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Israel
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In Israel, 35% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education and 24% in vocational upper secondary education. A further 3% are enrolled in lower secondary programmes and 6% in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 23% in vocational upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • In Israel,14% of 25-34 year-olds have a vocational education and training (VET) qualification as their highest level of attainment: 4% at upper secondary level and 10% at short-cycle tertiary level.
  • Although an upper secondary qualification is often the minimum attainment needed for successful labour-market participation,9% of 25-34 year-olds in Israel have not attained an upper secondary qualification, lower than the OECD average (14%).
  • In Israel,25-34 year-old workers with bachelor's attainment earn 94% more than their peers without upper secondary attainment, while those with master's or doctoral attainment earn 124% more.
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, Israel spends USD 10 279 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647. Expenditure per student is equivalent to 26% of per capita GDP, which is below the OECD average of 27%.
  • On average,annual statutory salaries for upper secondary teachers in general programmes with the most prevalent qualification and 15 years of experience are USD 53 456 across the OECD. In Israel, the corresponding salary adjusted for purchasing power is USD 39 321, which is equivalent to ILS 167 890.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (47.2 %, rank 3/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.3 %, rank 34/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7 %, rank 34/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.5 %, rank 34/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a general upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31.3 %, rank 5/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4 %, rank 34/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (41.3 %, rank 2/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The share of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Israel is one of the highest among countries with available data. (32.8 %, rank 4/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Israel is one of the highest among countries with available data. (49.7 %, rank 1/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Israel is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (3.5 %, rank 34/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Israel is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (4.5 %, rank 34/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    The share of new entrants younger than 25 in bachelor's or equivalent programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (71.9 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of first-time entrants into master's or equivalent programmes before the age of 30 is relatively low. (47 %, rank 36/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the proportion of first-time entrants into doctorate's or equivalent programmes before the age of 30 is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (38.9 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the average age of new entrants in master's programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (32.6 Years, rank 3/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of women among the new entrants in master's programmes in Israel is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (65.2 %, rank 3/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance by field of education and gender

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel,the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of education is relatively small. (16.1 %, rank 33/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of health and welfare is relatively small. (27.6 %, rank 34/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (45 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Israel is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (18.3 %, rank 21/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of men among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64.4 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of men among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (67.8 %, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering master's or equivalent programmes in health and welfare in Israel is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (19.8 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes in information and communication technologies in Israel is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (50.6 %, rank 28/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate among 15-19 year-olds in Israel is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (67 %, rank 38/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in Israel is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/82 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in public tertiary educational institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.3 %, rank 41/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in government-dependent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (69.9 %, rank 2/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 20-24 year-olds in Israel is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.8 %, rank 40/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 3-5 year-old children in early childhood and primary education in Israel is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99 %, rank 3/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the enrolment rate of children under 3 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52.2 %, rank 4/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 20-24-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.1 %, rank 38/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in school- and work-based programmes among all upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5 %, rank 23/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Israel is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 37/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Israel is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of students enrolled in private institutions at early childhood educational and development level is comparatively high. (100 %, rank 1/47 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of lower secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes in Israel is one of the lowest compared to other countries with available data. (14.1 %, rank 20/22 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Israel has one of the smallest shares of lower secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes. (0.3 %, rank 19/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of lower secondary vocational students among vocational students is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (0.5 %, rank 17/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes in Israel is relatively low compared to the other countries. (16.1 %, rank 39/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of vocational students as a share of short-cycle tertiary students is among the largest in all OECD and partner countries. (100 %, rank 1/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Israel has a share of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion with access to tertiary education that is higher than other OECD and partner countries; (100 %, rank 1/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of below-two year-olds in early childhood education in Israel is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (43.6 %, rank 3/71 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary programmes in Israel is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.2 %, rank 40/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary vocational programmes in Israel is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 36/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in bachelor's programmes in Israel is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.5 %, rank 37/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in master's programmes in Israel is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.8 %, rank 37/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in pre-primary education in Israel is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/81 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students enrolled in lower secondary vocational programmes is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (21.3 %, rank 21/22 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The average age of graduates from general programmes at the upper secondary level in Israel is comparatively low. (17.2 Years, rank 36/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of graduates from vocational programmes at the upper secondary level in Israel is comparatively low. (17.2 Years, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of first-time master's graduates younger than 35 is relatively low. (57.2 %, rank 34/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of first-time doctorate graduates younger than 35 is relatively low. (35.6 %, rank 34/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of bachelor's or equivalent graduates in public institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.3 %, rank 35/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of master's or equivalent graduates in public institutions is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.7 %, rank 37/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctorate graduates in public institutions is relatively low in Israel. (0 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of bachelor's or equivalent graduates in Israel is among the oldest. (28.2 Years, rank 1/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    In Israel, the share of female first-time bachelor's graduates is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (62.2 %, rank 5/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 44/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Israel is relatively large. (31.8 %, rank 3/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.1 %, rank 34/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary is relatively low. (0.3 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.1 %, rank 4/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of STEM is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51.9 %, rank 2/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.8 %, rank 33/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.1 %, rank 34/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of STEM is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (64.8 %, rank 3/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of services is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 43/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (30.3 %, rank 2/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of education is relatively high in Israel. (8.7 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries. (73.9 %, rank 30/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of information and communication technologies is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (35.8 %, rank 4/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Completion rates

    A relatively high share of upper secondary students complete their studies within the theoretical programme duration. (92.3 %, rank 1/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    A relatively high share of students in upper secondary vocational programmes complete their studies within the theoretical programme duration. (94.5 %, rank 1/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    A relatively high share of students in upper secondary general programmes complete their studies within the theoretical programme duration. (90.7 %, rank 1/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Israel, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of arts and humanities is relatively low. (6.8 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is relatively low. (17.5 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of health and welfare is relatively low. (7.6 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of arts and humanities among all national tertiary students in Israel is relatively low. (7.4 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all national tertiary students in Israel is relatively low. (14.7 %, rank 35/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of health and welfare among all national tertiary students in Israel is relatively low. (8.6 %, rank 36/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of services among all national tertiary students in Israel is relatively low. (0 %, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of services is comparatively small. (0 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the proportion of new entrants in Agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary bachelor's programmes is especially lowest, compared to the other countries with other data. (0.4 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the proportion of new entrants in services bachelor's programmes is especially low, compared to the other countries with other data. (0 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the proportion of new entrants in science, technology, engineering and mathematics master's programmes is especially low, compared to the other countries with other data. (12.5 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of new entrants in engineering, manufacturing and construction master's programmes is relatively low in Israel among countries with available data. (5.5 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of new entrants in agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary master's programmes is especially low. (0.4 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of new entrants in Services master's programmes is comparatively low among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    In Israel, international or foreign students from North America are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.2 %, rank 2/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the proportion of international graduates among first-time master's graduates is relatively low. (2.7 %, rank 31/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the proportion of international graduates among first-time doctorate graduates is relatively low. (6.5 %, rank 29/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of social sciences, journalism and information among all international or foreign tertiary students in Israel is relatively high. (16 %, rank 3/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of services among all international or foreign tertiary students in Israel is relatively low. (0 %, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.8 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.9 %, rank 33/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56.6 %, rank 1/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.2 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per pupil at the pre-primary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4960 USD Equivalent, rank 29/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Annual expenditure per student in post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (523 USD Equivalent, rank 21/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on tertiary education in Israel is comparatively low. (23 USD Equivalent, rank 24/27 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent student (2012 to 2020) at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is comparatively high. (2 %, rank 2/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Israel is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2052 USD Equivalent, rank 38/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Israel, expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies. (6.4 %, rank 3/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Israel, expenditure on primary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (2.7 %, rank 1/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Israel, public and private expenditure on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (5 %, rank 2/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Israel, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (4.6 %, rank 3/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Israel, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0 %, rank 3/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Israel, public expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (5.4 %, rank 5/43 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the private expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary level is high. (0.4 %, rank 5/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Israel is one of the high among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.9 %, rank 4/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Government and private expenditure in education

    In Israel, total public expenditure on primary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively high. (5.8 %, rank 3/46 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Israel, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of total expenditure on tertiary education is relatively low. (0 %, rank 29/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The relative share of international expenditure on primary to tertiary education from initial source of funds is relatively low in Israel. (0 %, rank 28/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2015, the share of total public expenditure from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is comparatively largest in Israel. (129 Index, rank 5/41 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of capital expenditure for primary to tertiary education in Israel is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 29/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2015, the share of total government expenditure is comparatively highest in Israel. (138 Index, rank 4/49 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In Israel, the share of capital expenditure on post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 18/19 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The percentage of female teachers under 30 in lower secondary education is especially high in Israel. (87.5 %, rank 1/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of bachelor's, master's and doctoral level teachers aged between 30 and 49 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (45.6 %, rank 27/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.87 Ratio, rank 5/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher can expect to have one of the lowest salaries per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (40 USD Equivalent, rank 25/29 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary female teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year women workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.15 Ratio, rank 4/21 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 55-64 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is high in Israel. (1.08 Ratio, rank 2/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively high. (2.53 Ratio, rank 5/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in private institutions is especially low in Israel. (4.3 Ratio, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in government-dependent private institutions is especially low in Israel. (4.3 Ratio, rank 19/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    Classes in public primary institutions are comparatively large in Israel. (27 Students, rank 2/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Classes in in private primary institutions are comparatively large in Israel. (25 Students, rank 5/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary public institutions are comparatively large in Israel. (29 Students, rank 4/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (54.8 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men with upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (76.5 %, rank 43/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Israel. (70.9 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of employed 25-64 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (75.1 %, rank 38/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in Israel. (69.6 %, rank 34/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (1 %, rank 18/21 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64, with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the smallest in Israel, compared to other OECD countries. (8.5 %, rank 27/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the smallest in Israel, compared to other OECD countries. (9 %, rank 27/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the smallest in Israel, compared to other OECD countries. (7.6 %, rank 28/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the largest in Israel, compared to OECD countries. (61.2 %, rank 1/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Unemployment by gender and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively low in Israel. (5.1 %, rank 35/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    In Israel, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (10.8 %, rank 4/14 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity by gender and educational attainment

    In Israel, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men without an upper secondary education is relatively high compared to other countries with available data. (31.7 %, rank 5/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men without an upper secondary education is relatively high compared to other countries with available data. (32.6 %, rank 5/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (26.5 %, rank 3/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (21.7 %, rank 1/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (10.3 %, rank 4/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (25.2 %, rank 2/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (20.4 %, rank 1/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    In Israel, the proportion of young 25-34 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent attainment earnings is relatively high compared to OECD and other members with available data (161.9 %, rank 4/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with bachelor's or equivalent attainment compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Israel. (194 Index, rank 5/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with bachelor's or equivalent attainment compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Israel. (210 Index, rank 5/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with bachelor's or equivalent attainment compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Israel. (248 Index, rank 3/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    The earnings of women without an upper secondary education are relatively low compared to those of women with an upper secondary education. (71 Index, rank 36/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (67.7 %, rank 36/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary education or post-secondary non-tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (69.2 %, rank 38/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (69.3 %, rank 38/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (73.4 %, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women (as a percentage of men's earnings) among full- and part-time 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (62.2 %, rank 36/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women (as a percentage of men's earnings) among full- and part-time 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (61.8 %, rank 36/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary education or post-secondary non-tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the low among countries with available data. (70.4 %, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the proportion of young women's earnings as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with tertiary education working full-time full-year), is relatively low compared to OECD and other members with available data (71.9 %, rank 38/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds without an upper secondary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (65.2 %, rank 33/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (65.1 %, rank 38/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (66.2 %, rank 36/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of youth who have been unemployed for at least 3 months but less than a year and not in formal education or training among 18-24 year-olds in Israel is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (0.8 %, rank 24/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of youth who have been unemployed for less than 3 months and not in formal education or training among 18-24 year-olds in Israel is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 27/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are unemployed NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Israel is relatively low. (2.1 %, rank 37/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are inactive NEET (18-24 year-olds) in Israel is relatively high. (14 %, rank 5/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are unemployed NEET (18-24 year-olds) in Israel is relatively low. (2.7 %, rank 37/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of unemployed NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Israel is relatively low. (2.3 %, rank 36/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Israel, below upper-secondary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.6 Average score, rank 24/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Israel, upper-secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.2 Average score, rank 24/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Israel, tertiary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (7 Average score, rank 21/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of adults with below upper secondary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.9 %, rank 1/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.4 %, rank 2/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Israel, the share of adults with a tertiary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.7 %, rank 2/24 , 2020) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Israel

    Click on the coverpage to see the full OECD iLibrary version
    Key
    Country Reviews for Israel

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.