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Data profiles:



France
Teachers and teaching conditions, primary and lower secondary education (TALIS 2018)
  • Teaching was the first-choice career for 69% of teachers in France and for 67% in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS. In terms of why they joined the profession, at least 83% of teachers in France cite the opportunity to influence children's development or contribute to society as a major motivation.
  • About one out of four of teachers (27%) in France are aged 50 and above (OECD average 34%). This means that France will have to renew about one out of four members of its teaching workforce over the next decade or so.
  • In terms of classroom environments, relations between students and teachers are positive overall, with 94% of teachers in France agreeing that students and teachers usually get on well with each other. However, 27% of principals report regular acts of intimidation or bullying among their students, which is higher than the OECD average (14%).
  • In France, 32% of teachers work in schools where at least 10% of the students have a migrant background (OECD average 17%). At the same time, 91% of school leaders report that their teachers believe that children and young people should learn that people of different cultures have a lot in common (OECD average 95%).
  • In France, 7% of teachers "agree" or "strongly agree" with the statement that their profession is valued in society, which is lower than the average across OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS. (26%). In France, between 2013 and 2018, the percentage of teachers reporting that the teaching profession is valued in society has increased by two percentage points.
  • In France, 11% of teachers report experiencing stress in their work "a lot", which is lower than the OECD average (18%).
  • 3% of teachers report participating in collaborative professional learning at least once a month (OECD average 21%) and 15% engage in team teaching with the same frequency (OECD average 28%).
  • In France, 14% of teachers report that they had never received feedback in their schools (OECD average 10%). The forms of feedback most commonly used in France are based on observation of the teacher's classroom teaching, assessment of the teacher's content knowledge and school-based and classroom-based results.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Who the teachers are

    In France, the share of female teachers in primary education is relatively large. (86.8 %, rank 2/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, the share of female teachers is one of the largest in primary compared to lower secondary education. (21.5 % points, rank 2/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Who the principals are

    The proportion of female principals in primary education is one of the largest in France. (75.1 %, rank 2/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The difference in the share of female principals is one of the largest in primary compared to lower secondary education in France. (33.8 % points, rank 1/10 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Initial and induction training of teachers

    In France, less teachers had content, pedagogy and classroom practice in their initial formal education or training. (65.8 %, rank 46/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A larger proportion of teachers did not take part in formal or informal induction activities at the current school. (82.7 %, rank 2/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small share of teachers in primary education were instructed on subject content, pedagogy and classroom practice in France. (77.4 %, rank 12/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers in France having received instruction on subject content, pedagogy and classroom practice is larger in primary compared to lower secondary education. (11.6 % points, rank 2/11 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of primary education teachers who participated in some kind of induction at their current school is one of the lowest in France among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.7 %, rank 14/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A larger (Vietnam) or similar share of teachers participated in some kind of induction at their current school in primary compared to lower secondary level in France. (-3.6 % points, rank 3/9 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers in primary education who received formal training in facilitating transitions is one of the lowest in France among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (27.3 %, rank 12/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small share of teachers in primary education feel well prepared in facilitating transitions in France. (14 %, rank 14/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, the percentage of primary education teachers who received formal training in facilitating play is especially low. (41.9 %, rank 12/13 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of primary education teachers who feel prepared in facilitating play is relatively small in France. (21.9 %, rank 13/13 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Principals' formal training

    For a large share of principals, school administration or principal training programme or course were included in their formal education or training before and after taking up position as principal. (37 %, rank 5/48 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Professional development of teachers

    Relative to most TALIS countries, a smaller proportion of teachers report having undertaken professional development in the 12 months prior to the survey. (82.6 %, rank 50/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small percentage of teachers attended courses/seminars in person in the 12 months prior to the survey. (50 %, rank 47/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small percentage of teachers participated in peer and/or self-observation and coaching as part of a formal school arrangement in the 12 months prior to the survey. (19.9 %, rank 47/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small percentage of teachers feel professional development activities in the 12 months prior to the survey had a positive impact on their teaching practices. (70.6 %, rank 46/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, a higher percentage of teachers attended at least one professional development activity in the last year in primary compared to lower secondary education. (13.9 % points, rank 1/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of principals in primary education who attended at least one professional development activity in the last year is especially small in France. (71 %, rank 14/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, a similar proportion of principals attended at least one professional development activity in the last year in primary compared to lower secondary education. (-22.9 % points, rank 3/3 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Professional development of principals

    Among TALIS countries, France has a lower proportion of principals who participated in at least one professional development activity in the 12 months prior to the survey. (93.8 %, rank 49/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teacher appraisal and feedback

    Compared to most other TALIS countries, a smaller proportion of teachers report that the feedback they received has improved their teaching practice. (54.3 %, rank 48/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, the percentage of teachers who have received feedback via more than three different methods is relatively low. (27.8 %, rank 47/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, the proportion of principals who report that their school are autonomous for determining teachers' salary increases is one of the smallest among TALIS participating countries and economies. (0.4 %, rank 47/47 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' practices

    A small proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' explain how new and old topics are related. (71.5 %, rank 48/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' refer to a problem from everyday life or work to demonstrate why new knowledge is useful. (57.5 %, rank 48/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A large proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' administer their own assessment. (96.2 %, rank 2/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A small proportion of teachers report to 'frequently' or 'always' let students evaluate their own progress. (20.5 %, rank 48/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, a low percentage of teachers in primary education who report frequently or always explaining to their students what they expect them to learn. (84.4 %, rank 12/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the share of teachers who report that they frequently or always ask students to decide on their own procedures for solving complex tasks is especially small in France. (43.7 %, rank 11/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of class time spent on keeping order in the classroom in primary education is one of the largest in France among all OECD and partner countries. (18.2 %, rank 3/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, the share of class time spent on keeping order in the classroom is less important in primary compared to lower secondary education. (1.4 % points, rank 7/10 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, a large proportion of teachers in primary education report that maintaining classroom discipline is a source of stress. (65.5 %, rank 1/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, the percentage of teachers who reported that maintaning classroom discipline is a source of stress is more important in primary compared to lower secondary education. (7.1 % points, rank 3/9 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, the share of teachers reporting a high need for professional development in student behavior and classroom management is more important in primary compared to lower secondary education. (6.9 % points, rank 2/10 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' autonomy, collegiality and collaboration

    In France, a small share of teachers agree that in their school there is a collaborative school culture that is characterised by mutual support. (72.5 %, rank 49/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Compared to most other TALIS countries, France has a lower proportion of teachers who participate in collaborative professional learning in their school at least once a month. (3.2 %, rank 49/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    ICT for teaching

    A small share of primary education teachers feel well prepared in using ICT for teaching in France. (16.1 %, rank 14/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of teachers in primary education who report that they frequently or always let students use ICT for projects or class work is one of the lowest in France among all OECD and partner economies with available data. (14.5 %, rank 14/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, a smaller share of teachers report that they frequently or always let students use ICT for projects or class work in primary than in lower secondary education. (-21.6 % points, rank 9/10 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, the percentage of primary education teachers who report a high need for professional development in using ICT for teaching is relatively high . (34.6 %, rank 3/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of teachers in France who report a high need for professional development in using ICT for teaching is larger in primary compared to lower secondary level. (11.7 % points, rank 1/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of primary education principals who report that the delivery of quality instruction is hindered by a shortage of digital technology for instruction is one of the highest in France among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (57.3 %, rank 2/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A larger share of principals in France report that the delivery of quality instruction is hindered by a shortage of digital technology for instruction in primary than in lower secondary education. (27.5 % points, rank 1/5 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teaching students with special needs

    More school leaders in France report a shortage of teachers with competence in teaching students with special needs. (70.5 %, rank 2/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of teachers in France who felt "well prepared" or "very well prepared" for teaching in a mixed-ability setting is lower. (25.3 %, rank 48/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, the proportion of primary education teachers reporting a high need for professional development in teaching special needs students is especially important . (46.9 %, rank 2/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    A large proportion of primary education principals report that the delivery of quality instruction is hindered by a shortage of teachers with competencies in teaching students with special needs in France. (61.7 %, rank 2/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Modifying lessons for students with special needs is a source of stress for a share of primary education teachers in France. (79.6 %, rank 1/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The difference in the share of teachers for whom modifying lessons for students with special needs is a source of stress is larger than 10 percentage points in primary compared to lower secondary education. (20.4 % points, rank 1/11 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teaching in multicultural settings

    "Teaching in a multicultural or multilingual setting" was included in a lower proportion of teachers' formal education or training in France. (12 %, rank 49/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, the proportion of teachers who felt "well prepared" or "very well prepared" for teaching in a multicultural or multilingual setting is lower. (8.2 %, rank 50/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    "Teaching in a multicultural or multilingual setting" was included in a lower proportion of teachers' professional development activities. (6.3 %, rank 50/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Classroom management

    In France, the proportion of teachers who felt "well prepared" or "very well prepared" for student behaviour and classroom management is smaller. (22.3 %, rank 49/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    "Student behaviour and classroom management" was included in a lower proportion of teachers' professional development activities. (23.7 %, rank 50/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Less teachers in France feel that they can calm a student who is disruptive or noisy compared to most TALIS countries. (73.5 %, rank 48/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' self-efficacy

    Relative to most other TALIS countries, less teachers believe that they are able to help their students to value learning. (65.2 %, rank 45/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers' satisfaction with their jobs

    A smaller proportion of teachers believe that the teaching profession is valued in society. (6.6 %, rank 47/50 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers who think that the teaching profession is valued by society in primary education is especially low in France. (4.2 %, rank 14/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, the percentage of teachers who report they are satisfied with their job at primary level is one of the lowest among all OECD and partner countries. (85.7 %, rank 12/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of teachers who report being satisfied with their salary at primary level is especially small in France. (19.4 %, rank 13/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, teachers reported being less satisfied with their salary in primary compared to lower secondary education. (-9.3 % points, rank 8/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, teachers who report being less satisfied with the terms of their teaching contract, apart from salary, in primary compared to lower secondary level. (-8.7 % points, rank 10/10 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In France, a large share of primary education teachers report that their school provides staff with opportunities to actively participate in school decisions. (84.8 %, rank 4/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In primary education, a low percentage of teachers in France report that they experience a lot of stress in their work. (12.7 %, rank 10/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of primary education teachers for whom having too much administrative work is a source of stress in is especially high in France. (63 %, rank 2/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Principals' satisfaction with their jobs

    A smaller proportion of principals are satisfied with their job relative to most other TALIS countries. (91.7 %, rank 45/49 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers’ working conditions, mobility and risk of attrition

    In France, the proportion of teachers who have a permanent contract in primary education is one of the largest among all OECD and partner countries with available data. (96.1 %, rank 3/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the percentage of full-time teachers in France is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (80.2 %, rank 10/14 , 2018) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
                            
    • Across OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, teachers are 44 years old and principals are 52 years old, on average. Furthermore, 20% of principals across the OECD are aged 60 and above.
    • In the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, 47% of principals are women, compared to 68% of teachers.
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    • In OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, 65% of teachers report frequently calming students who are disruptive and 84% report frequently explaining how new and old topics are related.
    • During a typical lesson, teachers spend 78% of classroom time on actual teaching and learning, on average in the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS.
    • In the past five to ten years, classroom time spent on actual teaching and learning has decreased in about half of the countries and economies participating in TALIS.
    • 84% of teachers report having control over determining course content in their class, on average across in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS.
    • 81% of teachers say that they work in a collaborative school culture characterised by mutual support, on average in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS. Furthermore, 59% of principals took actions on a regular basis to support co-operation among teachers to develop new teaching practices in the 12 months prior to the survey.
    • On average in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, only 21% of teachers report participating in collaborative professional learning at least once a month and 28% engage in team-teaching with the same frequency.
    • About half of teachers in the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS "frequently" or "always" let students use ICT for projects or class work, but 25% of school principals report that delivery of quality instruction in their school is hindered by a shortage or inadequacy of digital technology for instruction.
    • In the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, 27% of teachers work in classes with at least 10% of students with special needs (i.e. those for whom a special learning need has been formally identified because they are mentally, physically, or emotionally disadvantaged). But, 32% of school principals report that delivery of quality instruction in their school is hindered by a shortage of teachers with competence in teaching students with special needs.
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    • During their initial education and training, 79% of teachers in the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS were instructed on subject content, pedagogy and classroom. Only 42% of teachers report having participated in some kind of formal or informal induction when they joined their current school.
    • In the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, taking part in some kind of in-service training is commonplace among teachers and principals, with 94% of teachers and 99% of principals attending at least one professional development activity in the year prior to the survey.
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    • Across OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, 26% of teachers "agree" or "strongly agree" with the statement that their profession is valued in society. Between 2013 and 2018, the percentage of teachers reporting that the profession is valued in society has increased in almost half of the countries and economies with available data.
    • Nine out of ten teachers and 95% of school leaders report that, all in all, they are satisfied with their job, on average in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS.
    • 39% of teachers and 47% of school leaders report being satisfied with their salaries, on average in OECD countries and economies.
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    • Across OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS, 82% of teachers have a permanent contract while 12% of teacher are employed on contracts of one year or less.
    • 18% of teachers report experiencing stress in their work "a lot", on average in OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS. 49% of teachers report that having too much administrative work is a source of stress they experience at work "quite a bit" or "a lot".
    • A quarter of teachers report that they would like to leave teaching within the next five years, on average across the OECD countries and economies participating in TALIS. Furthermore, 14% of teachers age 50 or would like to leave teaching in the next five years.
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    • Only 10% of teachers report that they have never received feedback in their schools. On average across the OECD, the forms of feedback most commonly used are based on classroom observations and students' school-based and classroom-based results.
    • 71% of teachers who received feedback in the 12 months prior to the survey report that it had a positive impact on their teaching practice. In all countries and economies participating in TALIS, teachers who report receiving feedback based on multiple methods are more likely to find that the feedback they received had a positive impact on their teaching.
    • The proportion of teachers who work in schools where appraisal can result in a salary increase or financial bonus is 55% in schools where school management has responsibility over salaries. In schools where school management does not have responsibility over salaries, the proportion is only 30%.
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    • The proportion of female teachers represents over three quarters of the primary teaching force (TALIS average 78%), which is higher than the proportion in lower secondary education of 63%.
    • Less than half of teachers (46% on average) cited receiving formal training in facilitating transitions from early childhood education to primary education. However, a slightly smaller share of teachers (38%) said they felt well or very well prepared in this area.
    • Thirty-seven percent (37%) of teachers report modifying lessons for students with special needs is a source of stress "quite a bit" or "a lot" in primary in contrast to 29% in lower secondary.
    • Teachers in upper secondary education reported being involved in fewer collaborative activities than their peers in lower secondary education. Teaching jointly as a team in the same class shows significant decreases among teachers in upper secondary (5 percentage points difference).
    • Almost a quarter of teachers (23%) in upper secondary education stated they would like to leave teaching in the next five years. Teachers satisfied with their salaries and terms of employment, and who consider the school provides opportunities to engage in discussion and has a collaborative culture are less likely to state they will leave teaching.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - France

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    Key
    Country Reviews for France

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.