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Italy
Overview of the education system (EAG 2021)
  • In Italy, men are more likely than women to pursue a vocational track. In 2019, 61% of upper secondary vocational graduates were men, compared to 55% on average across OECD countries.
  • In Italy, 35% of 25-34 year-old women had a tertiary qualification in 2020 compared to 23% of their male peers.
  • In 2018, Italy invested a total of USD 11 202 per student on primary to tertiary institutions compared to USD 10 454 on average across OECD countries. This represents 4.1% of GDP, compared to 4.9% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2019, 95% of 3-5 year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education and care programmes and primary education in Italy, compared to 88% on average across OECD countries.
  • Statutory salaries of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of their salary scales are 46% to 55% higher than those of teachers with the minimum qualifications at the start of their career at pre-primary (ISCED 02), primary and general lower and upper secondary levels in Italy compared to 86% - 91% on average.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.1 %, rank 41/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Italy has one of the lowest percentages of 25-64 year-olds whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (0 %, rank 40/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 34/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The percentage of students in government-dependent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 19/22 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation expectancy

    Italy has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education programmes before the age of 30. (0.6 %, rank 22/26 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Italy has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from short tertiary education before the age of 30. (0.6 %, rank 18/22 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The share of first-time short-cycle graduates is relatively low in Italy. (1.5 %, rank 23/26 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time master's graduates is relatively high in Italy. (16.4 %, rank 5/23 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of education is relatively low in Italy. (2.2 %, rank 39/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of male tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is relatively large. (11.8 %, rank 4/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by age

    In Italy, the percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates younger than 30 is relatively high. (92.1 %, rank 4/31 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the percentage of first-time master's graduates younger than 35 is relatively high. (93.8 %, rank 4/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the percentage of first-time doctorate graduates younger than 35 is relatively high. (82.7 %, rank 2/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in social sciences, business and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (16 %, rank 40/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17 %, rank 3/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.8 %, rank 41/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.3 %, rank 43/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of education in Italy is relatively small. (0.8 %, rank 43/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of services is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.6 %, rank 2/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Italy, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of education is relatively low. (4.3 %, rank 33/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is relatively low. (15.7 %, rank 35/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is relatively low. (2.1 %, rank 35/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of health and welfare is relatively low. (8.1 %, rank 33/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (60.8 %, rank 34/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies among all national tertiary students in Italy is relatively low. (1.9 %, rank 41/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in field of health and welfare is relatively small. (0 %, rank 30/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Italy has a small share of international students graduate from tertiary programmes compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (2.4 %, rank 24/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international students entering tertiary education in Italy is relatively low. (2.3 %, rank 27/31 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of international students entering bachelor's programmes is relatively low. (2.3 %, rank 31/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of international graduates among first-time short-cycle tertiary first-time graduates is relatively low. (0 %, rank 20/23 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of international graduates among first-time master's graduates is relatively low. (0.5 %, rank 29/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of education among all international or foreign tertiary students in Italy is relatively low. (1 %, rank 31/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of arts and humanities among all international or foreign tertiary students in Italy is relatively high. (32.9 %, rank 2/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all international or foreign tertiary students in Italy is relatively low. (13.5 %, rank 29/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies among all international or foreign tertiary students in Italy is relatively low. (1.9 %, rank 41/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all international or foreign tertiary students in Italy is relatively high. (21.8 %, rank 4/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (0.5 %, rank 31/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (2.5 %, rank 32/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (1.9 %, rank 32/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Adult learning

    In Italy, the number of annual hours of participation of adults without an upper secondary education in formal and/or non-formal education and training is comparatively low (60 %, rank 20/24 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Adult participation in non-formal education

    In Italy, the proportion of adults employed in the private sector and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (0.8 %, rank 26/30 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in non-job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is relatively low. (1 %, rank 20/22 , 2016) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on tertiary education in Italy is comparatively low. (7684 USD Equivalent, rank 23/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Italy, the international expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to tertiary education is high. (0 USD Equivalent, rank 2/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of public expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.6 %, rank 38/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Italy, total public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (7.8 %, rank 37/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Italy, total public expenditure on primary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (2 %, rank 37/40 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Total public expenditure on education as a percentage of total government expenditure, for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in Italy compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.2 %, rank 37/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In Italy, the share of capital expenditure on primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.1 %, rank 33/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of current expenditure on primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98.9 %, rank 1/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of capital expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively in Italy. (1.3 %, rank 34/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of current expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98.7 %, rank 1/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of capital expenditure for primary to tertiary education in Italy is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.2 %, rank 31/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of current expenditure for primary to tertiary education in Italy is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96.8 %, rank 1/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of capital expenditure on secondary education is relatively in Italy. (1.4 %, rank 34/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of current expenditure on secondary education is relatively in Italy. (98.6 %, rank 1/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in primary school is especially low. (170 Days, rank 29/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary school is especially low. (170 Days, rank 28/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in upper secondary school is especially low. (170 Days, rank 28/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (95.4 %, rank 4/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers younger than 30 is especially low. (1.4 %, rank 37/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially low. (2 %, rank 33/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially low. (2.2 %, rank 35/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially low. (1.9 %, rank 36/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially low. (40.5 %, rank 38/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially low. (35.9 %, rank 37/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially low. (39.7 %, rank 37/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers older than 50 is especially high. (58.4 %, rank 1/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers younger than 30 in primary education is especially high in Italy. (94 %, rank 1/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Females aged 50 or more represent a large proportion of teachers in primary education in Italy. (96.6 %, rank 2/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.66 Ratio, rank 17/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.66 Ratio, rank 23/25 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.71 Ratio, rank 23/25 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.76 Ratio, rank 21/25 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The change between 2003 and 2013 in statutory salaries for upper secondary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively small in Italy. (95 Index, rank 20/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary female teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year women workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.86 Ratio, rank 19/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary male teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year men workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.61 Ratio, rank 19/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 35-44 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Italy. (0.74 Ratio, rank 17/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 45-54 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Italy. (0.64 Ratio, rank 19/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 55-64 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Italy. (0.56 Ratio, rank 21/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The change in statutory pre-primary teachers' salaries with 15 years of experience, based on most prevalent qualifications at different points in their careers is comparatively small in Italy. (95 Index, rank 16/20 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Principals' salaries

    Lower-secondary school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is high in Italy. (1.68 Ratio, rank 3/22 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The average lower secondary school heads' actual salary is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (98704 USD Equivalent, rank 5/23 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the average actual salaries of 25-34 year-old lower-secondary school heads is relatively high compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (98422 USD Equivalent, rank 1/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of lower secondary men school heads aged 25 to 64 is one of the highest in Italy. (100229 USD Equivalent, rank 5/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of lower secondary women school heads aged 25 to 64 is one of the highest in Italy. (98070 USD Equivalent, rank 5/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    In Italy, the number of students per teacher in private upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.3 Ratio, rank 37/40 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the upper secondary level in independent private institutions is especially low in Italy. (7.3 Ratio, rank 21/23 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the number of students per teacher in all private secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.4 Ratio, rank 33/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (73.7 %, rank 42/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (82.7 %, rank 37/41 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is compartively low in Italy. (66.7 %, rank 42/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Italy. (62.5 %, rank 39/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (67.3 %, rank 32/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (49.1 %, rank 39/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (62.3 %, rank 37/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (67.4 %, rank 38/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (71.3 %, rank 35/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education is comparatively low. (60.6 %, rank 34/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is compartively low in Italy. (69.1 %, rank 43/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is compartively low in Italy. (65 %, rank 41/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with tertiary education is high in Italy. (24.9 %, rank 2/44 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (13 %, rank 5/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (22.6 %, rank 3/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (42.8 %, rank 1/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (11.2 %, rank 4/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (16.7 %, rank 5/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    The difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old women with tertiary education and those with upper secondary education is quite low. (131 Index, rank 33/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The proportion of youth neither employed nor in education or training among 15-29 year-olds in Italy is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.5 %, rank 5/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Italy, the proportion of adults who reported being interested in politics is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (33 %, rank 24/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of adults without an upper secondary education who reported being interested in politics is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (18.4 %, rank 24/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of adults who reported that the political system allows people like them to have a say in what the government does is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (16.5 %, rank 25/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of adults without an upper secondary education who reported that the political system allows people like them to have a say in what the government does relatively is low. (8.9 %, rank 24/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of adults with a tertiary education who reported that the political system allows people like them to have a say in what the government does relatively is low. (22.5 %, rank 25/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Participation in education by gender

    The share of female students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes in Italy is comparatively small. (27.6 %, rank 38/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    In Italy, the average age of new entrants in doctoral programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.6 Years, rank 31/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the percentage of first-time entrants into tertiary education younger than 25 is relatively high. (94.3 %, rank 3/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of first-time entrants into bachelor's or equivalent programmes before the age of 25 is relatively high. (94.4 %, rank 5/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of first-time entrants into master's or equivalent programmes before the age of 30 is relatively high. (92.2 %, rank 2/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of first-time entrants into doctorate's or equivalent programmes before the age of 30 is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (71.7 %, rank 5/35 , 2019) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
                            
    • One in five adults across the OECD has not attained upper secondary education.
    • In 2020, the unemployment rate of adults that had not completed upper secondary education was almost twice as high as those with higher qualifications, and 27% of these adults earn only at or below half the median on average across OECD countries.
    • In 2019, at least 10% of school-aged youth were not in school in about a quarter of OECD countries.
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    • In 2019, women made up 55% of new entrants to tertiary education on average. If current patterns continue, it is expected that 46% of young women will graduate with a tertiary degree for the first time before they turn 30, 15 percentage points more than men.
    • Women also earn on average about 76-78% of men’s salaries regardless of educational attainment, although the gender gap narrowed by 2 percentage points between 2013 and 2019.
    • Women are less likely than men to enter a STEM field of study, and the average share remained generally stable between 2013 and 2019.
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    • On average across countries, expenditure on educational institutions amounted to approximately USD 9 300 per student at pre-primary level; USD 10 500 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non tertiary level; and USD 17 100 at tertiary level.
    • The public sector funds 90% of total expenditure on primary and secondary institutions on average, often compulsory in most OECD countries, compared to 83% at pre-primary level and 66% at tertiary level.
    • In 2018, the OECD countries spent on average 4.9% of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on primary to tertiary educational institutions.
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    • In 2019, less than 5% of pre-primary teachers were men, compared to 18% at primary level, 40% at upper secondary level and more than 50% at tertiary level on average.
    • Between 2005 and 2020, on average across OECD countries and economies with available data for all reference years, the statutory salaries of teachers with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications increased by 3% at primary level, 4% at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 2% at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • In most countries, teachers above 50 years of age make up more than a third of the teaching force.
    • Attracting male teachers to the profession can be difficult: While the average actual salary of female teachers is equal to or higher than the average salary of other full-time, tertiary-educated women, primary and secondary male teachers earn between 76% and 85% of the average earnings of other full-time, tertiary-educated men.
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    • On average across OECD countries, 87% of children aged 3-5 are enrolled in education on average across OECD countries compared to 25% for children below the age of 3.
    • There are 15 children for every teacher at pre-primary level on average across OECD countries.
    • Half of children enrolled in early childhood development services and a two-thirds of pre-primary children attend public institutions on average across OECD countries
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Italy

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Italy

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.