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Spain
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In Spain, 46% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education and 14% in vocational upper secondary education. A further 8% are enrolled in lower secondary programmes and 19% in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 23% in vocational upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • In Spain,27% of 25-34 year-olds have a vocational education and training (VET) qualification as their highest level of attainment: 11% at upper secondary level and 16% at short-cycle tertiary level.
  • Although an upper secondary qualification is often the minimum attainment needed for successful labour-market participation,27% of 25-34 year-olds in Spain have not attained an upper secondary qualification, higher than the OECD average (14%).
  • Workers in Spain aged 25-34 with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment earn 20% more than those without upper secondary attainment, whereas the earning advantage for workers with general upper secondary attainment is 15%.
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, Spain spends USD 11 123 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647.
  • In Spain, in full-time equivalent terms, there are 11 students per staff member in general upper secondary programmes (OECD average: 14 students per staff member) and 9 students for every teaching staff member in vocational upper secondary programmes (OECD average: 15 students per staff member).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The level of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.9 %, rank 43/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a vocational degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (10 %, rank 32/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.8 %, rank 4/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The share of 25-34 year-old men who attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Spain is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (24.2 %, rank 43/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women who attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Spain is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.7 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old men who attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Spain is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (23.4 %, rank 41/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old women who attained upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Spain is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.7 %, rank 41/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Spain has one of the largest share of women among 55-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (57.2 %, rank 2/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained a short cycle tertiary degree is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (14.5 %, rank 4/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained a short cycle tertiary degree is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (17.1 %, rank 3/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of humanities (except languages), social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (5.4 %, rank 26/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    In Spain, the average age of new entrants in master's long first degree (LFD) programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.2 Years, rank 22/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the share of first-time entrants in bachelor's programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (50 %, rank 31/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance by field of education and gender

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.6 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in education in Spain is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (66.6 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Spain is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (44.4 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiaryprogrammes in natural sciences, mathematics and statistics in Spain is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (20.6 %, rank 19/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The share of students enrolled in school- and work-based programmes among all upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.4 %, rank 24/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 tertiary programmes in Spain is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.8 %, rank 5/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 tertiary programmes in Spain is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.9 %, rank 4/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 tertiary programmes in Spain is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.8 %, rank 4/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the share of lower secondary vocational students among vocational students is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (2.4 %, rank 14/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (100 %, rank 1/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of post-secondary non-tertiary students enrolled in vocational programmes in Spain is among the highest. (36.3 %, rank 2/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in post-secondary non-tertiary vocational programmes are proportionally less in Spain than in the other countries. (0.3 %, rank 20/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (3.7 %, rank 14/16 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of vocational students as a share of short-cycle tertiary students is among the largest in all OECD and partner countries. (100 %, rank 1/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Short-cycle tertiary students represent a large share of all vocational students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (39.5 %, rank 5/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Spain has a share of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion with access to tertiary education that is higher than other OECD and partner countries; (100 %, rank 1/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in short-cycle tertiary programmes in Spain is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.1 %, rank 5/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in short-cycle tertiary programmes in Spain is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.2 %, rank 3/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (0.2 %, rank 5/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    In Spain, the average age of post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data (36.4 Years, rank 4/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of long first degree master's graduates in public institutions is relatively low in Spain. (75.9 %, rank 21/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time bachelor's graduates is relatively low in Spain. (45 %, rank 33/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of master's or equivalent graduates in Spain is among the oldest. (30.2 Years, rank 3/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Spain has one of the smallest shares of women graduates from tertiary programmes. (55.1 %, rank 30/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    In Spain, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.1 %, rank 33/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (27 %, rank 2/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of STEM is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.8 %, rank 34/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    The proportion of female tertiary graduates in education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries. (21.6 %, rank 4/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of education is relatively high in Spain. (9.3 %, rank 4/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the percentage of female post-secondary non-tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively small. (74.4 %, rank 20/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field of services is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries. (42.4 %, rank 36/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of information and communication technologies is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (12.8 %, rank 41/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Completion rates

    A relatively low share of students in upper secondary vocational programmes complete their studies within the theoretical programme duration. (46.1 %, rank 17/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    A relatively low share of students in upper secondary vocational programmes complete their studies up to two years later than the theoretical programme duration. (63.4 %, rank 16/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    In Spain, international or foreign students from Latin America and the Caribbean are most represented among all international or foreign students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (43.2 %, rank 5/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the proportion of international graduates among bachelor's first-time graduates is relatively low. (1.9 %, rank 30/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in bachelor's programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.7 %, rank 37/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the share of international or foreign students enrolled in bachelor's programmes among men is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (1.8 %, rank 37/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the share of international or foreign students enrolled in bachelor's programmes among women is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (1.7 %, rank 37/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    In Spain, the share of international and foreign students among all students in the field of information and communication technologies is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.7 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.2 %, rank 5/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Spain, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0 %, rank 3/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Spain, expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP for tertiary education is high compared to 2015. (114 Index, rank 3/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Spain, expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP for primary to tertiary education is high compared to 2015. (114 Index, rank 5/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the private expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary level is high. (0.4 %, rank 5/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of private expenditure as a percentage of GDP from initial source of funds for primary to tertiary education is comparatively high in Spain. (0.9 %, rank 5/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Government and private expenditure in education

    In Spain, the share of private expenditure from primary to tertiary education from initial source of funds is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.5 %, rank 5/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the relative share of public expenditure from initial sources of funds on primary to post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (87.7 %, rank 26/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Nature of expenditure

    In Spain, the share of capital expenditure on primary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.3 %, rank 33/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the share of capital expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.2 %, rank 35/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the share of current expenditure on all levels below tertiary education is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96.8 %, rank 2/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the share of capital expenditure on secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3 %, rank 35/36 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in pre-primary public school is especially low. (176 Days, rank 26/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The percentage of teachers under 30 in early childhood educational development is especially low in Spain. (11 %, rank 15/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (49905 USD Equivalent, rank 5/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    It takes lower secondary teachers longer to progress through the salary scale in Spain compared to other OECD and partner countries. (39 Years, rank 1/10 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    In Spain, the number of students per teacher in public upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.2 Ratio, rank 39/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    In Spain, compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students, in hours per year, is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1057 Hours, rank 5/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    Classes in lower secondary private institutions are comparatively large in Spain. (25 Students, rank 5/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (86 %, rank 37/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (64.8 %, rank 34/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 45-54 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (76.4 %, rank 33/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old men with tertiary education is comparatively low. (86.2 %, rank 42/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Spain. (74.2 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low (79.3 %, rank 35/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in Spain. (69.3 %, rank 36/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by field of education

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of educaton is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (75.7 %, rank 29/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of humanities (except languages), social sciences, journalism and information is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (79.9 %, rank 25/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business, administration and law is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (80.9 %, rank 27/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of information and communication technologies is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (86.5 %, rank 27/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (85.1 %, rank 28/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (84.4 %, rank 25/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with below upper secondary education is comparatively high. (22.2 %, rank 4/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (17.7 %, rank 4/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (5.5 %, rank 4/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (12.3 %, rank 2/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (12.6 %, rank 3/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (16.3 %, rank 2/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the highest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (15.9 %, rank 3/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old with a master's or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively high in Spain. (7.8 %, rank 4/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old with a short cycle tertiary education degree is relatively high in Spain. (12.9 %, rank 3/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment by gender and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is compartively high in Spain. (9.6 %, rank 5/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old women with below upper secondary education is compartively high in Spain. (28.2 %, rank 4/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (14.2 %, rank 1/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high. (18.9 %, rank 2/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.9 %, rank 4/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.9 %, rank 2/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.2 %, rank 2/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-old men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.8 %, rank 1/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high in Spain. (17.9 %, rank 5/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high in Spain. (14.3 %, rank 1/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with below upper secondary education is low in Spain. (18.8 %, rank 42/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity by gender and educational attainment

    In Spain, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women without an upper secondary education is relatively low. (28.3 %, rank 41/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (12.1 %, rank 31/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    In Spain, the proportion of young 25-34 year-old adults with a bachelor's or equivalent attainment earnings is relatively high compared to OECD and other members with available data (155.5 %, rank 5/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education earning more than twice the overall median in Spain is one of the highest among countries with available data. (11.9 %, rank 4/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education earning at or below half the overall median in Spain is one of the highest among countries with available data. (29.7 %, rank 3/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with tertiary education earning at or below half the overall median in Spain is one of the highest among countries with available data. (17.5 %, rank 3/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (84.4 %, rank 5/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (91 %, rank 5/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the proportion of young women's earnings as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with tertiary education working full-time full-year), is relatively high compared to OECD and other members with available data (92.4 %, rank 4/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (76 %, rank 25/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (87.4 %, rank 4/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (71.3 %, rank 25/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (64.6 %, rank 26/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of unemployed youth neither in formal education nor training among 18-24 year-olds in Spain is one of the highest among countries with available data. (9.4 %, rank 5/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Spain is relatively high (26.7 %, rank 2/29 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Spain is relatively high. (26.3 %, rank 5/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Spain is relatively high. (22.2 %, rank 3/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Spain is relatively high. (15.7 %, rank 5/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women who are unemployed NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Spain is relatively high. (8.3 %, rank 5/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are unemployed NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Spain is relatively high. (9.9 %, rank 2/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are unemployed NEET (18-24 year-olds) in Spain is relatively high. (10.5 %, rank 5/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of unemployed NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Spain is relatively high. (9.1 %, rank 3/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the share of men neither employed nor in education among 15-29 year-olds is relatively high. (16.4 %, rank 5/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Among 25-29 year-old men in Spain, a large share of them are neither employed nor in education or training. (22.7 %, rank 4/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Spain, below upper-secondary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.4 Average score, rank 4/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Spain, upper-secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.7 Average score, rank 1/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Spain, tertiary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.4 Average score, rank 5/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the share of adults with below upper secondary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.7 %, rank 2/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the share of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.3 %, rank 1/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the share of adults with a tertiary education who reported taking part in public demonstrations is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (24.7 %, rank 1/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the share of Internet users without an upper secondary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.6 %, rank 24/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Spain, the share of Internet users with tertiary education taking precautions to protect the privacy of their personal data is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.9 %, rank 22/26 , 2021) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
    Visualisations
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Spain

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Spain

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.