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Estonia
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Estonia
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In Estonia, 40% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education and 15% in vocational upper secondary education. A further 27% are enrolled in lower secondary programmes and 5% in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 23% in vocational upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • In Estonia,28% of 25-34 year-olds have a vocational education and training (VET) qualification as their highest level of attainment: 17% at upper secondary level, 11% at post-secondary non-tertiary level.
  • Although an upper secondary qualification is often the minimum attainment needed for successful labour-market participation,10% of 25-34 year-olds in Estonia have not attained an upper secondary qualification, lower than the OECD average (14%).
  • Workers in Estonia aged 25-34 with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment earn 3% more than those without upper secondary attainment, whereas the earning advantage for workers with general upper secondary attainment is 15%.
  • In Estonia,25-34 year-old workers with bachelor's attainment earn 32% more than their peers without upper secondary attainment, while those with master's or doctoral attainment earn 65% more.
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, Estonia spends USD 11 088 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647.
  • In Estonia, in full-time equivalent terms, there are 14 students per staff member in general upper secondary programmes (OECD average: 14 students per staff member) and 19 students for every teaching staff member in vocational upper secondary programmes (OECD average: 15 students per staff member).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The level of tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (39.9 %, rank 5/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Estonia has one of the lowest percentages of 25-64 year-old adults with less than primary education. (0.1 %, rank 33/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained below upper secondary education in Estonia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7 %, rank 41/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 55-64 year-old men who attained below upper secondary education in Estonia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.7 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 55-64 year-old women who attained below upper secondary education in Estonia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.6 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health (medical and dental) is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (2.5 %, rank 14/14 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health (nursing and associate health fields) is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (4.2 %, rank 10/14 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance by field of education and gender

    In Estonia,the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively small. (59.7 %, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of health and welfare is relatively small. (25 %, rank 36/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering master's or equivalent programmes in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Estonia is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (34 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of men among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.8 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of men among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of health and welfare is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.9 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering master's or equivalent programmes in education in Estonia is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (14 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering master's or equivalent programmes in engineering, manufacturing and construction in Estonia is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (60.3 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering master's or equivalent programmes in information and communication technologies in Estonia is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (61.3 %, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering master's or equivalent programmes in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Estonia is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (56.1 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The share of students enrolled in school- and work-based programmes among all upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8 %, rank 20/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (53 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 in general upper secondary programmes in Estonia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (64 %, rank 4/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 in general upper secondary programmes in Estonia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.9 %, rank 3/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the percentage of students enrolled in private institutions at all early childhood education level is comparatively low. (4.4 %, rank 68/72 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of lower secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes in Estonia is one of the highest compared to other countries with available data. (34.9 %, rank 4/22 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of upper secondary students enrolled in programmes giving partial completion or insufficient for completion is relatively high compared to the other countries. (47 %, rank 2/16 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (100 %, rank 1/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in post-secondary non-tertiary vocational programmes are proportionally more in Estonia than in the other countries. (100 %, rank 1/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (5.9 %, rank 13/16 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of below-two year-olds in other registered ECEC services in Estonia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.4 %, rank 5/7 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of three-year-olds in other registered ECEC services in Estonia is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.5 %, rank 2/7 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of six-year-olds in primary education in Estonia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.2 %, rank 43/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students enrolled in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (72 %, rank 2/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The share of long first degree master's graduates in public institutions is relatively high in Estonia. (100 %, rank 1/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (35 %, rank 38/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates among post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes in Estonia is relatively high. (67.8 %, rank 5/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10.1 %, rank 1/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.9 %, rank 34/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (51.3 %, rank 3/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 33/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.1 %, rank 34/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of services is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25.9 %, rank 4/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of STEM is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.1 %, rank 5/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of education is relatively low in Estonia. (1.5 %, rank 44/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in all fields is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (62 %, rank 5/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the field of education is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (93.2 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of business, administration and law is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (65.8 %, rank 3/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of health and welfare is one of the largest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (85.8 %, rank 2/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Completion rates

    A relatively high share of students in upper secondary general programmes complete their studies within the theoretical programme duration. (87.9 %, rank 2/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    A relatively low share of students in upper secondary vocational programmes complete their studies up to two years later than the theoretical programme duration. (67 %, rank 15/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    A relatively high share of students in upper secondary general programmes complete their studies up to two years later than the theoretical programme duration. (93.3 %, rank 3/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Estonia, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively low. (6.6 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of social sciences, journalism and information among all national tertiary students in Estonia is relatively low. (5.8 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively high, compared to other countries with available data. (16.3 %, rank 2/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (7.2 %, rank 33/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of new entrants in social sciences, journalism and information bachelor's programmes is slightly low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.8 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all international or foreign tertiary students in Estonia is relatively high. (34.4 %, rank 4/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of information and communication technologies among all international or foreign tertiary students in Estonia is relatively high. (10.8 %, rank 1/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all international or foreign tertiary students in Estonia is relatively low. (9.1 %, rank 32/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of health and welfare among all international or foreign tertiary students in Estonia is relatively low. (4 %, rank 34/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of services is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 36/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of Information and communication technologies is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.3 %, rank 2/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of students enrolled in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary among all international or foreign tertiary students is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (4.3 %, rank 5/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Adult participation in non-formal education

    In Estonia, the share of employed 25-64 year-olds participating in at least one job-related non-formal education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.8 %, rank 4/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (23.2 %, rank 2/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (6.9 %, rank 3/20 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in Estonia is comparatively low. (85 USD Equivalent, rank 29/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of current expenditure for primary to tertiary education in Estonia is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-4.6 %, rank 44/45 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Estonia, expenditure on secondary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (1.4 %, rank 35/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, expenditure on post secondary non-tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (0.1 %, rank 4/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0 %, rank 3/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP for tertiary education is low compared to 2015. (86 Index, rank 32/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, international expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on tertiary education is relatively large. (0.3 %, rank 1/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Government and private expenditure in education

    In Estonia, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of total expenditure on primary to tertiary education is relatively high. (3.8 %, rank 1/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In Estonia, the share of current expenditure on primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (83.3 %, rank 34/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of capital expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.8 %, rank 5/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of current expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (86.2 %, rank 32/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of capital expenditure on post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.3 %, rank 15/19 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of hours per year primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively low in Estonia. (592 Hours, rank 33/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in primary public school is especially low. (174 Days, rank 29/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary public school is especially low. (174 Days, rank 27/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year pre-primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively high in Estonia. (1332 Hours, rank 4/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in lower secondary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (81.8 %, rank 4/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (82.7 %, rank 2/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially low. (42.1 %, rank 38/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of lower secondary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially low. (38.2 %, rank 36/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of upper secondary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially low. (42.1 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is especially low. (41 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of primary to upper secondary teachers older than 50 is especially high. (50.3 %, rank 5/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in lower secondary education is especially high in Estonia. (84.3 %, rank 2/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the percentage of upper secondary general education teachers aged between 30 and 49 is relatively low, compared to the other countries with available data. (41.2 %, rank 29/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    The average actual pre-primary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (25083 USD Equivalent, rank 21/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the lowest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (32374 USD Equivalent, rank 24/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Principals' salaries

    Primary school 25-64 year-old heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Estonia. (1.08 Ratio, rank 18/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Lower-secondary 25-64 year-old school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Estonia. (1.08 Ratio, rank 20/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Upper-secondary 25-64 year-old school heads' salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year similarly educated workers with tertiary education is low in Estonia. (1.08 Ratio, rank 21/22 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-64 year-old pre-primary school heads is one of the lowest in Estonia. (35544 USD Equivalent, rank 17/19 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-64 year-old primary school heads is one of the lowest in Estonia. (40765 USD Equivalent, rank 22/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual salaries of 25-64 year-old lower secondary education school heads is one of the lowest in Estonia. (40765 USD Equivalent, rank 22/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average upper-secondary school heads' actual salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (40765 USD Equivalent, rank 23/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the vocational upper secondary level is especially high in Estonia. (19.3 Ratio, rank 4/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the lower secondary level in government-dependent private institutions is especially low in Estonia. (9.1 Ratio, rank 15/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The ratio of students to teaching staff at the secondary level in government-dependent private institutions is especially low in Estonia. (9.6 Ratio, rank 16/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the number of students per teacher in private institutions tertiary education is one of the highest among countries with available data. (35.6 Ratio, rank 2/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the number of students per teacher in private bachelor's, master's, doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the highest among countries with available data. (35.6 Ratio, rank 2/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Estonia, the intended instruction time for lower secondary students (in hours per year) is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (823 Hours, rank 26/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, total intended instruction time for lower secondary students is among the shortest compared to other countries with available data. (2468 Hours, rank 29/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (661 Hours, rank 26/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively small in Estonia. (15 Students, rank 31/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In government-dependent private institutions at primary education level, the average class size is relatively small in Estonia among OECD and other partner countries with available data. (16 Students, rank 14/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In government-dependent private institutions at lower secondary level, classes are one of the smallest in Estonia among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15 Students, rank 18/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (69.3 %, rank 5/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is compartively high in Estonia. (72.1 %, rank 3/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively high in Estonia. (86.8 %, rank 3/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (88.6 %, rank 1/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    In Estonia, the share of employed 25-64 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (87.8 %, rank 4/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high in Estonia compared to other countries with available data. (78.7 %, rank 3/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high in Estonia. (94.9 %, rank 2/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by field of education

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of arts is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (78.8 %, rank 15/17 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business and administration is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (81.3 %, rank 14/17 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (3.6 %, rank 35/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment by gender and educational attainment

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in Estonia. (1.7 %, rank 33/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low in Estonia. (8.4 %, rank 44/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (8 %, rank 37/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with a bachelor's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (7 %, rank 43/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (13.4 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (13.1 %, rank 36/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity by gender and educational attainment

    In Estonia, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (15.3 %, rank 36/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (3.4 %, rank 35/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (3.7 %, rank 31/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (17.8 %, rank 42/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (3.6 %, rank 42/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The earnings of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education. (92 Index, rank 3/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (89 Index, rank 30/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The gap in average earnings between 25-64 year-old women with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (101 Index, rank 28/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (94 Index, rank 30/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (152 Index, rank 31/34 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of foreign-born aged between 25 and 64 who work full- and part-time with a short cycle tertiary education are comparatively low. (88.2 %, rank 30/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers with a master's, doctoral or equivalent education degree are comparatively low. (147.5 %, rank 33/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of worker earning more than twice the median among those with a short-cycle tertiary education degree is comparatively low. (5.4 %, rank 27/31 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of young 25-34 year-old adults with post-secondary non-tertiary education, is relatively low compared to OECD and other members with available data (98.7 %, rank 15/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers without an upper secondary education earning more than twice the overall median in Estonia is one of the highest among countries with available data. (7.1 %, rank 3/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Estonia. (115 Index, rank 27/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Estonia. (113 Index, rank 25/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Estonia. (103 Index, rank 27/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Estonia. (102 Index, rank 28/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Estonia. (106 Index, rank 24/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Estonia. (151 Index, rank 36/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with bachelor's or equivalent attainment compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low in Estonia. (141 Index, rank 32/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    The earnings of men without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of men with an upper secondary education. (94 Index, rank 2/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (62.3 %, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women (as a percentage of men's earnings) among full- and part-time 25-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (55.4 %, rank 37/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds without an upper secondary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (54.4 %, rank 29/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds without an upper secondary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (63.4 %, rank 35/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (68.4 %, rank 25/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (70.8 %, rank 26/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings by field of education

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Estonia. (90.1 %, rank 2/15 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of business, administration and law are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Estonia. (102.3 %, rank 14/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Estonia. (110.3 %, rank 2/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Estonia. (95.1 %, rank 16/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Estonia who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information are high, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (93.5 %, rank 1/14 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Estonia who studied in the field of business, administration and law, are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (101.8 %, rank 14/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Estonia who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction, are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (93.6 %, rank 15/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Estonia who studied in the field of health and welfare, are high, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (101.8 %, rank 4/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Estonia who studied in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT), are high, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (142.5 %, rank 1/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Estonia who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics, are high, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (112.8 %, rank 2/15 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training without an upper secondary in Estonia is relatively low. (23.4 %, rank 37/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Estonia is relatively low (3.4 %, rank 28/29 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Estonia is relatively low (8.3 %, rank 30/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Estonia, the share of adults with below upper secondary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.5 %, rank 18/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.5 %, rank 23/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of adults with a tertiary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (4 %, rank 21/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of Internet users with tertiary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.6 %, rank 23/26 , 2021) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
    Visualisations
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Estonia

    Click on the coverpage to see the full OECD iLibrary version
    Key
    Country Reviews for Estonia

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.