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Finland
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Finland
Overview of the education system (EAG 2021)
  • In Finland, men are less likely than women to pursue a vocational track. In 2019, 46% of upper secondary vocational graduates were men, compared to 55% on average across OECD countries.
  • In Finland, 53% of 25-34 year-old women had a tertiary qualification in 2020 compared to 37% of their male peers.
  • In 2018, Finland invested a total of USD 10 661 per student on primary to tertiary institutions compared to USD 10 454 on average across OECD countries. This represents 5.1% of GDP, compared to 4.9% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2019, 85% of 3-5 year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education and care programmes and primary education in Finland, compared to 88% on average across OECD countries.
  • Statutory salaries of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of their salary scales are 9% to 33% higher than those of teachers with the minimum qualifications at the start of their career at pre-primary (ISCED 02), primary and general lower and upper secondary levels in Finland compared to 86% - 91% on average.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The proportion of 55-64 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.9 %, rank 38/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.4 %, rank 3/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The proportion of upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (68.7 %, rank 4/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students in government-dependent private tertiary educational institutions is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (47.5 %, rank 5/22 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of 40-64 year-olds in Finland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.5 %, rank 2/41 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (100 %, rank 1/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation expectancy

    The proportion of young people expected to be first-time graduates from post-secondary non-tertiary education before turning 30 is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (0.9 %, rank 21/24 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The share of long first degree master's graduates in public institutions is relatively high in Finland. (100 %, rank 1/22 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of doctorate graduates in public institutions is relatively high in Finland. (100 %, rank 1/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the share of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at post-secondary non-tertiary level is comparatively important . (100 %, rank 1/24 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary general programmes is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (55.2 %, rank 2/42 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (53.9 %, rank 5/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is relatively high in Finland. (50.6 %, rank 2/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by age

    The share of tertiary graduates younger than 30-years-old is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (78.9 %, rank 24/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the average age of post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (42.8 Years, rank 1/23 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The average age of upper secondary graduates from vocational programmes in Finland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (30 Years, rank 5/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the average age of first-time tertiary graduates is relatively high. (27.3 Years, rank 4/28 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates younger than 30 is relatively low. (77.2 %, rank 28/31 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the percentage of first-time doctorate graduates younger than 35 is relatively low. (43.8 %, rank 25/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.4 %, rank 4/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.3 %, rank 3/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Finland, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively low. (4.6 %, rank 36/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all national tertiary students in Finland is relatively low. (17.3 %, rank 30/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of health and welfare is relatively small. (27.9 %, rank 32/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    In Finland, the proportion of new international entrants in master's long first degree (LFD) programmes is relatively low. (0.2 %, rank 22/22 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of social sciences, journalism and information among all international or foreign tertiary students in Finland is relatively low. (4.3 %, rank 32/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Adult learning

    In Finland, the number of annual hours of participation of adults in formal and/or non-formal education and training is comparatively high (156 %, rank 3/26 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the number of annual hours of participation of adults without an upper secondary education in formal and/or non-formal education and training is comparatively high (281 %, rank 1/24 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the number of annual hours of participation of adults with tertiary education in formal education and training is comparatively low (251 %, rank 24/26 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the annual training costs as a share of total labour costs is relatively low compared to other OECD countries and partner countries. (1.1 %, rank 21/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In enterprises of ver 249 employed persons, the annual training costs as a share of total labour costs is relatively low. (1.2 %, rank 23/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on tertiary education in Finland is comparatively low. (0 USD Equivalent, rank 24/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The public expenditure on public educational institutions per full-time equivalent student at tertiary level is comparatively high in Finland. (24775 USD Equivalent, rank 4/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Finland, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (0 %, rank 35/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Finland, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (0.1 %, rank 35/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Finland, total expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to 2010. (91 Index, rank 31/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the private expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary level is low. (0 %, rank 24/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on educational institutions at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is relatively low in Finland. (-0.3 %, rank 27/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is relatively low in Finland. (-0.5 %, rank 29/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the international expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to tertiary education is high. (0 USD Equivalent, rank 2/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds at primary to tertiary education is relatively high in Finland. (5 %, rank 4/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The proportion of private expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is comparatively small in Finland. (0.1 %, rank 23/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Finland is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-0.8 %, rank 28/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education in Finland is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-1 %, rank 28/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Finland, international expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on tertiary education is relatively large . (0.1 %, rank 4/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    At tertiary level, the public expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds is comparatively high in Finland. (1.4 %, rank 3/27 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on tertiary education in Finland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-1.9 %, rank 27/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on tertiary education in Finland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-2.4 %, rank 25/29 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.8 %, rank 35/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of private expenditure on tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.8 %, rank 37/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Finland has one of the smallest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (1.7 %, rank 37/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for tertiary education is comparatively large. (91 %, rank 2/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively large. (96.8 %, rank 2/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the relative share of public expenditure from initial sources of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (99.3 %, rank 3/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the relative share of private expenditure from initial sources of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.6 %, rank 24/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the relative share of public expenditure from initial source of funds at primary to tertiary education is relatively high . (96.9 %, rank 2/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2015, the share of total public expenditure from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is comparatively small in Finland. (94 Index, rank 32/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the relative share of private expenditure from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is relatively small. (1.5 %, rank 24/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the relative share of public expenditure from initial source of funds on tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (91.2 %, rank 2/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the relative share of private expenditure from initial source of funds on tertiary education is comparatively small. (3.6 %, rank 26/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    The percentage of capital expenditure on tertiary education is relatively in Finland. (3.5 %, rank 29/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of current expenditure on tertiary education is relatively in Finland. (96.5 %, rank 3/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of hours per year lower secondary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively low in Finland. (589 Hours, rank 28/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education (bachelor's, master's, doctorate or equivalent education) is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52.1 %, rank 4/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (52.1 %, rank 4/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers younger than 30 is especially low. (3.3 %, rank 33/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers under 30 in lower secondary education is especially high in Finland. (77.4 %, rank 4/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in tertiary education is especially high in Finland. (51.8 %, rank 4/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    The change between 2005 and 2013 in statutory salaries for primary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively small in Finland. (94 Index, rank 22/25 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The change between 2005 and 2013 in statutory salaries for lower secondary teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training is comparatively small in Finland. (94 Index, rank 22/25 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary female teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year women workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.1 Ratio, rank 5/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary male teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year men workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.87 Ratio, rank 4/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 25-34 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is high in Finland. (1.03 Ratio, rank 5/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The salaries of 55-64 year-old general lower-secondary teachers relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is high in Finland. (0.98 Ratio, rank 4/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries at the top of scale to their starting salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.09 Ratio, rank 28/28 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In pre-primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is relatively low. (1.09 Ratio, rank 28/28 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.31 Ratio, rank 30/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.31 Ratio, rank 30/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Principals' salaries

    Pre-primary school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Finland. (0.84 Ratio, rank 16/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.2 Ratio, rank 35/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level is especially low. (8.8 Ratio, rank 37/40 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the vocational upper secondary level is especially high in Finland. (19.8 Ratio, rank 3/30 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the number of students per teacher in public lower secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.7 Ratio, rank 36/40 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Finland, total compulsory instruction time for primary and lower secondary students is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6384 Hours, rank 33/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Finland, total compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students is relatively short. (2423 Hours, rank 33/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (97.5 %, rank 2/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The earnings of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education. (93 Index, rank 1/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (120 Index, rank 30/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (120 Index, rank 30/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Finland, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a bachelor's or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (126 Index, rank 30/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    The earnings of men without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of men with an upper secondary education. (96 Index, rank 2/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The earnings of women without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of women with an upper secondary education. (100 Index, rank 1/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Participation in education by gender

    Excluding international students, Finland has one of the lowest percentages of men expected to enter master's programmes before turning 30. (4.2 %, rank 29/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Excluding international students, Finland has one of the lowest percentages of women expected to enter master's programmes before the age of 30. (6.2 %, rank 29/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    In Finland, the share of first-time entrants into master's or equivalent programmes before the age of 30 is relatively low. (49.8 %, rank 35/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The share of young people expected to enter master's programmes before the age of 30 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.4 %, rank 34/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Excluding international students, Finland has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to enter master's programmes before turning 30. (5.1 %, rank 29/33 , 2019) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
                            
    • One in five adults across the OECD has not attained upper secondary education.
    • In 2020, the unemployment rate of adults that had not completed upper secondary education was almost twice as high as those with higher qualifications, and 27% of these adults earn only at or below half the median on average across OECD countries.
    • In 2019, at least 10% of school-aged youth were not in school in about a quarter of OECD countries.
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    • In 2019, women made up 55% of new entrants to tertiary education on average. If current patterns continue, it is expected that 46% of young women will graduate with a tertiary degree for the first time before they turn 30, 15 percentage points more than men.
    • Women also earn on average about 76-78% of men’s salaries regardless of educational attainment, although the gender gap narrowed by 2 percentage points between 2013 and 2019.
    • Women are less likely than men to enter a STEM field of study, and the average share remained generally stable between 2013 and 2019.
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    • On average across countries, expenditure on educational institutions amounted to approximately USD 9 300 per student at pre-primary level; USD 10 500 at primary, secondary and post-secondary non tertiary level; and USD 17 100 at tertiary level.
    • The public sector funds 90% of total expenditure on primary and secondary institutions on average, often compulsory in most OECD countries, compared to 83% at pre-primary level and 66% at tertiary level.
    • In 2018, the OECD countries spent on average 4.9% of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on primary to tertiary educational institutions.
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    • In 2019, less than 5% of pre-primary teachers were men, compared to 18% at primary level, 40% at upper secondary level and more than 50% at tertiary level on average.
    • Between 2005 and 2020, on average across OECD countries and economies with available data for all reference years, the statutory salaries of teachers with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications increased by 3% at primary level, 4% at lower secondary level (general programmes) and 2% at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • In most countries, teachers above 50 years of age make up more than a third of the teaching force.
    • Attracting male teachers to the profession can be difficult: While the average actual salary of female teachers is equal to or higher than the average salary of other full-time, tertiary-educated women, primary and secondary male teachers earn between 76% and 85% of the average earnings of other full-time, tertiary-educated men.
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    • On average across OECD countries, 87% of children aged 3-5 are enrolled in education on average across OECD countries compared to 25% for children below the age of 3.
    • There are 15 children for every teacher at pre-primary level on average across OECD countries.
    • Half of children enrolled in early childhood development services and a two-thirds of pre-primary children attend public institutions on average across OECD countries
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Finland

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Finland

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.