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Croatia
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Croatia
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In Croatia, the total compulsory instruction time over the course of primary and lower secondary education is lower than the OECD average, at 4 541 hours, distributed over eight grades.
  • In Croatia, 21% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education and 49% in vocational upper secondary education. A further 1% are enrolled in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 23% in vocational upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, Croatia spends USD 8150 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647. Expenditure per student is equivalent to 28% of per capita GDP, which is slightly above the OECD average of 27%.
  • On average,annual statutory salaries for upper secondary teachers in general programmes with the most prevalent qualification and 15 years of experience are USD 53 456 across the OECD. In Croatia, the corresponding salary adjusted for purchasing power is USD 32 108, which is equivalent to EUR 16 768.
  • In Croatia, in full-time equivalent terms, there are 10 students per staff member in general upper secondary programmes (OECD average: 14 students per staff member) and 7 students for every teaching staff member in vocational upper secondary programmes (OECD average: 15 students per staff member).
  • In Croatia,30% of teachers in general upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or older, compared to the OECD average of 39%.Teachers in vocational programmes are on average older than their general programme peers, with 35% aged 50 or above (43% on average across the OECD).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Entrance

    The share of female new entrants integrating short-cycle tertiary programmes in Croatia is comparatively small. (0 %, rank 34/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the percentage of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes younger than 25 is relatively low. (0 %, rank 33/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the average age of new entrants in master's programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.5 Years, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance by field of education and gender

    In Croatia, the share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively small. (15.4 %, rank 33/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in engineering, manufacturing and construction in Croatia is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (0 %, rank 32/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Croatia is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (0 %, rank 32/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of men among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (37.6 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of men among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.3 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The enrolment rate of 6-14 year-olds in Croatia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (70 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 40-64 year-olds in Croatia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 41/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of upper secondary 15-19-year-old students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (69.5 %, rank 2/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 17 in general upper secondary programmes in Croatia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (29.5 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 17 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Croatia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64.3 %, rank 2/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 in general upper secondary programmes in Croatia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.5 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 tertiary programmes in Croatia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 30/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in general upper secondary programmes in Croatia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 41/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 tertiary programmes in Croatia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 32/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Croatia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.3 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of lower secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes in Croatia is one of the lowest compared to other countries with available data. (10.9 %, rank 22/22 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of lower secondary vocational students among vocational students is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (14.9 %, rank 3/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes in Croatia is relatively low compared to the other countries. (16.2 %, rank 38/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of vocational students as a share of short-cycle tertiary students is among the largest in all OECD and partner countries. (100 %, rank 1/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Short-cycle tertiary students represent a small share of all vocational students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 29/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Croatia has a share of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion with access to tertiary education that is higher than other OECD and partner countries; (100 %, rank 1/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in upper secondary programmes in Croatia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (70.5 %, rank 5/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in upper secondary general programmes in Croatia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.5 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in upper secondary vocational programmes in Croatia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (49 %, rank 3/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary programmes in Croatia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 41/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary general programmes in Croatia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 39/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary vocational programmes in Croatia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in short-cycle tertiary programmes in Croatia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 32/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in master's programmes in Croatia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16 %, rank 2/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students enrolled in lower secondary vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (61.8 %, rank 4/22 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (8.3 %, rank 33/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The percentage of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at upper secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (70.5 %, rank 3/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the percentage of first-time short-cycle tertiary graduates younger than 30 is relatively low. (50 %, rank 25/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the percentage of first-time doctorate graduates younger than 35 is relatively low. (38.1 %, rank 33/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of first-time graduates in general programmes at upper secondary level is comparatively low. (29.5 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law in Croatia is relatively small. (3.5 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of services is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (26.2 %, rank 3/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of arts and humanities is relatively low compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (0 %, rank 36/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of STEM is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (100 %, rank 1/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively low compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (0 %, rank 34/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of services is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.7 %, rank 1/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    In Croatia, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively high. (58.5 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of male tertiary graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.5 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the field of education is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (87.2 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (74.1 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of business, administration and law is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (69.5 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Croatia, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively low. (6.9 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of arts and humanities is relatively small. (0 %, rank 33/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of business, administration and law is relatively small. (0 %, rank 31/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively small. (0 %, rank 29/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in field of health and welfare is relatively small. (0 %, rank 30/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (0.9 %, rank 32/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the proportion of new entrants in social sciences, journalism and information bachelor's programmes is slightly low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.2 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of new entrants in social sciences, journalism and information master's programmes is relatively low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.4 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    In Croatia, international or foreign students from Asia are least represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.5 %, rank 39/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, international or foreign students from Europe are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (89.3 %, rank 2/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in master's programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.1 %, rank 37/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 31/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the percentage of international or foreign students coming from neighbouring countries is comparatively high . (60 Students, rank 5/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of international or foreign students enrolled in bachelor's programmes among men is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (2.2 %, rank 36/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of international or foreign students enrolled in master's programmes among men is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (3.5 %, rank 37/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of international or foreign students enrolled in master's programmes among women is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (2.9 %, rank 37/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of international or foreign students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes among men is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (0 %, rank 30/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all international or foreign tertiary students in Croatia is relatively high. (21.8 %, rank 5/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of arts and humanities is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.7 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.8 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.9 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5 %, rank 38/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    In Croatia, the average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent student (2012 to 2020) at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is comparatively low. (-1.5 %, rank 41/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Croatia, expenditure on secondary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (1 %, rank 38/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0 %, rank 3/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, international expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on tertiary education is relatively large. (0.2 %, rank 3/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Government and private expenditure in education

    In Croatia, total public expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (7 %, rank 41/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, total public expenditure on secondary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (1.8 %, rank 45/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Total public expenditure on education as a percentage of total government expenditure, for primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in Croatia compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.2 %, rank 43/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In Croatia, the share of capital expenditure on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.7 %, rank 5/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of current expenditure on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (86.3 %, rank 31/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in primary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (93.7 %, rank 5/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers older than 50 is especially low. (23.5 %, rank 33/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the share of women among teaching staff in early childhood educational development is one of the highest, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.3 %, rank 5/22 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    The salary progression from the start to the top of the salary scale for a lower secondary school teacher is among the least rewarding among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.19 Ratio, rank 32/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.19 Ratio, rank 32/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.19 Ratio, rank 34/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.28 Ratio, rank 30/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.28 Ratio, rank 30/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In upper secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is relatively low. (1.19 Ratio, rank 32/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level is especially low. (8.1 Ratio, rank 39/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the upper secondary level is especially low. (8.2 Ratio, rank 43/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of students per teacher in secondary schools is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.2 Ratio, rank 41/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the vocational upper secondary level is especially low in Croatia. (7.5 Ratio, rank 33/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the number of students per teacher in public lower secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.2 Ratio, rank 37/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in private institutions is especially low in Croatia. (5.7 Ratio, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in independent private institutions is especially low in Croatia. (5.7 Ratio, rank 22/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the number of students per teacher in public upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.2 Ratio, rank 43/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the number of students per teacher in private upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.9 Ratio, rank 39/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the upper secondary level in independent private institutions is especially low in Croatia. (6.9 Ratio, rank 24/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the number of students per teacher in all public secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.2 Ratio, rank 41/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the number of students per teacher in all private secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.6 Ratio, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the secondary level in independent private institutions is especially low in Croatia. (6.6 Ratio, rank 25/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Croatia, the intended instruction time for lower secondary students (in hours per year) is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (794 Hours, rank 30/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary students in Croatia is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1890 Hours, rank 38/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the total intended instruction time for primary students (in hours per year) is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2363 Hours, rank 29/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for primary and lower secondary student in Croatia is among the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4541 Hours, rank 37/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, total intended instruction time for primary and lower secondary students (in hours per year) is among the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5539 Hours, rank 29/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, compulsory instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (473 Hours, rank 38/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, the intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (591 Hours, rank 29/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Croatia, compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (663 Hours, rank 38/38 , 2023) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Croatia

    Click on the coverpage to see the full OECD iLibrary version
    Key
    Country Reviews for Croatia

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.