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Germany
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In Germany, 31% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education and 15% in vocational upper secondary education. A further 30% are enrolled in lower secondary programmes and 7% in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 23% in vocational upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • In Germany,38% of 25-34 year-olds have a vocational education and training (VET) qualification as their highest level of attainment: 23% at upper secondary level and 15% at post-secondary non-tertiary level.
  • Although an upper secondary qualification is often the minimum attainment needed for successful labour-market participation,16% of 25-34 year-olds in Germany have not attained an upper secondary qualification, higher than the OECD average (14%).
  • Workers in Germany aged 25-34 with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment earn 67% more than those without upper secondary attainment, whereas the earning advantage for workers with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment is 59%.
  • Across all levels from primary to tertiary education, Germany spends USD 15 767 annually per full-time equivalent student (adjusted for purchasing power and including expenditure on research and development), compared to the OECD average of USD 12 647.
  • In Germany,36% of teachers in general upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or older, compared to the OECD average of 39%.Teachers in vocational programmes are on average older than their general programme peers, with 50% aged 50 or above (43% on average across the OECD).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46.3 %, rank 4/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who have attained a general upper secondary or post-secondary qualification is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.7 %, rank 36/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old men who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.1 %, rank 36/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-64 year-old women who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.4 %, rank 37/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The level of short-cycle tertiary attainment among 25-34 year-olds is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.4 %, rank 30/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    Germany has one of the largest share of women among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (48.3 %, rank 5/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Germany has one of the largest share of women among 55-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education. (53.9 %, rank 4/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the proportion of 25-34 year-old women who have attained a short cycle tertiary degree is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (0.4 %, rank 28/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the proportion of 25-34 year-old men who have attained a short cycle tertiary degree is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (0.3 %, rank 30/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Germany is one of the highest among countries with available data. (37.8 %, rank 2/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of business and administration is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (7.8 %, rank 16/17 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health (nursing and associate health fields) is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (2.3 %, rank 13/14 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    The share of women among tertiary education new entrants is one of the smallest compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (51.1 %, rank 32/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering bachelor's programmes in Germany is relatively small. (48.6 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of women among the new entrants in master's programmes in Germany is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (53.3 %, rank 36/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of first-time entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (1.1 %, rank 25/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance by field of education and gender

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (21.9 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female among new entrants in doctoral programmes enrolled in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction in Germany is relatively small. (23.5 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.8 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in health and welfare in Germany is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (57.4 %, rank 29/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of arts and humanities is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (39.2 %, rank 30/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (19.2 %, rank 22/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    In Germany, the percentage of female students enrolled in upper secondary vocational programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries. (35 %, rank 41/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 17 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Germany is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (3.9 %, rank 2/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Germany is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.7 %, rank 2/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Germany is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.6 %, rank 3/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 tertiary programmes in Germany is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 30/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Germany is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (13.2 %, rank 1/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 tertiary programmes in Germany is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 30/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Germany is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.6 %, rank 3/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of upper secondary students enrolled in programmes giving partial completion or insufficient for completion is relatively low compared to the other countries. (5.1 %, rank 12/16 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of post-secondary non-tertiary students enrolled in vocational programmes in Germany is among the lowest. (22.5 %, rank 27/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of post-secondary non-tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion without access to tertiary education is relatively small compared to other OECD or partner contries. (38.3 %, rank 14/14 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of post-secondary non-tertiary students among all vocational students is relatively large compared to other OECD and partner countries. (34.6 %, rank 5/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of vocational students as a share of short-cycle tertiary students is among the largest in all OECD and partner countries. (100 %, rank 1/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Short-cycle tertiary students represent a small share of all vocational students, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.6 %, rank 27/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Germany has a share of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion with access to tertiary education that is higher than other OECD and partner countries; (100 %, rank 1/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 15-19 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Germany is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.1 %, rank 2/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in upper secondary vocational programmes in Germany is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.2 %, rank 4/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate among students aged 20-24 in post-secondary non-tertiary programmes in Germany is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.3 %, rank 2/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students enrolled in lower secondary vocational programmes is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (39 %, rank 18/22 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    In Germany, the average age of post-secondary non-tertiary graduates from vocational programmes is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (24.6 Years, rank 24/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of first-time short-cycle graduates is relatively low in Germany. (1.4 %, rank 25/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at post-secondary non-tertiary level is comparatively small. (94 %, rank 22/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    The share of female graduates from upper secondary general programmes is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (47.2 %, rank 42/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Germany has one of the smallest shares of women graduates from tertiary programmes. (51.4 %, rank 33/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of female first-time bachelor's graduates is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (49.2 %, rank 33/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of female first-time master's graduates is relatively largest, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (67.3 %, rank 5/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The percentage of tertiary graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (22.2 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humaties in Germany is relatively small. (6.5 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of sciences, journalism and information in Germany is relatively small. (5.2 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of health and welfare in Germany is relatively large. (32 %, rank 4/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31.1 %, rank 2/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of services is relatively low. (6.5 %, rank 21/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of services is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (47 %, rank 2/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of STEM is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (35.3 %, rank 1/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the proportion of bachelor's, master's and doctoral or equivalent graduates in the field of health and welfare is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.8 %, rank 41/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    In Germany, the share of female doctoral graduates in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is relatively low. (19.9 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of female tertiary graduates in the field of sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (19.2 %, rank 3/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is relatively high in Germany. (52 %, rank 1/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male tertiary graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively low in Germany. (4.6 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field of services is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries. (41.3 %, rank 37/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in all fields is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (51.1 %, rank 42/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (21.1 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (41.2 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Germany, the percentage of new entrants to tertiary education in the field of health and welfare is relatively low. (7.4 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of health and welfare among all national tertiary students in Germany is relatively low. (9.2 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of business, administration and law is relatively small. (0 %, rank 31/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of information and communication technologies is relatively small. (0 %, rank 29/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of health and welfare is relatively high, compared to other countries with available data. (31 %, rank 4/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (5.6 %, rank 36/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of new entrants in health and welfare bachelor's programmes is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (5.9 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of new entrants in health and welfare master's programmes is relatively lowest, compared to other countries with available data. (7.4 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    The share of international students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 27/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the proportion of international graduates among first-time short-cycle tertiary first-time graduates is relatively low. (0 %, rank 23/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 31/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of international or foreign students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes among men is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (0 %, rank 30/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of engineering, manunfacturing and construction among all international or foreign tertiary students in Germany is relatively high. (28.9 %, rank 1/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (36.8 %, rank 4/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Adult participation in non-formal education

    In Germany, the share of employed 25-64 year-olds participating in at least one job-related non-formal education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.3 %, rank 24/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-olds participating in at least one job-related non-formal education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (5.1 %, rank 15/19 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of 25-64 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (2.9 %, rank 20/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of 25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (2.9 %, rank 21/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (6.7 %, rank 23/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (1.3 %, rank 20/20 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Resources for education

    In Germany, the salary cost of primary teachers per student is comparatively high. (5441 USD Equivalent, rank 2/24 , 2017) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the salary cost of lower-secondary teachers per student is comparatively high. (7004 USD Equivalent, rank 2/24 , 2017) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    In Germany, expenditure on primary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively low. (0.7 %, rank 37/39 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Germany, expenditure on post secondary non-tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of GDP is comparatively high. (0.2 %, rank 1/21 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Germany, international expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education from final source of funds is relatively high. (0 %, rank 3/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Government and private expenditure in education

    In Germany, total public expenditure on primary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively low. (1.5 %, rank 44/46 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Germany, total public expenditure on post-secondary non-tertiary educational institutions as a percentage of total public expenditure is comparatively high. (0.3 %, rank 3/25 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Teachers

    The number of days of instruction in a school year in lower secondary public school is especially high. (193 Days, rank 5/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of hours per year pre-primary teachers spend teaching in public institutions is comparatively high in Germany. (1755 Hours, rank 1/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in short-cycle tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (32.5 %, rank 24/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers under 30 in lower secondary education is especially high in Germany. (77.4 %, rank 4/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of short-cycle tertiary teachers aged between 30 and 49 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (41.2 %, rank 23/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of bachelor's, master's and doctoral level teachers older than 50 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (29.2 %, rank 29/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of tertiary teachers older than 50 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (29.4 %, rank 32/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of short-cycle tertiary teachers younger than 30 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (4.2 %, rank 19/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of tertiary teachers younger than 30 is relatively high, compared to other countries with data available. (22.7 %, rank 2/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of short-cycle tertiary female teachers younger than 30 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (34 %, rank 21/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of short-cycle tertiary female teachers older than 50 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (33.4 %, rank 20/23 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of teachers under 30 in early childhood educational development is especially high in Germany. (21.8 %, rank 5/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of teachers under 30 in upper secondary vocational education is especially low in Germany. (2.7 %, rank 28/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of post secondary non-tertiary education teachers under 30 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data (2.8 %, rank 17/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with minimum qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (93085 USD Equivalent, rank 2/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of primary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.97 Ratio, rank 5/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of lower secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.07 Ratio, rank 4/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The ratio of upper secondary teachers' salaries to earnings of full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.12 Ratio, rank 4/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual primary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (82145 USD Equivalent, rank 1/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual lower secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (90235 USD Equivalent, rank 1/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The average actual upper secondary teacher's salary among teachers aged between 25-64 is one of the highest per hour of net teaching time among OECD and partner countries with available data. (95077 USD Equivalent, rank 1/28 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a lower secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (93085 USD Equivalent, rank 2/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, an upper secondary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (96742 USD Equivalent, rank 2/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    After 15 years of experience, a primary teacher with typical qualification can expect to have one of the highest salaries among OECD and partner countries with available data. (85699 USD Equivalent, rank 2/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially high. (70419 USD Equivalent, rank 2/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (80750 USD Equivalent, rank 2/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (91713 USD Equivalent, rank 5/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (77905 USD Equivalent, rank 2/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (88442 USD Equivalent, rank 2/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In primary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.3 Ratio, rank 28/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In lower secondary education, the salary ratio of teachers with maximum qualifications at the top of the salary scale to those with minimum training and starting salaries is comparatively low. (1.3 Ratio, rank 28/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Ratio of student to teaching staff

    The number of students per teacher in tertiary institutions is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.6 Ratio, rank 32/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The number of pupils per teacher in pre-primary schools is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9 Ratio, rank 38/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the ratio of students to teaching staff in bachelor's and tertiary advanced research programmes is one of the lowest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (11.6 Ratio, rank 26/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the ratio of children to teaching staff in early childhood educational development is one of the lowest compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.7 Ratio, rank 17/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of teachers' aides among contact staff in early childhood educational development is one of the lowest of OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.5 Ratio, rank 12/12 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Organisation of the education system

    The total compulsory instruction time for lower secondary students in Germany is one of the longest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4480 Hours, rank 3/38 , 2023) Download Indicator

    In Germany, total intended instruction time for lower secondary students is among the longest compared to other countries with available data. (4480 Hours, rank 4/30 , 2023) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (88.8 %, rank 5/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a short-cycle tertiary education is comparatively high. (91.2 %, rank 4/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    In Germany, the employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high (85.2 %, rank 2/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of employed 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (81.2 %, rank 3/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (3.2 %, rank 41/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (2.6 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (2.4 %, rank 30/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is one of the lowest of all OECD countries and partner economies for which data are available. (2.8 %, rank 30/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment by gender and educational attainment

    The unemployment rate among 25-64 year-old women with upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (2.3 %, rank 41/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old men with tertiary education is compartively low in Germany. (2.4 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The unemployment rate among 25-34 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively low in Germany. (2.9 %, rank 42/42 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (2.5 %, rank 31/32 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.1 %, rank 33/34 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    In Germany, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (29.3 %, rank 4/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity by gender and educational attainment

    In Germany, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (36.9 %, rank 5/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (23.4 %, rank 4/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high. (18.4 %, rank 4/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Germany, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (17.1 %, rank 32/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 without upper secondary education is comparatively low. (13.8 %, rank 28/28 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (44 %, rank 27/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The earnings of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively low compared to those of adults with an upper secondary or a post-secondary non-tertiary education. (72 Index, rank 36/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Germany. (159 Index, rank 2/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Germany. (159 Index, rank 1/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 45-54 year-olds working full-time and full-year with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Germany. (155 Index, rank 2/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Germany. (167 Index, rank 1/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Germany. (142 Index, rank 4/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-34 year-olds working full-time and full-year with bachelor's or equivalent attainment compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Germany. (220 Index, rank 4/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of 25-64 year-olds working full-time and full-year with bachelor's or equivalent attainment compared to those of adults without an upper secondary education are relatively high in Germany. (211 Index, rank 4/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    The earnings of men without an upper secondary education are relatively low compared to those of men with an upper secondary education. (68 Index, rank 37/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-64 year-olds without an upper secondary education with income from employment) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (94.7 %, rank 2/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with income from employment) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (75.8 %, rank 37/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women (as a percentage of men's earnings) among full- and part-time 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (61.3 %, rank 38/40 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds without an upper secondary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (97.1 %, rank 1/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (70.6 %, rank 27/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the lowest among countries with available data. (65.4 %, rank 39/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings by field of education

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of education are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Germany. (58.1 %, rank 17/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Germany. (69.9 %, rank 13/15 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of business, administration and law are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Germany. (106.8 %, rank 13/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Germany. (95.8 %, rank 15/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Germany. (136.9 %, rank 1/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Germany who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (72 %, rank 13/14 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Germany who studied in the field of business, administration and law, are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (104.7 %, rank 13/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Germany who studied in the field of education, are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (72.5 %, rank 12/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Germany who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction, are high, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (120.4 %, rank 4/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Germany who studied in the field of health and welfare, are high, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (99.8 %, rank 5/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Germany who studied in the field of information and communication technologies (ICT), are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (95.6 %, rank 16/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Germany who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics, are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (97 %, rank 13/15 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of unemployed youth neither in formal education nor training among 18-24 year-olds in Germany is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (2.3 %, rank 37/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of youth who have been unemployed for at least 3 months but less than a year and not in formal education or training among 18-24 year-olds in Germany is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (1.3 %, rank 22/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of youth who have been unemployed for less than 3 months and not in formal education or training among 18-24 year-olds in Germany is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (0.9 %, rank 25/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Germany is relatively low (11.6 %, rank 29/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Germany is relatively low (4.9 %, rank 25/29 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Germany is relatively low. (8.1 %, rank 29/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Germany is relatively low. (3.4 %, rank 31/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women who are unemployed NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Germany is relatively low. (1.5 %, rank 38/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women who are unemployed NEET (18-24 year-olds) in Germany is relatively low. (1.5 %, rank 35/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of unemployed NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Germany is relatively low. (2.2 %, rank 37/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Among 15-29 year-olds, the share of youth without an upper secondary or post-secondary non tertiary degree who are neither employed nor in education or training in Germany is relatively low. (6.6 %, rank 37/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 18-24 year-olds who are neither employed nor in education or training is comparatively small in Germany. (8.6 %, rank 36/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 18-24 year-old men neither employed nor in education or training is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (8.3 %, rank 36/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Germany, below upper-secondary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.5 Average score, rank 21/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Germany, tertiary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively low, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.8 Average score, rank 23/24 , 2020) Download Indicator


    The data table will display up to six selected countries.
    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Germany

    Click on the coverpage to see the full OECD iLibrary version
    Key
    Country Reviews for Germany

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.