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Italy
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In Italy, 37% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education and 40% in vocational upper secondary education. A further 1% are enrolled in lower secondary programmes and 9% in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 23% in vocational upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • In Italy,35% of 25-34 year-olds have a vocational education and training (VET) qualification as their highest level of attainment: 34% at upper secondary level and 1% at post-secondary non-tertiary level.
  • Although an upper secondary qualification is often the minimum attainment needed for successful labour-market participation,22% of 25-34 year-olds in Italy have not attained an upper secondary qualification, higher than the OECD average (14%).
  • Workers in Italy aged 25-34 with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment earn 4% more than those without upper secondary attainment, whereas the earning advantage for workers with general upper secondary attainment is 8%.
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, Italy spends USD 11 439 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647. Expenditure per student is equivalent to 27% of per capita GDP, which is the same as the OECD average of 27%.
  • In Italy,61% of teachers in general upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or older, compared to the OECD average of 39%.Teachers in vocational programmes are on average younger than their general programme peers, with 59% aged 50 or above (43% on average across the OECD).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.4 %, rank 41/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Italy has one of the lowest percentages of 25-64 year-olds whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (0.1 %, rank 36/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the percentage of 25-64 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (5.6 %, rank 43/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.2 %, rank 31/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 35/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (12.3 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a general degree at the tertiary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.1 %, rank 43/46 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 35-44 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.7 %, rank 42/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 45-54 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.7 %, rank 41/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 55-64 year-old men who have attained tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.8 %, rank 42/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Italy has one of the smallest shares of 25-64 year-old men whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (0.1 %, rank 36/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Italy has one of the smallest shares of 25-64 year-old women whose highest education level is a short-cycle tertiary education degree. (0.1 %, rank 36/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of 25-64 year-old men who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (4.3 %, rank 44/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (6.9 %, rank 43/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained a short cycle tertiary degree is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (0.1 %, rank 30/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained a short cycle tertiary degree is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (0.4 %, rank 29/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of educaton is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (4.4 %, rank 30/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (1.6 %, rank 30/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    The share of female new entrants integrating short-cycle tertiary programmes in Italy is comparatively small. (26.7 %, rank 32/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the average age of new entrants in doctoral programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.4 Years, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of first-time entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (2.3 %, rank 23/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance by field of education and gender

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.4 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (68.6 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in engineering, manufacturing and construction in Italy is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (7.6 %, rank 28/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiaryprogrammes in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Italy is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (25.2 %, rank 18/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of men among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.5 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of men among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (61.2 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering master's or equivalent programmes in education in Italy is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (8.1 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (24.8 %, rank 29/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (26.6 %, rank 21/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of services is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (41.4 %, rank 23/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    In Italy, the percentage of female students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (36.4 %, rank 39/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Italy is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 27/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Italy is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 28/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Italy is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 28/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, upper secondary vocational students among all vocational students are relatively more numerous than in other OECD or partner countries. (98.3 %, rank 1/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (100 %, rank 1/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of post-secondary non-tertiary students enrolled in vocational programmes in Italy is among the lowest. (26.3 %, rank 24/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in post-secondary non-tertiary vocational programmes are proportionally more in Italy than in the other countries. (100 %, rank 1/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of post-secondary non-tertiary students among all vocational students is relatively small compared to other OECD and partner countries. (0.2 %, rank 26/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of vocational students as a share of short-cycle tertiary students is among the largest in all OECD and partner countries. (100 %, rank 1/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving partial completion or insufficient for completion is comparatively large. (0 %, rank 4/4 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Italy has a share of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion with access to tertiary education that is higher than other OECD and partner countries; (100 %, rank 1/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (100 %, rank 1/9 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in upper secondary programmes in Italy is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (77.1 %, rank 3/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Italy is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 27/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of two-year-olds in pre-primary education in Italy is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.7 %, rank 5/80 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Italy is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 29/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in master's programmes in Italy is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.4 %, rank 4/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (26.4 %, rank 31/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    In Italy, the average age of post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (26.3 Years, rank 23/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates among post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes in Italy is relatively low. (37.7 %, rank 23/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of female first-time graduates in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (26.9 %, rank 27/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.8 %, rank 2/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.1 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.5 %, rank 43/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of education in Italy is relatively small. (0.9 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Italy is relatively large. (29.2 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively low. (0 %, rank 23/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.2 %, rank 34/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of services is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25.7 %, rank 5/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of STEM is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (49.3 %, rank 5/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively low compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (0 %, rank 34/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.8 %, rank 3/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.1 %, rank 41/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in the humanities and arts is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (20.5 %, rank 2/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in social sciences, business and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (16.2 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of male tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is relatively large. (11.7 %, rank 3/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of male tertiary graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively large. (13.3 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries. (47 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries. (73.9 %, rank 30/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (67.2 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of services is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (39.8 %, rank 40/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Italy, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of education is relatively low. (4.5 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is relatively low. (15.8 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is relatively low. (2.3 %, rank 38/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of health and welfare is relatively low. (8 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all national tertiary students in Italy is relatively low. (17.7 %, rank 33/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies among all national tertiary students in Italy is relatively low. (2 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in field of health and welfare is relatively small. (0 %, rank 30/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of education is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (1.3 %, rank 36/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively high, compared to other countries with available data. (24.8 %, rank 3/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the percentage of new entrants in business, administration and law bachelor's programmes is relatively low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.7 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of new entrants in business, administration and law master's programmes is relatively low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.4 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of new entrants in Information and communication technologies bachelor's programmes is relatively low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.6 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of new entrants in Information and communication tecnologies master's programmes is one of the lowest, compared to other countries with available data. (1.4 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of new entrants in health and welfare bachelor's programmes is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (6.4 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Italy has a small share of international students graduate from tertiary programmes compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (1.9 %, rank 30/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of international students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 27/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of international students entering doctoral or equivalent programmes in Italy is relatively small. (11.3 %, rank 31/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of international graduates among first-time short-cycle tertiary first-time graduates is relatively low. (0 %, rank 23/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of international graduates among bachelor's first-time graduates is relatively low. (2.1 %, rank 29/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of international graduates among first-time master's graduates is relatively low. (4.4 %, rank 30/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of international graduates among first-time doctorate graduates is relatively low. (7 %, rank 28/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 31/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of international or foreign students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes among men is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (0 %, rank 30/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of arts and humanities among all international or foreign tertiary students in Italy is relatively high. (21.4 %, rank 3/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of social sciences, journalism and information among all international or foreign tertiary students in Italy is relatively high. (16.1 %, rank 2/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies among all international or foreign tertiary students in Italy is relatively low. (2 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.7 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Adult learning

    In Italy, the percentage of training costs as a share of total costs in all entreprises in 2020, is one of the among the other OECD and partners countries with available data. (1.7 %, rank 5/23 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Adult participation in non-formal education

    In Italy, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-olds participating in at least one job-related non-formal education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.4 %, rank 17/19 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (1.5 %, rank 19/20 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per tertiary student is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8691 USD Equivalent, rank 30/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for core educational services on tertiary education in Italy is comparatively low. (8148 USD Equivalent, rank 33/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the total annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10519 USD Equivalent 2015, rank 18/22 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    Compared to 2011, GDP is comparatively low. (95 Index, rank 46/48 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Italy, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0 %, rank 3/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Government and private expenditure in education

    The share of public expenditure on tertiary educational institutions is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.5 %, rank 43/46 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Italy, total public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (7 %, rank 41/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In Italy, the share of capital expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.8 %, rank 33/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of current expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96.2 %, rank 4/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in primary public school is especially low. (169 Days, rank 31/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary public school is especially low. (169 Days, rank 30/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in upper secondary public school is especially low. (169 Days, rank 30/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (95.4 %, rank 3/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers younger than 30 is especially low. (2.5 %, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially low. (2.6 %, rank 35/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially low. (2.3 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially low. (2.4 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially low. (38.8 %, rank 40/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially low. (37.8 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially low. (40.3 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers older than 50 is especially high. (57.3 %, rank 1/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of bachelor's, master's and doctoral level teachers aged between 30 and 49 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (43 %, rank 31/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of tertiary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (43 %, rank 34/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of tertiary teachers older than 50 is relatively high, compared to other countries with data available. (56.2 %, rank 1/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of bachelor's, master's and doctoral level teachers younger than 30 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (0.8 %, rank 30/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of tertiary teachers younger than 30 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (0.8 %, rank 34/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of teachers aged 50 or more in pre-primary education is especially high in Italy (61 %, rank 1/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the percentage of teachers under 30 in pre-primary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.7 %, rank 36/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the percentage of teachers aged between 30 and 49 in pre-primary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (38.3 %, rank 36/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In upper secondary education, the percentage of teachers aged 50 or more is particularly high in Italy. (61.5 %, rank 2/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of teachers under 30 in Italy is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.1 %, rank 32/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the percentage of upper secondary general education teachers aged between 30 and 49 is relatively low, compared to the other countries with available data. (36.5 %, rank 31/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of upper secondary vocational education teachers aged 50 or more is relatively high, compared to the other countries with available data. (58.6 %, rank 1/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers under 30 in upper secondary vocational education is especially low in Italy. (2.5 %, rank 29/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the percentage of teachers aged between 30 and 49 in upper secondary vocational education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (38.9 %, rank 29/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.65 Ratio, rank 24/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.69 Ratio, rank 24/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.74 Ratio, rank 24/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the change in statutory upper secondary education teachers' salaries with 15 years of experience, based on most prevalent qualifications at different points in teachers' careers is relatively small. (96 Index, rank 26/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary female teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year women workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.84 Ratio, rank 19/21 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary male teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year men workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.59 Ratio, rank 19/21 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 35-44 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Italy. (0.64 Ratio, rank 20/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 45-54 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Italy. (0.67 Ratio, rank 20/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 55-64 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Italy. (0.58 Ratio, rank 22/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Principals' salaries

    Lower-secondary 25-64 year-old school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is high in Italy. (1.72 Ratio, rank 5/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-64 year-old primary school heads is one of the highest in Italy. (104753 USD Equivalent, rank 2/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-64 year-old lower secondary education school heads is one of the highest in Italy. (104753 USD Equivalent, rank 4/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the average actual salaries of 25-34 year-old lower-secondary school heads is relatively high compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (90170 USD Equivalent, rank 3/17 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    In Italy, the number of students per teacher in private upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.3 Ratio, rank 38/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the upper secondary level in independent private institutions is especially low in Italy. (7.3 Ratio, rank 23/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the number of students per teacher in public bachelor's, master's, doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the highest among countries with available data. (20.9 Ratio, rank 5/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (76.9 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (85.8 %, rank 38/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (64.9 %, rank 35/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with tertiary education is compartively low in Italy. (72.8 %, rank 42/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (72.7 %, rank 33/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (54.4 %, rank 38/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (78.7 %, rank 32/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (69.3 %, rank 36/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (73.8 %, rank 35/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education is comparatively low. (71.6 %, rank 31/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education is comparatively low. (75.9 %, rank 32/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively low in Italy. (67 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively low in Italy. (84.9 %, rank 22/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively low in Italy. (76.7 %, rank 40/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (36 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is compartively low in Italy. (75 %, rank 44/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is compartively low in Italy. (71.3 %, rank 41/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low (80.4 %, rank 34/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in Italy compared to other countries with available data. (48.3 %, rank 36/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in Italy. (64.3 %, rank 38/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by field of education

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of arts is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (72 %, rank 17/17 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of humanities (except languages), social sciences, journalism and information is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (77.6 %, rank 26/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (76.6 %, rank 27/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of law is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (80.2 %, rank 15/15 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (77.9 %, rank 28/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (83 %, rank 27/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64, with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the smallest in Italy, compared to other OECD countries. (15.1 %, rank 24/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 3 months to less than 12 months is one of the smallest in Italy, compared to other OECD countries. (19.6 %, rank 27/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the largest in Italy, compared to other OECD countries. (65.3 %, rank 3/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the smallest in Italy, compared to other OECD countries. (18.7 %, rank 25/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 3 months to less than 12 months is one of the smallest in Italy, compared to other OECD countries. (22.8 %, rank 28/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 3 months to less than 12 months is one of the smallest in Italy, compared to other OECD countries. (28.3 %, rank 27/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the largest in Italy, compared to OECD countries. (46.6 %, rank 5/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (10.7 %, rank 4/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively high in Italy. (7.8 %, rank 4/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment by gender and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 55-64 year-old men with tertiary education is compartively low in Italy. (1.1 %, rank 35/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (8.7 %, rank 5/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (14.6 %, rank 4/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with tertiary education is high in Italy. (21 %, rank 3/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (18.6 %, rank 4/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (37.4 %, rank 1/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (27.2 %, rank 2/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (18.8 %, rank 3/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (16.8 %, rank 2/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (11.2 %, rank 5/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (29.5 %, rank 2/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity by gender and educational attainment

    In Italy, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (42.4 %, rank 3/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (29.2 %, rank 1/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (11.9 %, rank 2/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (15.3 %, rank 5/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is relatively high. (21.9 %, rank 5/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is relatively high. (19.6 %, rank 1/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (102 Index, rank 35/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (111 Index, rank 34/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (139 Index, rank 34/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (100 Index, rank 35/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers with a bachelor's or equivalent education are comparatively low. (103 %, rank 33/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers with a master's, doctoral or equivalent education degree are comparatively low. (158.5 %, rank 29/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Italy. (148 Index, rank 3/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Italy. (104 Index, rank 26/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Italy. (140 Index, rank 5/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with bachelor's or equivalent attainment compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Italy. (128 Index, rank 32/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with bachelor's or equivalent attainment compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Italy. (142 Index, rank 31/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    The earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds without an upper secondary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (90.3 %, rank 5/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (73.2 %, rank 25/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (61.1 %, rank 27/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Italy is relatively high (19.6 %, rank 3/29 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Italy is relatively high (24.7 %, rank 4/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Italy is relatively high (22.9 %, rank 3/29 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Italy is relatively high. (22.2 %, rank 3/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are inactive NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Italy is relatively high. (13.7 %, rank 2/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are inactive NEET (18-24 year-olds) in Italy is relatively high. (15.5 %, rank 3/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of youth neither employed nor in education or training among 25-29 year-olds in Italy is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.1 %, rank 3/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of men neither employed nor in education among 15-29 year-olds is relatively high. (21.8 %, rank 2/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Among 25-29 year-old men in Italy, a large share of them are neither employed nor in education or training. (24 %, rank 2/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Italy, the share of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.9 %, rank 3/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of adults with a tertiary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.6 %, rank 5/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of Internet users without an upper secondary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.5 %, rank 25/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of Internet users with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.7 %, rank 22/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Italy, the share of Internet users with tertiary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.9 %, rank 24/26 , 2021) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Italy

    Click on the coverpage to see the full OECD iLibrary version
    Key
    Country Reviews for Italy

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.