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Diagram of the education system

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  • > Notes on the education system in Estonia
    Education system in Estonia

    Estonia
    Overview of the education system (EAG 2020)
  • On average, 40% of all upper secondary students enrol in VET programmes in Estonia, a lower proportion than the OECD average of 42%.
  • In 2019, 43% of 25-34 year-olds had a tertiary degree in Estonia compared to 45% on average across OECD countries.
  • In Estonia, in 2018, 25-64 year-olds with a tertiary degree with income from full-time, full-year employment earned 35% more than full-time, full-year workers with upper secondary education compared to 54% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2017, Estonia invested a total of USD 8 946 per student on primary to tertiary institutions compared to USD 11 231 on average across OECD countries. This represents 4.4% of GDP, compared to 4.9% on average across OECD countries.
  • In 2018, 91% of 3-5 year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education and care programmes and primary education in Estonia, compared to 88% on average across OECD countries.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Educational outcomes

    The level of below upper secondary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.1 %, rank 42/44 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 55-64 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13 %, rank 7/39 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates younger than 30 is relatively low. (80.7 %, rank 22/30 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (3.8 %, rank 23/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (20.4 %, rank 5/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health (medical and dental) is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (2.5 %, rank 14/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health (nursing and associate health fields) is one of the highest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (4.2 %, rank 10/14 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The share of students enrolled in school- and work-based programmes among all upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.5 %, rank 22/26 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (59.2 %, rank 26/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation expectancy

    In Estonia, the percentage of today's young people expected to graduate from a doctoral or equivalent programme before the age of 35 ranks as one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.7 %, rank 23/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Excluding mobile students, Estonia has one of the lowest percentages of young people expected to graduate from tertiary education before the age of 30. (29.7 %, rank 23/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (33.7 %, rank 36/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Estonia has one of the largest shares of women graduates from tertiary programmes. (63.1 %, rank 3/36 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is relatively high. (59.5 %, rank 3/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of business, administration and law is relatively high. (61.5 %, rank 3/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively high. (42.9 %, rank 4/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of female graduates among post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes in Estonia is relatively high. (71.5 %, rank 3/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.1 %, rank 7/43 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.7 %, rank 5/42 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of education in Estonia is relatively small. (1.6 %, rank 40/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Estonia is relatively large. (33.2 %, rank 6/45 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2 %, rank 34/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (49.7 %, rank 3/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 33/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of services is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (28.4 %, rank 2/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively low. (1.3 %, rank 22/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Adult learning

    In Estonia, the proportion of employed adults participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (48.2 %, rank 29/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over 249 persons and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (58.7 %, rank 30/35 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of adults employed in the private sector and participating in non-formal education and training is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (40.9 %, rank 30/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of adults employed in the public sector and participating in non-formal education and training is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (76 %, rank 10/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of adults employed in enterprises of over of 249 persons and participating in job-related non-formal education and training sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (54.6 %, rank 29/34 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of adults employed in the private sector and participating in job-related non-formal education and training not sponsored by the employer is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (2.6 %, rank 34/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the number of annual hours of participation of adults in non-formal education and training is comparatively low (52 %, rank 31/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the number of annual hours of participation of adults without an upper secondary education in formal and/or non-formal education and training is comparatively low (71 %, rank 18/24 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the number of annual hours of participation of adults with upper secondary or post-secondary education in non-formal education and training is comparatively low (45 %, rank 30/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the number of annual hours of participation of adults with tertiary education in non-formal education and training is comparatively low (57 %, rank 31/36 , 2016) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the annual training costs as a share of total labour costs is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner countries. (1.8 %, rank 8/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    In enterprises of ver 249 employed persons, the annual training costs as a share of total labour costs is relatively high. (2.5 %, rank 5/25 , 2015) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of social sciences, journalism and information among all national tertiary students in Estonia is relatively low. (6.1 %, rank 31/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Estonia,the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of education is relatively small. (9.1 %, rank 33/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Estonia,the share of male among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively large. (71.7 %, rank 8/35 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    In Estonia, the proportion of international graduates among first-time doctorate graduates is relatively low. (16.4 %, rank 19/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of education among all international or foreign tertiary students in Estonia is relatively low. (1.7 %, rank 29/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of business, administration and law among all international or foreign tertiary students in Estonia is relatively high. (39.3 %, rank 3/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all international or foreign tertiary students in Estonia is relatively low. (11.3 %, rank 26/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of health and welfare among all international or foreign tertiary students in Estonia is relatively low. (3.3 %, rank 34/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of services among all international or foreign tertiary students in Estonia is relatively low. (0.1 %, rank 32/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of services is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with avaialble data. (0.1 %, rank 32/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 30/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.6 %, rank 28/33 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    Compared to 2015, total governement expenditure is relatively high. (109 Index, rank 8/46 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of capital expediture on post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.8 %, rank 13/17 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average annual growth rate of total expenditure on tertiary educational institutions between 2012 and 2017 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.7 %, rank 10/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Expenditure per student for ancillary services on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education in Estonia is comparatively low. (97 USD Equivalent, rank 27/27 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student for ancillary educational services on primary to tertiary education in Estonia is comparatively low. (217 USD Equivalent, rank 23/25 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the total expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student in primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education, is relatively low. (7462 USD Equivalent, rank 27/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, between 2012 and 2017, the average annual expenditure per full-time equivalent student from primary to tertiary education is one the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.5 %, rank 5/30 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average annual growth in the number of full-time equivalent students from primary to tertiary education between 2012 and 2017 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-1.2 %, rank 31/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average annual growth rate of total expenditure per full-time equivalent student in tertiary education between 2012 and 2017 is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 %, rank 1/31 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The average annual growth of the number of full-time equivalent students in tertiary education between 2012 and 2017 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (-6.7 %, rank 38/38 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Estonia, expenditure on secondary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (1.3 %, rank 36/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, government expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from initial source of funds is relatively low. (2.5 %, rank 23/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary to tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively low. (0.3 %, rank 29/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The total expenditure on early childhood and care educational institutions, as a percentage of GDP, is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.2 %, rank 6/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    The share of private expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.4 %, rank 27/35 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Estonia has one of the smallest shares of private expenditure on primary through tertiary educational institutions among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (7.8 %, rank 28/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, total public expenditure on secondary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (3.3 %, rank 39/42 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the share of public expenditure on educational institutions, for primary to tertiary education is comparatively large . (87.6 %, rank 10/36 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in primary school is especially low. (173 Days, rank 32/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary school is especially low. (173 Days, rank 31/34 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    The ratio of pre-primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.63 Ratio, rank 16/21 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Principals' salaries

    The average lower secondary school heads' actual salary is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (33261 USD Equivalent, rank 22/23 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (12.8 Ratio, rank 26/34 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Estonia, the intended instruction time for lower secondary students (in hours per year) is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (823 Hours, rank 27/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The total compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students in Estonia is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2468 Hours, rank 30/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, total intended instruction time for lower secondary students is among the shortest compared to other countries with available data. (2468 Hours, rank 28/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the intended instruction time for primary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (661 Hours, rank 26/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students, in hours per year, is one of the shortest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (823 Hours, rank 27/35 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Classes are particularly small in lower secondary schools. (19 Students, rank 27/32 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (80.7 %, rank 4/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (81.9 %, rank 3/38 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education degree is one the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (2.6 %, rank 28/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64, with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the largest in Estonia, compared to other OECD countries. (41.1 %, rank 6/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with below upper secondary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the smallest in Estonia, compared to other OECD countries. (24.3 %, rank 31/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for less than 3 months is one of the largest in Estonia, compared to other OECD countries. (39.1 %, rank 8/31 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Among the unemployed population aged between 25 and 64 with tertiary education, the share of those who have been unemployed for at least 12 months is one of the smallest in Estonia, compared to OECD countries. (19.4 %, rank 29/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with tertiary education is high in Estonia. (14.2 %, rank 9/43 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (4.8 %, rank 30/36 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively Estonia. (14.8 %, rank 7/33 , 2019) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively Estonia. (14 %, rank 35/37 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (2.6 %, rank 29/32 , 2019) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (9.9 %, rank 7/29 , 2019) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The proportion of male full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (74.2 %, rank 8/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (55.4 %, rank 4/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The earnings of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high compared to those of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education. (90 Index, rank 7/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    The proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with tertiary education and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is quite low. (135 Index, rank 31/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (55.8 %, rank 37/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary education or post-secondary non-tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (63 %, rank 37/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (76.1 %, rank 32/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (95 Index, rank 28/29 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Compared with other OECD and partner countries, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old adults with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (145 Index, rank 30/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a short-cycle tertiary education degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (107 Index, rank 24/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportional difference in earnings between 25-64 year-old men with a master's, doctoral or equivalent degree and those with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low. (140 Index, rank 32/33 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full and part-time workers with tertiary education are comparatively low. (134 Index, rank 32/37 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of foreign-born aged between 25 and 64 who work full- and part-time with a short cycle tertiary education are comparatively low. (95 Index, rank 27/28 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of 25-64 year-old full- and part-time workers with a Master's, doctoral or equivalent education degree are comparatively low. (143 Index, rank 32/32 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings by field of education

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Estonia. (85.7 %, rank 3/14 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of business, administration and law are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Estonia. (106 %, rank 12/15 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Estonia. (101.8 %, rank 13/15 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    (3.4 %, rank 33/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    (3.7 %, rank 31/38 , 2018) Download Indicator

    (6 %, rank 37/39 , 2018) Download Indicator

    (3.2 %, rank 29/37 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Estonia, the proportion of adults who reported being interested in politics is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (36.9 %, rank 23/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of adults without an upper secondary education who reported being interested in politics is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (21.9 %, rank 21/25 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of adults with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education who reported being interested in politics is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (29.1 %, rank 24/28 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Estonia, the proportion of adults without an upper secondary education who reported that the political system allows people like them to have a say in what the government does relatively is low. (19.8 %, rank 20/25 , 2018) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
                            
    • While 37% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are in vocational programmes, the share increases to 61% among students over 25.
    • The most popular fields of study among vocational graduates vary at different levels of education. While engineering, manufacturing and construction is the most common broad field at upper secondary level, at short-cycle tertiary level, most students graduate from business, administration and law, or health and welfare.
    • Combined school and work-based learning can help students transition smootly into the labor market. However, only one -third of all upper secondary vocational students are enrolled in school and work-based programmes on average across OECD countries.
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    • Between the age of 3 to 5, 88% of children are enrolled in pre-primary and primary education, on average across OECD countries.
    • The estimated expenditure on all children aged 3 to 5 enrolled in ECEC and primary education amounts to an average of 0.6% of GDP. Only in Iceland and Norway does it equal or exceed 1.0%.
    • The ECEC workforce is at the heart of high-quality education. On average across OECD countries, there are 14 children for every teacher working in pre-primary education (ISCED 02).
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    • In 2019, 45% of 25-34 year-olds held a tertiary degree, compared to 28% among 55-64 year-olds, on average across OECD countries.
    • On average across OECD countries, 17% of first-time tertiary entrants enter short-cycle tertiary programmes. The employment rate of adults with a short-cycle tertiary degree is 4 percentage points higher than those with an upper secondary vocational attainment and they earn 16% more, on average across OECD countries.
    • Based on current patterns, it is estimated that 38% of young adults across OECD countries will graduate from tertiary education for the first time before the age of 30 (excluding international students).
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    • In 2017, total expenditure amounted to approximately USD 9 100 per student in primary institutions and USD 10 500 in secondary institutions on average across OECD countries.
    • After increasing between 2005 and 2012, total expenditure on primary to tertiary institutions as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) has fallen to 4.9% in 2017 on average, below its 2005 value of 5.1%. This is due to educational expenditure rising more slowly than GDP over this period, growing by 17% while GDP grew by 27%.
    • Private sources financed more than 30% of the expenditure, on average, at tertiary level compared to 10% at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level.
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    • There are relatively few young teachers (under the age of 30), and the proportion decreases with the level of education. Young teachers make up 12% of the teaching population in primary education, 10% in lower secondary education and 8% in upper secondary education, on average across OECD countries.
    • While instruction time for students increases at higher educational levels, statutory teaching time in public institutions decreases: teachers in OECD countries and economies are required to teach on average 778 hours per year at primary level compared to 680 hours at upper secondary level (general programmes).
    • Between 2005 and 2019, the statutory salaries of primary and secondary general teachers - with 15 years of experience and the most prevalent qualifications - increased by 2-3%, despite salaries falling after the 2008 economic crisis, on average across OECD countries and economies with available data.
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    Key
    Country Reviews for Estonia

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Some countries may have provided data refering to another year, to know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.