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Germany
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Diagram of the education system

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  • Diagram of education system in country language


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  • Education system in Germany

    Germany
    ECEC staff, leaders and their working conditions (Starting Strong Survey 2018)
  • In Germany, larger shares of ECEC staff report using practices that facilitate children's prosocial behaviour and oral language development rather than facilitate children's literacy and numeracy development.
  • Compared to other participating countries, Germany stands out as having the largest share of staff specifically trained to work with children (97% at pre-primary level and 95% in centres for children under age 3), but the country ranges in the middle regarding the share of ECEC staff with a level of education above secondary.
  • More than 40% of ECEC centres include 11% or more children whose first language differs from the language(s) spoken in their centre, which is high compared to most other countries. Working with dual/second language learners is a top priority for professional development needs.
  • Although the vast majority of ECEC staff report being satisfied with their jobs, Germany is among the participating countries with a comparatively lower percentage of pre-primary staff that feel valued in society (36%) and are satisfied with their salary (26%). It is the country where the highest share of ECEC staff report having extra duties due to absent staff as a source of stress.
  • Leaders in Germany have a high level of responsibility for budget and human resources decisions at the centre-level, but they also often identify too much administrative work as a principal source of stress (79% of pre-primary leaders and 83% in centres for children under age 3). Less than half of leaders indicate receiving inspections on process quality at least once a year.
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Organisation of the education system

    The proportion of leaders reporting that their ECEC centre is co-located with a primary school is one of the smallest among TALIS participating countries. (4.3 %, rank 7/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Governance

    A large proportion of leaders report that they or other centre staff have significant responsibility for deciding on budget allocations within their centres. (81.1 %, rank 1/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Germany has one of the lowest proportion of ECEC centre leaders who reported that their centre is publicly managed. (29.2 %, rank 8/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Compared to most other TALIS countries, Germany has a high proportion of ECEC centre leaders who reported that their centre is privately managed. (70.8 %, rank 1/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    ECEC centre external evaluations

    A large proportion of leaders report receiving an inspection regarding process quality at least once every year. (32.3 %, rank 2/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Opportunities for children's participation in decisions in the centre

    In Germany, a high percentage of leaders agree or strongly agree that the centre provides opportunities for children to actively participate in decisions (35.5 %, rank 1/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Public and private expenditure in education

    Germany has one of the highest percentage of ECEC leaders who reported receiving funding from public sources over the last 12 months. (99.6 %, rank 2/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Germany has one of the highest percentage of ECEC centre leaders who reported receiving at least one source of private funding. (94 %, rank 2/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Who the ECEC staff are

    Among TALIS countries, Germany has a small proportion of ECEC staff aged under 30. (22.9 %, rank 6/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Among TALIS countries, Germany has a low proportion of ECEC staff aged between 30 and 49 years. (47.8 %, rank 7/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Among TALIS countries, Germany has a high proportion of ECEC staff aged 50 or older. (29.3 %, rank 1/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Who the ECEC leaders are

    Compared to most other TALIS countries, Germany has a low percentage of ECEC centre leaders aged between 30 and 49. (39.3 %, rank 6/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the leaders' experience in terms of number of years is relatively high. (13.2 Years, rank 2/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Education and initial preparation of ECEC staff

    The share of staff who have received training specifically to work with children is one of the largest among TALIS participating countries and economies. (96.5 %, rank 1/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Compared to most other TALIS countries, a smaller proportion of staff report that working with children with special needs was included in their formal training programme. (49.8 %, rank 8/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Professional development of ECEC staff

    The share of staff that did not participate in professional development activities over the 12 months prior to the survey is one of the largest among TALIS participating countries and economies. (17.8 %, rank 2/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of staff whose professional development activities over the 12 months prior the survey included facilitating transitions to primary education is relatively low. (15.6 %, rank 8/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Compared to most other TALIS countries, a smaller proportion of staff ''agree'' or ''strongly agree'' that the lack of staff to compensate for their absences is a barrier to their participation in professional development. (15.7 %, rank 8/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Compared to most other TALIS countries, a smaller proportion of staff whose professional development activities over the 12 months prior the survey included working with children with special needs. (16.7 %, rank 8/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    ECEC staff practices facilitating literacy, numeracy and language development

    In Germany, a relative low percentage of staff reported singing songs or rythmes with the children is a practice that applies a lot in the ECEC centre. (67.6 %, rank 6/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    ECEC staff practices facilitating socio-emotional development

    Germany has a relative small share of staff who reported that hugging the children is a practice that applies a lot in their ECEC centre. (47.2 %, rank 8/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    ECEC staff beliefs about skills and abilities that will prepare children for the future

    In Germany, a small percentage of ECEC staff believe that children's ability to cooperate easily with others is highly important in preparing children for the future. (78.6 %, rank 8/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Germany, a large percentage of ECEC staff believe that children's oral language skills is highly important in preparing children for the future. (95.4 %, rank 1/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Germany, a small percentage of ECEC staff believe that children's ability to think creatively is highly important in preparing children for the future. (64.9 %, rank 6/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    ECEC staff beliefs about spending priorities

    In Germany, a large proportion of staff responded that reducing group size by recruiting more ECEC staff was “of high importance” if, the budget were to increase by 5%. (82.3 %, rank 2/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Germany, a small proportion of staff who responded that improving ECEC staff salaries was “of high importance” if, the budget were to increase by 5%. (73 %, rank 6/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Germany, a small proportion of staff who responded that supporting children with special needs was “of high importance” if, thinking about the ECEC sector as a whole, the budget were to increase by 5%. (50.4 %, rank 6/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Germany, a small proportion of staff who responded that offering high quality professional development for ECEC staff was “of high importance” if, the budget were to increase by 5%. (46.5 %, rank 7/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Teaching in multicultural settings

    Compared to most other TALIS countries, a smaller proportion of staff report that children playing with toys and artefacts from cultures other than the ethnic majority happens ''to some extent'' or ''a lot'' in their center. (14.7 %, rank 7/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Germany, a high percentage of leaders reported high levels of agreement amongst their staff that learning children as early as possible to respect other cultures emphasises the importance of multicultural and gender diversity. (88.9 %, rank 5/7 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Working conditions of ECEC staff

    In Germany, the percentage of staff who ''agree'' or ''strongly agree'' with the statement ''all in all, I am satisfied with my job'' is comparatively low. (92.6 %, rank 6/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of staff who ''agree'' or ''strongly agree'' that ECEC staff are valued in society is comparatively small. (36 %, rank 6/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of staff who ''agree'' or ''strongly agree'' with the statement ''I am satisfied with the salary I receive for my work'' is comparatively small. (26.1 %, rank 6/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of staff with permanent contracts is comparatively large. (83.1 %, rank 2/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    According to leaders, in Germany a relative small share of staff left their ECEC centre in the previous year. (9.8 %, rank 6/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    ECEC leaders' job satisfaction

    Germany has one of the smallest share of leaders believing that ECEC staff are valued in society. (29.1 %, rank 8/8 , 2018) Download Indicator

    Germany has one of the smallest share of leaders who report being satisfied with their job. (94.7 %, rank 8/8 , 2018) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    • Across countries participating in the Starting Strong Survey, more than 90% of ECEC staff are female. Furthermore, more than 80% of leaders are female in all countries with the exception of Chile (77%), Japan(64%) and Turkey (25%).
    • The highest proportion of ECEC staff under 30 years old is found in Korea (43%) followed by Turkey and Japan where more than 30% of ECEC staff belongs to this age group. On the other hand, Germany, Israel and Iceland have more than one quarter of ECEC staff aged above 50. More than half of ECEC centre leaders are aged 50 or more in Iceland, Germany, Korea and Chile and in Japan the eight out of ten centre leaders are above 50.
    Visualisations
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    • Staff in the ECEC field have typically completed education beyond secondary school,. Training specifically to work with children is not universal, ranging from 64% of staff in Iceland to 97% of staff in Germany. Staff with more education and training and more responsibility report that they adapt their practices in the classroom or playroom to individual children’s development and interests.
    • In all countries, a majority of staff (more than 75%) report having participated in professional development activities within the 12 months prior to the Survey,. However, staff who are less educated tend to participate less in professional development activities.
    Visualisations
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    • Around 70% of staff report regular use of practices facilitating children’s socio-emotional development (such as encouraging children to help each other) or practices facilitating children’s language development (such as singing songs or rhymes). Specific practices emphasising literacy and numeracy (such as playing with letters or playing number games) are used to a lesser extent.
    • The ability to co operate easily with others is at the top of the list of skills and abilities that ECEC staff regard as important for young children to develop.
    • Exchanging information with parents regarding daily activities and children’s development is common. Smaller percentages of staff report encouraging parents to play and carry out learning activities at home with their children.
    • Staff across countries and levels of education concur that reducing group size, improving staff salaries and receiving support for children with special needs are important spending priorities.
    Visualisations
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    • Staff in all countries report feeling more valued by the children they serve and their parents or guardians than by society in general. Satisfaction with salaries is low. Even so, staff report high levels of overall job satisfaction. In several countries, staff who feel that ECEC staff are more valued by society report more use of practices in the classroom or playroom adapted to individual children’s development and interests.
    • Lack of resources and having too many children in the classroom or playroom are major sources of work-related stress among ECEC staff. For centre leaders, a primary source of work-related stress is having too much administrative work associated with their job. Leaders also report that inadequate resources for the centre and staff shortages are the main barriers to effectiveness.
    Visualisations
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    • Nine of ten ECEC centre leaders report receiving funds from public sources in the last 12 months in all countries excepted for Turkey (71%). On the other hand, more than 70% report receiving private funding in all countries excepted for Chile and Iceland (37% and 33%, respectively).
    • Across all countries participating in the Starting Strong Survey, only in Turkey more than half of ECEC centres are co-located with a primary school. This is the case for only 30% of centres in Japan and for less than 10% of centres in Israel, Japan, Germany and Norway.
    • Public management of centres ranges from more than 90% in Israel to less than 30% in Germany
    Visualisations
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    Key
    Country Reviews for Germany

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS average. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2019 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.