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Switzerland
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Switzerland
Overview of the education system (EAG 2023)
  • In Switzerland, 27% of 15-19 year-olds are enrolled in general upper secondary education and 38% in vocational upper secondary education. A further 16% are enrolled in lower secondary programmes and 4% in tertiary programmes. This compares to an OECD average of 37% enrolled in general upper secondary programmes, 23% in vocational upper secondary programmes, 12% in lower secondary programmes and 12% in tertiary programmes.
  • In Switzerland,31% of 25-34 year-olds have a vocational education and training (VET) qualification at upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary level as their highest level of attainment.
  • Although an upper secondary qualification is often the minimum attainment needed for successful labour-market participation,9% of 25-34 year-olds in Switzerland have not attained an upper secondary qualification, lower than the OECD average (14%).
  • In Switzerland,25-34 year-old workers with bachelor's attainment earn 49% more than their peers without upper secondary attainment, while those with master's or doctoral attainment earn 70% more.
  • Total government expenditure on education amounted to 12% of total government expenditure on all services in 2020, compared to 10% on average across the OECD.
  • In Switzerland, in full-time equivalent terms, there are 12 students per staff member in general upper secondary programmes (OECD average: 14 students per staff member) and 13 students for every teaching staff member in vocational upper secondary programmes (OECD average: 15 students per staff member).
  • In Switzerland,38% of teachers in general upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or older, compared to the OECD average of 39%.Teachers in vocational programmes are on average older than their general programme peers, with 45% aged 50 or above (43% on average across the OECD).
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    The following list displays indicators for which your selected country shows the highest and lowest values among countries. The list can be sorted by level of education or by age group. All rankings are calculated including available data from OECD and partner countries. Find out more about the methodology here.

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    Attainment

    The proportion of 25-64 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (3.2 %, rank 3/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The proportion of 25-34 year-olds who have attained a general degree at the upper secondary or post-secondary level is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.4 %, rank 34/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of 25-34 year-olds who attained a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the highest among countries with available data. (2.2 %, rank 2/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by gender

    The share of 25-34 year-old men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Switzerland is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (8.4 %, rank 34/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Attainment by field of education

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of arts and humanities, social sciences, journalism and information is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (12.1 %, rank 29/31 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of health (medical and dental) is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (3.2 %, rank 11/14 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance

    The share of new entrants younger than 25 in bachelor's or equivalent programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (72.7 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among tertiary education new entrants is one of the smallest compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (51.3 %, rank 31/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering bachelor's programmes in Switzerland is relatively small. (50.8 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the percentage of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes younger than 25 is relatively low. (26.3 %, rank 30/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the percentage of first-time entrants into tertiary education younger than 25 is relatively low. (68.9 %, rank 30/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of new entrants in tertiary education in Switzerland is comparatively old. (24.7 Years, rank 1/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of women among the new entrants in master's programmes in Switzerland is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (51.6 %, rank 38/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Entrance by field of education and gender

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (47.8 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female who enter tertiary education in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (20.5 %, rank 37/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of women among new entrants in bachelor's programmes in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (17.2 %, rank 38/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering master's or equivalent programmes in education in Switzerland is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (65.6 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in engineering, manufacturing and construction in Switzerland is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (7 %, rank 29/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female students entering short cycle tertiary programmes in Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in Switzerland is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (7.5 %, rank 31/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of male students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes in health and welfare in Switzerland is one of the smallest compared to other OECD countries and partner economies. (12.8 %, rank 25/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of female in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of arts and humanities is one of the lowest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (36 %, rank 31/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Participation in education

    The percentage of three-year-olds in early childhood education in Switzerland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (2.3 %, rank 78/82 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in early childhood and primary education in Switzerland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48.7 %, rank 78/82 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of 3-5 year-old children in early childhood and primary education in Switzerland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (49.8 %, rank 39/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the enrolment rate of children under 3 is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 37/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of students enrolled in school- and work-based programmes among all upper secondary students enrolled in vocational programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (90.6 %, rank 5/24 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 17 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Switzerland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (53.5 %, rank 5/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 18 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Switzerland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (50.5 %, rank 3/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 in general upper secondary programmes in Switzerland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (14.9 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 tertiary programmes in Switzerland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 30/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 19 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Switzerland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (32.6 %, rank 5/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in general upper secondary programmes in Switzerland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (7.3 %, rank 5/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 tertiary programmes in Switzerland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0.1 %, rank 30/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The enrolment rate of students aged 20 in vocational upper secondary programmes in Switzerland is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (16.9 %, rank 4/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the percentage of students enrolled in private institutions at pre-primary level is comparatively low. (5 %, rank 83/86 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, upper secondary vocational students among all vocational students are relatively more numerous than in other OECD or partner countries. (93.1 %, rank 4/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (79.7 %, rank 26/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Students enrolled in programmes providing full completion and access to tertiary education among all students enrolled in post-secondary non-tertiary vocational programmes are proportionally more in Switzerland than in the other countries. (100 %, rank 1/20 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (0 %, rank 15/16 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of vocational students as a share of short-cycle tertiary students is among the largest in all OECD and partner countries. (100 %, rank 1/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in vocational programmes is comparativele high. (34.2 %, rank 4/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Switzerland has a share of short-cycle tertiary students enrolled in programmes giving full level completion with access to tertiary education that is higher than other OECD and partner countries; (100 %, rank 1/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (0 %, rank 8/9 , 2021) Download Indicator

    (0.2 %, rank 5/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of four-year-olds in pre-primary in Switzerland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (48.7 %, rank 77/81 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation

    The share of tertiary graduates younger than 30-years-old is one of the smallest among countries with available data. (75.3 %, rank 30/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time graduates in vocational programmes at upper secondary level is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (67.3 %, rank 5/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the percentage of first-time short-cycle tertiary graduates younger than 30 is relatively low. (35.5 %, rank 29/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of long first degree master's graduates in public institutions is relatively high in Switzerland. (100 %, rank 1/25 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of first-time short-cycle graduates is relatively low in Switzerland. (0.7 %, rank 27/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of first-time master's graduates is relatively low in Switzerland. (0 %, rank 26/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of first-time graduates in general programmes at upper secondary level is comparatively low. (32.7 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of short-cycle tertiary graduates in Switzerland is among the oldest. (35.6 Years, rank 1/26 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The average age of bachelor's or equivalent graduates in Switzerland is among the oldest. (27.9 Years, rank 3/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by gender

    Among OECD and partner countries with available data, Switzerland has one of the smallest shares of women graduates from tertiary programmes. (50.6 %, rank 34/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of female first-time bachelor's graduates is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (50.5 %, rank 32/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education

    The share of doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humaties in Switzerland is relatively small. (6.2 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of upper secondary vocational graduates in the field of business, aministration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31.1 %, rank 2/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational graduates in the field of business, administration and law is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31.1 %, rank 2/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of arts and humanities is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (26.4 %, rank 5/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of STEM is relatively low compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (6.9 %, rank 33/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of short-cycle tertiary vocational graduates in the field of health and welfare is relatively high compared to other OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (46.2 %, rank 3/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Graduation by field of education and gender

    In Switzerland, the proportion of male tertiary graduates in the field of social sciences, journalism and information is relatively small. (4.3 %, rank 40/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of female graduates from upper secondary vocational programmes in the field of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries. (53.6 %, rank 35/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in all fields is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (49.6 %, rank 45/45 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the field of education is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (67.8 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of business, administration and law is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (47.3 %, rank 43/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (43.5 %, rank 41/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (24.3 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of information and communication technologies is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (13.2 %, rank 40/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of engineering, manufacturing and construction is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (17.9 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of female graduates in tertiary education in the fields of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary is one of the smallest among OECD countries and partner economies with available data. (37.3 %, rank 42/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Completion rates

    A relatively high share of students in upper secondary vocational programmes complete their studies within the theoretical programme duration. (74.7 %, rank 4/19 , 2021) Download Indicator

    A relatively high share of upper secondary students complete their studies up to two years later than the theoretical programme duration. (91.2 %, rank 2/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    A relatively high share of students in upper secondary vocational programmes complete their studies up to two years later than the theoretical programme duration. (90.3 %, rank 2/18 , 2021) Download Indicator

    A relatively high share of students in upper secondary general programmes complete their studies up to two years later than the theoretical programme duration. (93.3 %, rank 3/21 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Fields of education

    In Switzerland, the percentage of new entrants to doctoral programmes in the field of education is relatively low, compared to other countries with available data. (1.7 %, rank 34/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of new entrants in arts and humanities bachelor's programmes is especially low, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (6.4 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of new entrants in short-cycle tertiary programmes in the field of science, technology, engineering and mathematics is comparatively low in Switzerland, compared to OECD and partner countries with available data. (11 %, rank 31/33 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility

    Switzerland has one of the largest proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in tertiary education among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.4 %, rank 5/44 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of international students entering short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 27/30 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of international and foreign students enrolled in doctoral or equivalent programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (56.9 %, rank 2/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of international graduates among first-time short-cycle tertiary first-time graduates is relatively low. (0 %, rank 23/27 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of international graduates among first-time doctorate graduates is relatively high. (56.8 %, rank 4/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The proportion of international students among the new entrants in master's programmes in Switzerland is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (31.9 %, rank 4/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in master's programmes is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (30.1 %, rank 4/41 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of international or foreign students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (0 %, rank 31/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of international or foreign students enrolled in short-cycle tertiary programmes among men is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (0 %, rank 30/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Student mobility by field of education

    The percentage of students enrolled in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics among all international or foreign tertiary students in Switzerland is relatively high. (17.1 %, rank 1/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of arts and humanities is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (4.9 %, rank 35/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the percentage of international doctoral graduates in the field of Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (36.6 %, rank 5/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of students enrolled in the field of agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary among all international or foreign tertiary students is relatively low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (0.5 %, rank 34/36 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Adult participation in non-formal education

    In Switzerland, the share of employed 25-64 year-olds participating in at least one job-related non-formal education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (18.4 %, rank 1/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of unemployed 25-64 year-olds participating in at least one job-related non-formal education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (15.8 %, rank 3/19 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of 25-64 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (15.3 %, rank 1/24 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of 25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (10.7 %, rank 5/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education participating in non-formal job-related education and training over the 4 weeks prior to the interview is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partners countries with available data. (24.4 %, rank 1/25 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Expenditure per student

    Annual expenditure per student on research and development in tertiary education is one of the highest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (18229 USD Equivalent, rank 2/35 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Switzerland has a total expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student (primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education) comparatively low. (5921 USD Equivalent 2015, rank 19/22 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure on primary to tertiary education in Switzerland is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (31368 USD Equivalent, rank 2/38 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Expenditure in education and national wealth

    From 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure on educational institutions at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is relatively low in Switzerland. (-12.1 %, rank 36/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to 2010, from 2012 to 2020, the average annual growth in total expenditure on educational institutions per full-time equivalent student at primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary level is relatively small in Switzerland. (-13 Index, rank 36/37 , 2020) Download Indicator

    From 2012 to 2018, the average annual growth in total expenditure per full-time equivalent student on primary to tertiary education in Switzerland is one of the largest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (1.4 %, rank 5/32 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Who the teachers are

    The share of women among teaching staff in upper secondary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (46.2 %, rank 40/43 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education (bachelor's, master's, doctorate or equivalent education) is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (36.5 %, rank 31/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in tertiary education is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (36.5 %, rank 40/42 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff is one of the smallest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (62.2 %, rank 33/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of women among teaching staff in general upper secondary education in Switzerland is relatively small. (49.2 %, rank 34/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of women among teaching staff in vocational upper secondary education is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (44.7 %, rank 32/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in lower secondary education is especially low in Switzerland. (53 %, rank 34/37 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in upper secondary education is especially low in Switzerland. (41.7 %, rank 36/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The percentage of female teachers aged 50 or more in tertiary education is especially low in Switzerland. (31 %, rank 32/35 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of tertiary teachers younger than 30 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (2.2 %, rank 30/34 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of bachelor's, master's and doctoral level female teachers older than 50 is relatively low, compared to other countries with data available. (31 %, rank 29/32 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Teachers' salaries progression

    Starting salaries for teachers with minimum training in primary education are especially high. (60874 USD Equivalent, rank 3/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (75791 USD Equivalent, rank 3/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of primary school teachers with minimum training at the top of scale are especially high. (92592 USD Equivalent, rank 4/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Starting salaries for lower secondary teachers with minimum training are especially high. (67504 USD Equivalent, rank 3/39 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Salaries of lower secondary teachers with minimum training after 10 years of experience are especially high. (86263 USD Equivalent, rank 3/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is compartively high in Switzerland. (87.1 %, rank 2/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (88.8 %, rank 5/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-34 year-olds with a general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high compared to other OECD and partner countries. (81 %, rank 5/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively high in Switzerland. (95.3 %, rank 5/26 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by gender and educational attainment

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-old women without upper secondary education is comparatively high. (59.7 %, rank 4/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the employment rate among 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively high (85.2 %, rank 2/36 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of employed 25-64 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (77.9 %, rank 4/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, the employment rate of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively high in Switzerland compared to other countries with available data. (81.3 %, rank 2/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Employment by field of education

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of arts is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (82.2 %, rank 13/17 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The employment rate among 25-64 year-olds with tertiary education who studied in the field of law is low compared to other OECD and partner countries. (84.8 %, rank 11/15 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Unemployment and educational attainment

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is relatively low in Switzerland. (2.7 %, rank 7/8 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Unemployment by gender and educational attainment

    Compared to other countries with available data, the unemployment rate of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low in Switzerland. (4.8 %, rank 30/33 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity and educational attainment

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is low in Switzerland. (8.9 %, rank 43/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The inactivity rate of 25-34 years-old adults with tertiary education is low in Switzerland. (6.4 %, rank 41/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (7.4 %, rank 31/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (14.3 %, rank 33/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-olds with a doctoral or equivalent tertiary education degree is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (2 %, rank 14/14 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Inactivity by gender and educational attainment

    In Switzerland, the inactivity rate 25-64 year-old women without an upper secondary education is relatively low compared to other countries with available data. (34.4 %, rank 40/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (14.6 %, rank 37/37 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (18.6 %, rank 34/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (10.6 %, rank 33/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (11.5 %, rank 43/43 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the inactivity rate of 25-64 year-old women with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education is relatively low. (17.9 %, rank 41/44 , 2022) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the inactivity rate of 25-34 year-old women with tertiary education is relatively low. (8 %, rank 41/45 , 2022) Download Indicator

    Earnings and educational attainment

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (21.8 %, rank 30/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education is comparatively low. (16.1 %, rank 29/29 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 35 to 44 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (28.8 %, rank 30/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The proportion of female full-time earners among all earners aged 55 to 64 with tertiary education is comparatively low. (25.5 %, rank 30/30 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the share of worker earning more than twice the median among those with a master's or doctoral or equivalent education degree is comparatively low. (20.9 %, rank 29/33 , 2020) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers without an upper secondary education earning more than twice the overall median in Switzerland is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (0.7 %, rank 34/38 , 2021) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-64 year-old workers with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education earning more than twice the overall median in Switzerland is one of the lowest among countries with available data. (2.1 %, rank 39/39 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings, gender and educational attainment

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (among 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary education or post-secondary non-tertiary education and income from employment) are one of the high among countries with available data. (92.2 %, rank 3/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, the proportion of young women's earnings as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with tertiary education working full-time full-year), is relatively high compared to OECD and other members with available data (93.1 %, rank 2/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (96.5 %, rank 2/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (87.5 %, rank 5/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (45-54 year-olds with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (89.6 %, rank 3/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-34 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (91.3 %, rank 3/29 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings of women as a percentage of men's earnings (25-64 year-olds with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education working full-time full-year) are one of the highest among countries with available data. (82.3 %, rank 5/28 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Earnings by field of education

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of business, administration and law are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Switzerland. (114.5 %, rank 4/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of natural sciences, mathematics and statistics are high, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Switzerland. (109.5 %, rank 4/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Switzerland. (106.9 %, rank 14/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Earnings of tertiary-educated adults who studied in the field of health and welfare are low, compared to earnings of all tertiary-educated adults in Switzerland. (84.1 %, rank 15/17 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Switzerland who studied in the field of business, administration and law, are high, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (110.4 %, rank 4/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Compared to other countries with available data, earnings of tertiary-educated adults in Switzerland who studied in the field of engineering, manufacturing and construction, are low, when compared to earnings of adults with an upper secondary education. (94.9 %, rank 14/16 , 2020) Download Indicator

    Neither in education nor employed

    The share of men with general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Switzerland is relatively low (6.9 %, rank 26/29 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of women with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Switzerland is relatively low (13.6 %, rank 27/30 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of 25-29 year-olds neither in employment nor in education and training with vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education in Switzerland is relatively low. (9 %, rank 27/31 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Switzerland is relatively low. (5.7 %, rank 34/38 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men with tertiary education neither in employment nor in education and training (25-29 year-olds) in Switzerland is relatively low. (3.3 %, rank 32/35 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of men who are inactive NEET (15-29 year-olds) in Switzerland is relatively high. (10 %, rank 5/40 , 2022) Download Indicator

    The share of youth neither employed nor in education or training among 25-29 year-olds in Switzerland is one of the lowest among OECD and partner countries with available data. (9.7 %, rank 36/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Among 25-29 year-old men in Switzerland, a small share of them are neither employed nor in education or training. (7.2 %, rank 36/40 , 2021) Download Indicator

    Social outcomes

    In Switzerland, below upper-secondary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.5 Average score, rank 3/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, upper-secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.5 Average score, rank 4/24 , 2020) Download Indicator

    In Switzerland, tertiary education's average score for the perception of democracy and the importance given to citizens having the final say on the most important political issues by voting on them directly in referendums is relatively high, compared to other OECD and partner countries with available data. (8.5 Average score, rank 3/24 , 2020) Download Indicator


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    General findings
    
    
    • On average in OECD countries, the employment rate for younger adults (25-34 year-olds) with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education as their highest attainment is 83% for those with a vocational qualification and 73% for those with a general one.
    • Combined school- and work-based vocational programmes facilitate the transition into the labour market. In Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia and Switzerland, around nine out of ten upper secondary VET students are in a combined school- and work-based programme, but in 10 countries, the share is less than one in five.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • On average across OECD countries, 43% of teachers in vocational upper secondary programmes are aged 50 or over. This reflects an ageing VET teacher workforce, and also that some VET teachers join the teaching profession after an industry work experience.
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    • On average across OECD, 20% of adults (25-64 year-olds) still do not have an upper secondary qualification in 2022. Forty percent have an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary qualification as their highest level of education, the same share as those with a tertiary degree.
    • Employment rates increase as educational attainment increases. Among 25-64 year-olds, the employment rate is 59% for those with below upper secondary attainment. This rises to 77% for adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment and 86% for those with tertiary attainment.
    • Civic engagement tends to increase as educational attainment increases. Across the OECD countries and accession countries participating in the European Social Survey (ESS) Round 10, around 10% of individuals with tertiary attainment have participated in a public demonstration in the previous 12 months, whereas 6% of individuals with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educational attainment have done so.
    • The most common form of participation in adult learning is non-formal education and training, mostly job related. Slightly more than one in ten adults (25-64 year-olds) participate in non-formal education and training on average across OECD and accession countries reporting data with a four-week reference period, of which almost 80% have engaged in at least one job-related learning activity.
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    • On average, 18% of children under 2 and 43% of 2-year-olds were enrolled in early childhood education (ECEC) programmes in 2021 but other ECEC services also play a significant role. In Japan, 26% of children under 2 and 53% of 2-year-olds are enrolled in ECEC services outside ISCED 0.
    • In Canada, Ireland and New Zealand, vocational programmes mostly serve those who have completed their initial schooling, and less than 12% of 15-19 year-old upper secondary students are pursuing VET. In contrast, there are 11 OECD countries where the majority of 15-19 year-olds enrolled in upper secondary education are in vocational programmes.
    • Most upper secondary VET students are in programmes that offer direct access to tertiary education. Countries where around 30% or more vocational students enrolled in programmes that lead to full level completion without direct access to tertiary education tend to be those with multiple vocational tracks and bridging options to allow progression to higher levels of education.
    • On average, 72% of students who enter upper secondary education graduate within its theoretical duration across countries with available data. Two years after the end of the theoretical duration, the average completion rate has increased to 82%.
    • Students who entered a general upper secondary programme have a higher rate of completion (87%) than those who entered in a vocational programme (73%) in nearly all countries two years after the end of the theoretical programme duration.
    • The COVID-19 pandemic had a very uneven impact on international student flows across countries during the period 2019-2021. While the share of mobile students fell by 6 percentage points in Australia and 9 percentage points in New Zealand, it increased in several countries and remained unchanged in many others.
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    • Across OECD countries, expenditure per student averages around USD 10 700 at the primary level, USD 11 900 at secondary and USD 18 100 at tertiary level. This reflects the fact that higher levels of education often require teachers to have more advanced qualifications and specialised knowledge which are usually accompanied by higher salaries.
    • Vocational education and training (VET) programmes, which often require specific equipment and infrastructure, typically cost more per student than general programmes. On average across OECD countries, expenditure per student is about USD 11 400 in general upper secondary programmes, compared to about USD 13 200 in vocational programmes.
    • Upper secondary vocational programmes receive between 3% and 17% of all funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions. Post-secondary non-tertiary programmes, which are often vocational, receive as much as 7% of funding (in Ireland) and short-cycle tertiary as much as 10% (in Canada).
    • In 2020, on average across OECD countries, 84% of the funding for primary to tertiary educational institutions came directly from government sources, 15% from private sources and 1% from non-domestic (international) sources.
    • Higher education levels tend to have higher teachers' salary costs per student. On average across OECD countries, they rise from USD 3 614 per student in primary education to USD 4 424 in lower secondary education. This is mostly due to a combination of higher teachers' salaries and instruction time, and shorter teaching hours.
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    • Students across the OECD receive an average of 7 634 hours of compulsory instruction during their primary and lower secondary education, ranging from 5 245 hours in Poland to double that in Australia (11 000 hours).
    • Teachers' actual salaries at pre-primary, primary and general secondary levels of education are 81-95% of the earnings of tertiary-educated workers on average across OECD countries and other participants.
    • School heads' actual salaries are more than 51% higher on average than those of teachers across primary and secondary education in OECD countries and other participants.
    • More than three-quarters of the OECD countries have national, or central, examinations in the final years of upper secondary education (in general programmes). A large majority of these countries use these examinations to grant students access to tertiary education.
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    Key
    Diagram of funding flows - Switzerland

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    Key
    Country Reviews for Switzerland

    Note: These values should be interpreted with care since they are influenced by countries' specific contexts and trade-offs. In education, there is often no simple most- or least-efficient model. For instance, the share of private expenditure in education must be read against other measures designed to mitigate inequities, such as loans and grants; longer learning time is an opportunity to convey more and better content to students, but may hinder investments in other important areas. If you want further information on the nature of different variables, please take the time to read the analysis and contextual information, available at the website for each publication.
    All rankings for individual variables are compiled on the basis of OECD and G20 countries for which data are available. The OECD average includes only OECD countries which are listed here: http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/

    Reference years displayed in the Education GPS correspond to the most common year of reference among countries for which data is available on each variable. Data for the latest available year is preferred and some countries may have provided data refering to a more recent or late year. To know more about possible exceptions on data please click on the "Download Indicator" link on each variable. When a year of reference corresponds to a school year encompassing two years, the reference reads as follows: 2018 for school year 2017/2018.

    *TALIS averages are based on all countries participating in the TALIS survey, including partner countries and economies. This explains the difference between the OECD average and the TALIS averages. Data from the TALIS survey and Education at a Glance (EAG) may differ. See Annex E of the TALIS technical report and Annex 3 of EAG 2021 for more details about the data collections.

    B-S-J-Z (China) refers to the four PISA-participating provinces/municipalities of the People's Republic of China: Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

    For additional notes, please refer to annexes in the list of links below the introductory country profile text.