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Japan
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In Japan, the total compulsory instruction time over the course of primary and lower secondary education is lower than the OECD average, at 7 338 hours, distributed over nine grades.
  • In Japan, 46% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education and 12% in vocational upper secondary education. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 23% in vocational upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, Japan spends USD 13 006 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647. Expenditure per student is equivalent to 30% of per capita GDP, which is above the OECD average of 27%.
  • On average,annual statutory salaries for upper secondary teachers in general programmes with the most prevalent qualification and 15 years of experience are USD 53 456 across the OECD. In Japan, the corresponding salary adjusted for purchasing power is USD 47 349, which is equivalent to JPY 5 549 000.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56.1 %, rank 2/46 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (65.7 %, rank 3/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (47.8 %, rank 2/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (34.9 %, rank 1/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.7 %, rank 3/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (48 %, rank 1/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a general degree at the tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (54.9 %, rank 2/46 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a general degree at the tertiary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (57.3 %, rank 3/46 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (62.3 %, rank 2/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (69.2 %, rank 3/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the largest among countries with available data. (42.9 %, rank 1/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained a short cycle tertiary degree is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (24.3 %, rank 2/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    The share of women among tertiary education new entrants is one of the smallest compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.7 %, rank 33/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering bachelor's programmes in Japan is relatively small. (45.7 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering doctoral or equivalent programmes in Japan is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (31.9 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the average age of new entrants in bachelor's programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.5 Years, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the average age of new entrants in master's long first degree (LFD) programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19 Years, rank 25/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of new entrants in tertiary education in Japan is comparatively young. (18.4 Years, rank 33/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the average age of new entrants in master's programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.6 Years, rank 38/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of women among the new entrants in master's programmes in Japan is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (35.4 %, rank 40/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance by field of education and gender

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46.3 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (37.2 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26.7 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.1 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66.6 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of education is relatively small. (49.4 %, rank 36/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively small. (19.3 %, rank 38/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Japan is relatively small. (17.4 %, rank 36/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of health and welfare is relatively small. (33.5 %, rank 36/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.4 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.1 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering doctoral or equivalent programmes in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Japan is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (18.1 %, rank 38/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in education in Japan is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (47.9 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in engineering, manufacturing and construction in Japan is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (14 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in health and welfare in Japan is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (50.7 %, rank 38/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Japan is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (24.1 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Japan is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (16.3 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes in education in Japan is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (8.9 %, rank 19/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (36.2 %, rank 23/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (31.3 %, rank 20/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate of 6-14 year-olds in Japan is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in public tertiary educational institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.9 %, rank 39/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in independent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (79.1 %, rank 2/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 in general upper secondary programmes in Japan is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.3 %, rank 43/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Japan is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 in general upper secondary programmes in Japan is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.6 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Japan is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 29/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Japan is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of students enrolled in private institutions at all early childhood education level is comparatively high. (79.5 %, rank 5/72 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion without access to tertiary education in Japan is relatively low compared to the other countries. (1.3 %, rank 27/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of vocational students as a share of short-cycle tertiary students is among the smallest in all OECD and partner countries. (83.2 %, rank 31/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Japan has a share of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion with access to tertiary education that is higher than other OECD and partner countries; (100 %, rank 1/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of below-two year-olds in other registered ECEC services in Japan is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25.6 %, rank 1/7 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of two-year-olds in other registered ECEC services in Japan is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (53.3 %, rank 1/7 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in other registered ECEC services in Japan is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 6/7 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of six-year-olds in primary education in Japan is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    In Japan, the average age of first-time tertiary graduates is relatively low. (22.1 Years, rank 33/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of bachelor's or equivalent graduates in public institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.1 %, rank 33/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of long first degree master's graduates in public institutions is relatively low in Japan. (34.4 %, rank 22/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of bachelor's or equivalent graduates in Japan is among the youngest. (22.6 Years, rank 32/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of master's or equivalent graduates in Japan is among the youngest. (25.2 Years, rank 22/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Japan has one of the smallest shares of women graduates from tertiary programmes. (51.8 %, rank 32/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female first-time bachelor's graduates is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (47.1 %, rank 34/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female first-time master's graduates is relatively smallest, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (48.5 %, rank 25/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.7 %, rank 3/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of sciences, journalism and information in Japan is relatively small. (3.6 %, rank 43/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law in Japan is relatively small. (3.7 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of health and welfare in Japan is relatively large. (41.2 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of services is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (21.6 %, rank 5/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.8 %, rank 2/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in the humanities and arts is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (21.3 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in social sciences, business and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (15.8 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively low. (22 %, rank 44/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law is relatively low. (30.1 %, rank 39/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively low. (18.9 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female tertiary graduates in the field of sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.5 %, rank 43/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in all fields is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (49.9 %, rank 44/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (48.4 %, rank 44/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (38 %, rank 44/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (27.1 %, rank 44/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (17.5 %, rank 44/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (15.9 %, rank 43/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (66.9 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Japan, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively low. (2.8 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of health and welfare is relatively high, compared to other countries with available data. (44.4 %, rank 1/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (2.7 %, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of new entrants in social sciences, journalism and information master's programmes is relatively low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.9 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of new entrants in business, administration and law master's programmes is relatively low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.9 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of new entrants in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics bachelor's programmes is relatively low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.2 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of new entrants in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics bachelor's programmes is relatively low in Japan among countries with available data. (18.8 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of new entrants in Services master's programmes is comparatively low among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    In Japan, international or foreign students from Asia are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (95.5 %, rank 1/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, international or foreign students from Europe are least represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (2 %, rank 41/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, international or foreign students from Africa are lowest represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.9 %, rank 41/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of international graduates among bachelor's first-time graduates is relatively low. (2.4 %, rank 28/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.9 %, rank 5/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    In Japan, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.9 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (41 %, rank 1/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on tertiary education in Japan is comparatively high. (19676 USD Equivalent, rank 5/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Japan, public and private expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (2.7 %, rank 35/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Japan, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0 %, rank 3/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Japan, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (0.5 %, rank 41/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Japan, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (3 %, rank 39/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Government and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64.5 %, rank 3/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Japan, total public expenditure on secondary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (2.9 %, rank 42/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Japan, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of total expenditure on tertiary education is relatively low. (0 %, rank 29/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for tertiary education is comparatively small in Japan. (35.5 %, rank 38/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The relative share of international expenditure on primary to tertiary education from initial source of funds is relatively low in Japan. (0 %, rank 28/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of capital expenditure for primary to tertiary education in Japan is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 29/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In Japan, the share of current expenditure on primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (83 %, rank 35/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of capital expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.5 %, rank 3/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of current expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (85.5 %, rank 34/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of capital expenditure on primary through tertiary is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.8 %, rank 3/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of current expenditure on primary through tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (86.2 %, rank 31/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of current expenditure on secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (87.6 %, rank 32/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of hours per year upper secondary teachers spend teaching general programmes in public institutions is comparatively low in Japan. (507 Hours, rank 31/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary public school is especially high. (203 Days, rank 1/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (63.9 %, rank 43/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43.5 %, rank 41/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31.7 %, rank 43/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education (bachelor's, master's, doctorate or equivalent education) is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24.5 %, rank 34/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30 %, rank 42/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48.5 %, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially high. (18.2 %, rank 3/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers younger than 30 in primary education is especially low in Japan. (62.8 %, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers under 30 in lower secondary education is especially low in Japan. (43.9 %, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Females under 30 represent a small proportion of teachers in upper secondary education in Japan. (37.1 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Females aged 50 or more represent a small proportion of teachers in primary education in Japan. (67.8 %, rank 38/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in lower secondary education is especially low in Japan. (42.6 %, rank 36/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in upper secondary education is especially low in Japan. (25.2 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in tertiary education is especially low in Japan. (27 %, rank 34/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of bachelor's, master's and doctoral level teachers younger than 30 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (1.6 %, rank 28/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of bachelor's, master's and doctoral level female teachers younger than 30 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (34.6 %, rank 32/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the share of bachelor's, master's and doctoral level female teachers older than 50 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (21.8 %, rank 32/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of teachers aged 50 or more in pre-primary education is especially low in Japan (11.2 %, rank 34/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of teachers under 30 in pre-primary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48.8 %, rank 1/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the percentage of teachers aged between 30 and 49 in pre-primary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (40 %, rank 35/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the most rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.05 Ratio, rank 4/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    In Japan, the share of teachers' aides among contact staff in pre-primary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.3 Ratio, rank 14/17 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    Classes in public primary institutions are comparatively large in Japan. (27 Students, rank 2/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Classes in in private primary institutions are comparatively large in Japan. (27 Students, rank 3/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary public institutions are comparatively large in Japan. (32 Students, rank 2/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively large in Japan. (32 Students, rank 2/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In independent private institutions at lower secondary level, classes are one of the largest in Japan among OECD and partner countries with available data. (32 Students, rank 1/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (89.6 %, rank 5/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is comparatively high. (94.4 %, rank 4/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is compartively high in Japan. (94.5 %, rank 5/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (1.8 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively low in Japan. (2.3 %, rank 39/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old with a short cycle tertiary education degree is relatively low in Japan. (3.1 %, rank 24/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    In Japan, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (6.5 %, rank 39/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity by gender and educational attainment

    In Japan, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is relatively low. (3 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Japan, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is relatively low. (3.6 %, rank 43/45 , 2022) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
    Visualisations
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Japan

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Japan

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.