporting that the teaching profession is valued in society has increased by six percentage points.
  • In Japan, 20% of teachers report experiencing stress in their work "a lot", which is statistically not significantly different from the OECD average (18%).
  • 6% of teachers report participating in collaborative professional learning at least once a month (OECD average 21%) and 58% engage in team teaching with the same frequency (OECD average 28%).
  • In Japan, 6% of teachers report that they had never received feedback in their schools (OECD average 10%). The forms of feedback most commonly used in Japan are based on observation of the teacher's classroom teaching, school-based and classroom-based results and external results of students the teacher teaches.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    School climate

    A small share of principals report that intimidation or bullying among students occurred at least weekly in their school. (0.4 %, rank 46/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    Compared to other TALIS countries, a smaller proportion of teachers in Japan are female. (42.2 %, rank 50/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of teachers aged 50 or above in primary education is comparatively large. (31.2 %, rank 4/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The total working years as a teacher in Japan is comparatively long at primary level. (16.8 Years, rank 4/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the total number of years working in other non-educational roles in Japan is one of the shortest among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.7 Years, rank 11/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female teachers in primary education is relatively small. (61.4 %, rank 14/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female teachers is one of the largest in primary compared to lower secondary education. (19.1 % points, rank 4/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Who the principals are

    Compared to other TALIS countries, a smaller proportion of principals in Japan are female. (7 %, rank 49/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Principals in Japan are on average older than principals in most other TALIS countries. (58 Years, rank 2/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    On average, principals in Japan have spent less years in their role than principal in most other TALIS countries. (4.6 Years, rank 48/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female principals in primary education is one of the smallest in Japan. (23.1 %, rank 13/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The difference in the share of female principals is one of the smallest in primary compared to lower secondary education in Japan. (16 % points, rank 7/10 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Initial and induction training of teachers

    A larger proportion of teachers did not take part in formal or informal induction activities at the current school. (80.6 %, rank 3/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small share of teachers in primary education were instructed on subject content, pedagogy and classroom practice in Japan. (83.9 %, rank 10/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of primary education teachers who participated in some kind of induction at their current school is one of the lowest in Japan among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.9 %, rank 13/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A larger (Vietnam) or similar share of teachers participated in some kind of induction at their current school in primary compared to lower secondary level in Japan. (-3.5 % points, rank 2/9 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small share of teachers in primary education feel well prepared in facilitating transitions in Japan. (19.1 %, rank 12/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of primary education teachers who received formal training in facilitating play is especially low. (50.2 %, rank 11/13 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of primary education teachers who feel prepared in facilitating play is relatively small in Japan. (26.2 %, rank 11/13 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Principals' formal training

    For a small share of principals, school administration or principal training programme or course were included in their formal education or training before taking up position as principal. (12.9 %, rank 44/48 , 2018) Download Indicator

    For a large share of principals, school administration or principal training programme or course were included in their formal education or training before and after taking up position as principal. (41 %, rank 3/48 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Professional development of teachers

    A small percentage of teachers attended courses/seminars in person in the 12 months prior to the survey. (37.3 %, rank 49/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A large percentage of teachers feel professional development activities in the 12 months prior to the survey had a positive impact on their teaching practices. (91.5 %, rank 3/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of novice teachers in primary education who have an assigned mentor is relatively important. (47.1 %, rank 1/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of primary education teachers who attended at least one professional development activity in the last year is especially small in Japan. (93 %, rank 13/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, a higher percentage of teachers attended at least one professional development activity in the last year in primary compared to lower secondary education. (3.8 % points, rank 2/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of principals in primary education who attended at least one professional development activity in the last year is especially small in Japan. (99 %, rank 10/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' practices

    A small proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' present a summary of recently learned content. (58.6 %, rank 49/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' explain how new and old topics are related. (63.1 %, rank 50/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' present tasks for which there is no obvious solution. (16.1 %, rank 47/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' give tasks that require students to think critically. (12.6 %, rank 50/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' ask students to decide on their own procedures for solving complex tasks. (24.9 %, rank 48/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' refer to a problem from everyday life or work to demonstrate why new knowledge is useful. (53.9 %, rank 49/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' let students practise similar tasks until knowing that every student has understood the subject matter. (31.3 %, rank 50/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' give students projects that require at least one week to complete. (11.1 %, rank 48/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' administer their own assessment. (51.2 %, rank 48/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' provide written feedback on student work in addition to a mark. (26.3 %, rank 47/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the share of teachers who report that they frequently or always ask students to decide on their own procedures for solving complex tasks is especially small in Japan. (38.9 %, rank 13/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of class time spent on keeping order in the classroom in primary education is one of the smallest in Japan among all OECD and partner countries. (14.2 %, rank 12/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, a small proportion of teachers in primary education report that maintaining classroom discipline is a source of stress. (37.9 %, rank 10/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of teachers in primary school reporting a high need for professional development in student behavior and classroom management is especially high in Japan. (52.5 %, rank 2/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of teachers reporting a high need for professional development in student behavior and classroom management is more important in primary compared to lower secondary education. (9 % points, rank 1/10 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Principals' practices

    Principals report spending shorter time on administrative and leadership tasks and meetings. (43.3 %, rank 29/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Principals report spending longer time on curriculum and teaching-related tasks and meetings. (22.5 %, rank 3/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' autonomy, collegiality and collaboration

    In Japan, a small proportion of principals have 'often' or 'very often' engaged in taking actions to support co-operation among teachers to develop new teaching practices in their school. (30.6 %, rank 49/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A high share of teachers report engaging in team-teaching at least once a month. (58.3 %, rank 3/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    ICT for teaching

    In Japan, more teachers report a high level of need for professional development aimed at developing their ICT skills for teaching. (39 %, rank 2/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Japan has a smaller share of teachers "frequently" or "always" letting students use ICT for projects or class work. (17.9 %, rank 48/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small share of primary education teachers feel well prepared in using ICT for teaching in Japan. (27.6 %, rank 12/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of teachers in primary education who report that they frequently or always let students use ICT for projects or class work is one of the lowest in Japan among all OECD and partner economies with available data. (24.4 %, rank 11/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, a larger share of teachers report that they frequently or always let students use ICT for projects or class work in primary than in lower secondary education. (6.5 % points, rank 1/10 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of primary education teachers who report a high need for professional development in using ICT for teaching is relatively high . (38.8 %, rank 2/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teaching students with special needs

    A larger proportion of teachers report a high level of need to develop their skills to teach students with special needs. (45.7 %, rank 4/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of primary education teachers reporting a high need for professional development in teaching special needs students is especially important . (61.1 %, rank 1/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of teachers who report a high need for professional development in teaching special needs students is larger than 10 percentage points in primary compared to lower secondary education. (15.4 % points, rank 1/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A large proportion of primary education principals report that the delivery of quality instruction is hindered by a shortage of teachers with competencies in teaching students with special needs in Japan. (40.3 %, rank 4/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teaching in multicultural settings

    Japan has a smaller share of teachers feeling they can cope with the challenges of a multicultural classroom "quite a bit" or "a lot" in teaching a culturally diverse class. (16.6 %, rank 50/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, less teachers have at least 10% of students whose first language is different from the language of instruction in their class. (1.6 %, rank 50/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of teachers who felt "well prepared" or "very well prepared" for teaching in a multicultural or multilingual setting is lower. (10.9 %, rank 48/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    "Teaching in a multicultural or multilingual setting" was included in a lower proportion of teachers' professional development activities. (12.9 %, rank 47/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Japan has one the smallest shares of teachers teaching in schools where at least 1% of students are refugees. (0 %, rank 47/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, a small share of principals think that 'many' or 'all or almost all' teachers in their school would agree that children and young people should learn that people of different cultures have a lot in common (88.7 %, rank 46/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Classroom management

    In Japan, more teachers report a high level of need for professional development in student behaviour and classroom management. (43.4 %, rank 2/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A lower proportion of teachers "agree" or "strongly agree" loosing quite a lot of time due to students interrupting the lesson. (8.1 %, rank 49/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Less teachers in Japan feel that they can calm a student who is disruptive or noisy compared to most TALIS countries. (60 %, rank 49/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' self-efficacy

    Relative to most other TALIS countries, less teachers believe that they are able to help their students to value learning. (33.9 %, rank 49/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A smaller proportion of teachers believe that they can help their students to think critically. (24.5 %, rank 49/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' satisfaction with their jobs

    A smaller proportion of teachers are satisfied with their job relative to most other TALIS countries. (81.8 %, rank 48/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Compared to most other TALIS countries, Japan has a low proportion of teachers who, apart from their salary, are satisfied with the terms of their teaching contract/employment. (39.9 %, rank 47/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of teachers who report they are satisfied with their job at primary level is one of the lowest among all OECD and partner countries. (86.1 %, rank 11/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of teachers who report being satisfied with their salary at primary level is especially small in Japan. (46.1 %, rank 10/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, teachers reported being more satisfied with their salary in primary compared to lower secondary education. (4.3 % points, rank 2/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of primary education teachers who report being satisfied with the terms of their teaching contract apart from salary is relatively small. (47.7 %, rank 13/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, teachers who report being more satisfied with the terms of their teaching contract, apart from salary, in primary compared to lower secondary level. (7.8 % points, rank 3/10 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the share of teachers reporting there is a collaborative culture characterised by mutual support is larger in Japan compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (90 %, rank 2/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Japan, a large share of primary education teachers report that their school provides staff with opportunities to actively participate in school decisions. (85.7 %, rank 3/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In primary education, a high percentage of teachers in Japan report that they experience a lot of stress in their work. (19.6 %, rank 4/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of primary education teachers for whom having too much administrative work is a source of stress in is especially high in Japan. (61.9 %, rank 3/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers’ working conditions, mobility and risk of attrition

    In Japan, the proportion of teachers who have a permanent contract in primary education is one of the smallest among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (77.5 %, rank 10/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the percentage of full-time teachers in Japan is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (92.7 %, rank 3/14 , 2018) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
                            
    • Across OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, teachers are 44 years old and principals are 52 years old, on average. Furthermore, 20% of principals across the OECD are aged 60 and above.
    • In the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, 47% of principals are women, compared to 68% of teachers.
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    • In OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, 65% of teachers report frequently calming students who are disruptive and 84% report frequently explaining how new and old topics are related.
    • During a typical lesson, teachers spend 78% of classroom time on actual teaching and learning, on average in the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS.
    • In the past five to ten years, classroom time spent on actual teaching and learning has decreased in about half of the countries and economies participating in TALIS.
    • 84% of teachers report having control over determining course content in their class, on average across in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS.
    • 81% of teachers say that they work in a collaborative school culture characterised by mutual support, on average in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS. Furthermore, 59% of principals took actions on a regular basis to support co-operation among teachers to develop new teaching practices in the 12 months prior to the survey.
    • On average in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, only 21% of teachers report participating in collaborative professional learning at least once a month and 28% engage in team-teaching with the same frequency.
    • About half of teachers in the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS "frequently" or "always" let students use ICT for projects or class work, but 25% of school principals report that delivery of quality instruction in their school is hindered by a shortage or inadequacy of digital technology for instruction.
    • In the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, 27% of teachers work in classes with at least 10% of students with special needs (i.e. those for whom a special learning need has been formally identified because they are mentally, physically, or emotionally disadvantaged). But, 32% of school principals report that delivery of quality instruction in their school is hindered by a shortage of teachers with competence in teaching students with special needs.
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    • During their initial education and training, 79% of teachers in the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS were instructed on subject content, pedagogy and classroom. Only 42% of teachers report having participated in some kind of formal or informal induction when they joined their current school.
    • In the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, taking part in some kind of in-service training is commonplace among teachers and principals, with 94% of teachers and 99% of principals attending at least one professional development activity in the year prior to the survey.
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    • Across OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, 26% of teachers "agree" or "strongly agree" with the statement that their profession is valued in society. Between 2013 and 2018, the percentage of teachers reporting that the profession is valued in society has increased in almost half of the countries and economies with available data.
    • Nine out of ten teachers and 95% of school leaders report that, all in all, they are satisfied with their job, on average in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS.
    • 39% of teachers and 47% of school leaders report being satisfied with their salaries, on average in OECD countries and economies.
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    • Across OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, 82% of teachers have a permanent contract while 12% of teacher are employed on contracts of one year or less.
    • 18% of teachers report experiencing stress in their work "a lot", on average in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS. 49% of teachers report that having too much administrative work is a source of stress they experience at work "quite a bit" or "a lot".
    • A quarter of teachers report that they would like to leave teaching within the next five years, on average across the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS. Furthermore, 14% of teachers age 50 or would like to leave teaching in the next five years.
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    • Only 10% of teachers report that they have never received feedback in their schools. On average across the OECD, the forms of feedback most commonly used are based on classroom observations and students' school-based and classroom-based results.
    • 71% of teachers who received feedback in the 12 months prior to the survey report that it had a positive impact on their teaching practice. In all countries and economies participating in TALIS, teachers who report receiving feedback based on multiple methods are more likely to find that the feedback they received had a positive impact on their teaching.
    • The proportion of teachers who work in schools where appraisal can result in a salary increase or financial bonus is 55% in schools where school management has responsibility over salaries. In schools where school management does not have responsibility over salaries, the proportion is only 30%.
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    • The proportion of female teachers represents over three quarters of the primary teaching force (TALIS average 78%), which is higher than the proportion in lower secondary education of 63%.
    • Less than half of teachers (46% on average) cited receiving formal training in facilitating transitions from early childhood education to primary education. However, a slightly smaller share of teachers (38%) said they felt well or very well prepared in this area.
    • Thirty-seven percent (37%) of teachers report modifying lessons for students with special needs is a source of stress "quite a bit" or "a lot" in primary in contrast to 29% in lower secondary.
    • Teachers in upper secondary education reported being involved in fewer collaborative activities than their peers in lower secondary education. Teaching jointly as a team in the same class shows significant decreases among teachers in upper secondary (5 percentage points difference).
    • Almost a quarter of teachers (23%) in upper secondary education stated they would like to leave teaching in the next five years. Teachers satisfied with their salaries and terms of employment, and who consider the school provides opportunities to engage in discussion and has a collaborative culture are less likely to state they will leave teaching.
    Visualisations
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Japan

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Japan

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.