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Data profiles:



Israel
Overview of the education system (EAG 2021)
  • In Israel, men are as likely as women to pursue a vocational track. In 2019, 50% of upper secondary vocational graduates were men, compared to 55% on average across OECD countries.
  • In Israel, 58% of 25-34 year-old women had a tertiary qualification in 2020 compared to 37% of their male peers.
  • In 2018, Israel invested a total of USD 9 572 per student on primary to tertiary institutions compared to USD 10 454 on average across OECD countries. This represents 6.2% of GDP, compared to 4.9% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2019, 99% of 3-5 year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education and care programmes and primary education in Israel, compared to 88% on average across OECD countries.
  • Statutory salaries of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of their salary scales are 125% to 179% higher than those of teachers with the minimum qualifications at the start of their career at pre-primary (ISCED 02), primary and general lower and upper secondary levels in Israel compared to 86% - 91% on average.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46.1 %, rank 3/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.4 %, rank 32/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.7 %, rank 32/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (40.6 %, rank 5/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.1 %, rank 5/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate among 15-19 year-olds in Israel is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (66.1 %, rank 40/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in Israel is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in public tertiary educational institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.8 %, rank 41/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in government-dependent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (70.3 %, rank 2/22 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 20-24 year-olds in Israel is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.9 %, rank 41/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 3-5 year-old children in early childhood and primary education in Israel is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.5 %, rank 4/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the enrolment rate of children under 3 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (57.5 %, rank 3/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 20-24-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.8 %, rank 39/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in school- and work-based programmes among all upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.9 %, rank 21/22 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation expectancy

    In Israel, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from a doctoral or equivalent programme before the age of 35 ranks as one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.5 %, rank 26/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    In Israel, the percentage of bachelor's or equivalent graduates in public institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.3 %, rank 34/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of master's or equivalent graduates in public institutions is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.3 %, rank 35/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by age

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from vocational programmes in Israel is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (17.2 Years, rank 36/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from general programmes in Israel is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (17.2 Years, rank 34/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates younger than 30 is relatively low. (76.4 %, rank 29/31 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of first-time master's graduates younger than 35 is relatively low. (57.7 %, rank 29/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of first-time doctorate graduates younger than 35 is relatively low. (36.2 %, rank 29/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Israel is relatively large. (32.5 %, rank 5/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.4 %, rank 32/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Israel, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is relatively low. (15.4 %, rank 36/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of health and welfare is relatively low. (7.2 %, rank 35/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43.4 %, rank 34/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all national tertiary students in Israel is relatively low. (13.7 %, rank 31/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of health and welfare among all national tertiary students in Israel is relatively low. (8.3 %, rank 32/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of services among all national tertiary students in Israel is relatively low. (0 %, rank 41/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel,the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of education is relatively small. (22.7 %, rank 31/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of health and welfare is relatively small. (28.1 %, rank 31/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of arts and humanities is relatively small. (0 %, rank 31/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in field of health and welfare is relatively small. (0 %, rank 30/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of services is comparatively small. (0 %, rank 37/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The proportion of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 37/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    The share of international students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.7 %, rank 32/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of international students entering doctoral or equivalent programmes in Israel is relatively small. (8.7 %, rank 32/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, international or foreign students from North America are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.6 %, rank 2/75 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, international or foreign students from Oceania are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.8 %, rank 3/75 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of social sciences, journalism and information among all international or foreign tertiary students in Israel is relatively high. (18.9 %, rank 1/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all international or foreign tertiary students in Israel is relatively low. (9.6 %, rank 29/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of services among all international or foreign tertiary students in Israel is relatively low. (0 %, rank 41/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (1.5 %, rank 32/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.9 %, rank 32/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per student in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1068 USD Equivalent, rank 19/19 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on tertiary education in Israel is comparatively low. (39 USD Equivalent, rank 22/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The public expenditure on public educational institutions per full-time equivalent student at tertiary level is comparatively low in Israel. (3173 USD Equivalent, rank 35/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Israel, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies. (6.2 %, rank 3/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Israel, public and private expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (4.8 %, rank 1/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary level is high. (4.4 %, rank 2/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on educational institutions at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is relatively high in Israel. (4.6 %, rank 4/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the international expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to tertiary education is high. (0 USD Equivalent, rank 2/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent student from primary to tertiary education is one of the largest in Israel among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.2 %, rank 2/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Israel is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.6 %, rank 4/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent student in tertiary education is one of the largest in Israel. (3.5 %, rank 4/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on tertiary education in Israel is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-2.8 %, rank 26/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    In Israel, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of total expenditure on tertiary education is relatively low. (0 %, rank 27/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Israel, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of total expenditure on primary to tertiary education is relatively low. (0 %, rank 27/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Total public expenditure on education as a percentage of total government expenditure, for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high in Israel compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.8 %, rank 4/41 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The relative share of international expenditure on primary to tertiary education from initial source of funds is relatively small in Israel. (0 %, rank 26/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2015, the share of total public expenditure from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is comparatively large in Israel. (116 Index, rank 4/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The relative share of international expenditure on tertiary education from initial source of funds in Israel is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 26/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In Israel, the share of capital expenditure on primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.2 %, rank 4/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of current expenditure on primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (86.8 %, rank 30/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of capital expenditure on post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (0 %, rank 16/17 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of current expenditure on post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high . (100 %, rank 1/17 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary school is especially low. (174 Days, rank 26/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in pre-primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.4 %, rank 5/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (70.8 %, rank 5/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers younger than 30 in primary education is especially high in Israel. (91.5 %, rank 5/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers under 30 in lower secondary education is especially high in Israel. (87.3 %, rank 1/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Females under 30 represent a large proportion of teachers in upper secondary education in Israel. (83.2 %, rank 1/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    The change between 2005 and 2013 in statutory salaries for lower secondary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively large in Israel. (133 Index, rank 3/25 , 2020) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher can expect to have one of the lowest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (40 USD Equivalent, rank 24/28 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary female teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year women workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.17 Ratio, rank 4/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 55-64 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is high in Israel. (0.99 Ratio, rank 3/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The change in statutory pre-primary teachers' salaries with 15 years of experience, based on most prevalent qualifications at different points in their careers is comparatively large in Israel. (145 Index, rank 1/20 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    It takes lower secondary teachers longer to progress through the salary scale in Israel compared to other OECD and partner countries. (36 Years, rank 5/27 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in private institutions is especially low in Israel. (0.8 Ratio, rank 39/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in government-dependent private institutions is especially low in Israel. (0.8 Ratio, rank 19/19 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Class size

    Classes in lower secondary public institutions are comparatively large in Israel. (29 Students, rank 4/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In government-dependent private institutions at primary education level, classes are relatively large in Israel. (25 Students, rank 3/19 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (70.4 %, rank 30/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 35-44 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (55.5 %, rank 39/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (50.6 %, rank 41/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Israel. (70.3 %, rank 39/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively low. (6.4 %, rank 38/42 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with below upper secondary education is high in Israel. (45.1 %, rank 4/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (22.7 %, rank 2/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (30.3 %, rank 5/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (106 Index, rank 27/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (107 Index, rank 25/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (107 Index, rank 25/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings of foreign-born aged between 25 and 64 who work full- and part-time with a short cycle tertiary education are comparatively low. (108 Index, rank 24/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (66.9 %, rank 34/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary education or post-secondary non-tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (66.6 %, rank 35/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (68.7 %, rank 34/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (72.4 %, rank 36/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Israel, the proportion of adults with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who reported being interested in politics is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (68.8 %, rank 5/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Participation in education by gender

    The share of women among tertiary education new entrants is one of the largest compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (58.6 %, rank 3/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering bachelor's programmes in Israel is relatively large. (58.2 %, rank 4/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering doctoral or equivalent programmes in Israel is one of the largest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (53.5 %, rank 5/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the proportion of men (excluding international students) expected to enter bachelor's programmes before the age of 25 is relatively small. (24.6 %, rank 28/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    The share of new entrants younger than 25 in bachelor's or equivalent programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (69.3 %, rank 36/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of young people expected to enter in a bachelor's or equivalent programme before the age of 25 is relatively low. (35.9 %, rank 33/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of first-time entrants into tertiary education younger than 25 is relatively low. (71.5 %, rank 29/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The average age of new entrants in tertiary education in Israel is comparatively old. (23.9 Years, rank 4/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of first-time entrants into bachelor's or equivalent programmes before the age of 25 is relatively low. (69.3 %, rank 36/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of first-time entrants into master's or equivalent programmes before the age of 30 is relatively low. (45.7 %, rank 37/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the proportion of first-time entrants into doctorate's or equivalent programmes before the age of 30 is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (38.3 %, rank 32/35 , 2019) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
                            
    • One in five adults across the OECD has not attained upper secondary education.
    • In 2020, the unemployment rate of adults that had not completed upper secondary education was almost twice as high as those with higher qualifications, and 27% of these adults earn only at or below half the median on average across OECD countries.
    • In 2019, at least 10% of school-aged youth were not in school in about a quarter of OECD countries.
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    • In 2019, women made up 55% of new entrants to tertiary education on average. If current patterns continue, it is expected that 46% of young women will graduate with a tertiary degree for the first time before they turn 30, 15 percentage points more than men.
    • Women also earn on average about 76-78% of men’s salaries regardless of educational attainment, although the gender gap narrowed by 2 percentage points between 2013 and 2019.
    • Women are less likely than men to enter a STEM field of study, and the average share remained generally stable between 2013 and 2019.
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    • On average across countries, expenditure on educational institutions amounted to approximately USD 9 300 per student at pre-primary level; USD 10 500 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non tertiary level; and USD 17 100 at tertiary level.
    • The public sector funds 90% of total expenditure on primary and secondary institutions on average, often compulsory in most OECD countries, compared to 83% at pre-primary level and 66% at tertiary level.
    • In 2018, the OECD countries spent on average 4.9% of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on primary to tertiary educational institutions.
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    • In 2019, less than 5% of pre-primary teachers were men, compared to 18% at primary level, 40% at upper secondary level and more than 50% at tertiary level on average.
    • Between 2005 and 2020, on average across OECD countries and economies with available data for all reference years, the statutory salaries of teachers with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications increased by 3% at primary level, 4% at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 2% at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • In most countries, teachers above 50 years of age make up more than a third of the teaching force.
    • Attracting male teachers to the profession can be difficult: While the average actual salary of female teachers is equal to or higher than the average salary of other full-time, tertiary-educated women, primary and secondary male teachers earn between 76% and 85% of the average earnings of other full-time, tertiary-educated men.
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    • On average across OECD countries, 87% of children aged 3-5 are enrolled in education on average across OECD countries compared to 25% for children below the age of 3.
    • There are 15 children for every teacher at pre-primary level on average across OECD countries.
    • Half of children enrolled in early childhood development services and a two-thirds of pre-primary children attend public institutions on average across OECD countries
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Israel

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Israel

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.